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VALUES
Name
VALUES—computeasetofrows
Synopsis
VALUES (
expression
[, ...] ) [, ...]
[ ORDER BY
sort_expression
[ ASC | DESC | USING
operator
] [, ...] ]
[ LIMIT {
count
| ALL } ]
[ OFFSET
start
[ ROW | ROWS ] ]
[ FETCH { FIRST | NEXT } [
count
] { ROW | ROWS } ONLY ]
Description
VALUES
computes arowvalueorsetofrowvaluesspecifiedbyvalueexpressions.Itis mostcom-
monlyusedtogeneratea“constanttable”withinalargercommand,butitcanbeusedonitsown.
Whenmorethanonerowisspecified,alltherowsmusthavethesamenumberofelements.Thedata
typesoftheresultingtable’scolumnsaredeterminedbycombiningtheexplicitorinferredtypesof
theexpressionsappearinginthatcolumn,usingthesamerulesasfor
UNION
(seeSection10.5).
Withinlargercommands,
VALUES
issyntacticallyallowedanywherethat
SELECT
is.Becauseitis
treatedlikea
SELECT
bythegrammar,itis possible tousethe
ORDER BY
,
LIMIT
(orequivalently
FETCH FIRST
),and
OFFSET
clauseswitha
VALUES
command.
Parameters
expression
Aconstantorexpressiontocomputeandinsertattheindicatedplaceintheresultingtable(setof
rows).Ina
VALUES
listappearingatthetoplevelofan
INSERT
,an
expression
canbereplaced
by
DEFAULT
toindicatethatthedestinationcolumn’sdefaultvalueshouldbeinserted.
DEFAULT
cannotbeusedwhen
VALUES
appearsinothercontexts.
sort_expression
Anexpressionorintegerconstantindicatinghowtosorttheresultrows.Thisexpressioncanrefer
tothecolumns ofthe
VALUES
resultas
column1
,
column2
,etc.Formoredetails seeORDER
BYClause.
operator
Asortingoperator.FordetailsseeORDERBYClause.
count
Themaximumnumberofrowstoreturn.FordetailsseeLIMITClause.
start
Thenumberofrowstoskipbeforestartingtoreturnrows.FordetailsseeLIMITClause.
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VALUES
Notes
VALUES
lists with verylarge numbers ofrows should be avoided,as youmightencounterout-of-
memoryfailuresorpoorperformance.
VALUES
appearingwithin
INSERT
isaspecialcase(because
the desired column types are known fromthe
INSERT
’s targettable,andneednotbe inferred by
scanningthe
VALUES
list),soitcanhandlelargerliststhanarepracticalinothercontexts.
Examples
Abare
VALUES
command:
VALUES (1, ’one’), (2, ’two’), (3, ’three’);
Thiswillreturnatableoftwocolumnsandthreerows.It’seffectivelyequivalentto:
SELECT 1 AS column1, ’one’ AS column2
UNION ALL
SELECT 2, ’two’
UNION ALL
SELECT 3, ’three’;
Moreusually,
VALUES
isusedwithinalargerSQLcommand.Themostcommonuseisin
INSERT
:
INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind)
VALUES (’T_601’, ’Yojimbo’, 106, ’1961-06-16’, ’Drama’);
Inthecontextof
INSERT
,entriesofa
VALUES
listcanbe
DEFAULT
toindicatethatthecolumndefault
shouldbeusedhereinsteadofspecifyingavalue:
INSERT INTO films VALUES
(’UA502’, ’Bananas’, 105, DEFAULT, ’Comedy’, ’82 minutes’),
(’T_601’, ’Yojimbo’, 106, DEFAULT, ’Drama’, DEFAULT);
VALUES
canalsobeusedwhereasub-
SELECT
mightbewritten,forexampleina
FROM
clause:
SELECT f.
*
FROM films f, (VALUES(’MGM’, ’Horror’), (’UA’, ’Sci-Fi’)) AS t (studio, kind)
WHERE f.studio = t.studio AND f.kind = t.kind;
UPDATE employees SET salary = salary
*
v.increase
FROM (VALUES(1, 200000, 1.2), (2, 400000, 1.4)) AS v (depno, target, increase)
WHERE employees.depno = v.depno AND employees.sales >= v.target;
Notethatan
AS
clauseisrequiredwhen
VALUES
isusedina
FROM
clause,justasistruefor
SELECT
.
Itisnotrequiredthatthe
AS
clausespecifynamesforallthecolumns,butit’sgoodpracticetodoso.
(Thedefaultcolumnnamesfor
VALUES
are
column1
,
column2
,etcinPostgreSQL,butthesenames
mightbedifferentinotherdatabasesystems.)
When
VALUES
is usedin
INSERT
,the values are allautomaticallycoercedtothe data typeofthe
correspondingdestinationcolumn.Whenit’susedinothercontexts,itmightbenecessarytospecify
thecorrectdata type.Iftheentries areallquotedliteralconstants,coercingthefirstissufficientto
determinetheassumedtypeforall:
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VALUES
SELECT
*
FROM machines
WHERE ip_address IN (VALUES(’192.168.0.1’::inet), (’192.168.0.10’), (’192.168.1.43’));
Tip:Forsimple
IN
tests,it’sbettertorelyonthelist-of-scalarsformof
IN
thantowritea
VALUES
queryasshownabove.Thelistofscalarsmethodrequireslesswritingandisoftenmoreefficient.
Compatibility
VALUES
conforms to the SQL standard.
LIMIT
and
OFFSET
are PostgreSQL extensions; see also
underSELECT.
See Also
INSERT,SELECT
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II. PostgreSQL Client Applications
ThispartcontainsreferenceinformationforPostgreSQL clientapplications andutilities.Notallof
thesecommands areofgeneralutility;somemightrequire specialprivileges.Thecommonfeature
oftheseapplications is thattheycanbe runonanyhost,independentofwherethedatabaseserver
resides.
When specified on the command line, user and database names have their case preserved— the
presenceofspacesorspecialcharactersmightrequirequoting.Tablenamesandotheridentifiersdo
nothavetheircasepreserved,exceptwheredocumented,andmightrequirequoting.
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clusterdb
Name
clusterdb—clusteraPostgreSQLdatabase
Synopsis
clusterdb
[
connection-option
...][
--verbose
|
-v
] [
--table
|
-t table
]... [
dbname
]
clusterdb
[
connection-option
...][
--verbose
|
-v
]
--all
|
-a
Description
clusterdbisautilityforreclusteringtablesinaPostgreSQLdatabase.Itfindstablesthathaveprevi-
ouslybeenclustered,andclustersthemagainonthesameindexthatwaslastused.Tablesthathave
neverbeenclusteredarenotaffected.
clusterdbisawrapperaroundtheSQLcommandCLUSTER.Thereisnoeffectivedifferencebetween
clusteringdatabasesviathisutilityandviaothermethodsforaccessingtheserver.
Options
clusterdbacceptsthefollowingcommand-linearguments:
-a
--all
Clusteralldatabases.
[-d]
dbname
[--dbname=]
dbname
Specifiesthenameofthedatabasetobeclustered.Ifthisisnotspecifiedand
-a
(or
--all
)is
notused,thedatabasenameis readfromtheenvironmentvariable
PGDATABASE
.Ifthatisnot
set,theusernamespecifiedfortheconnectionisused.
-e
--echo
Echothecommandsthatclusterdbgeneratesandsendstotheserver.
-q
--quiet
Donotdisplayprogressmessages.
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clusterdb
-t
table
--table=
table
Cluster
table
only.Multipletablescanbeclusteredbywritingmultiple
-t
switches.
-v
--verbose
Printdetailedinformationduringprocessing.
-V
--version
Printtheclusterdbversionandexit.
-?
--help
Showhelpaboutclusterdbcommandlinearguments,andexit.
clusterdbalsoacceptsthefollowingcommand-lineargumentsforconnectionparameters:
-h
host
--host=
host
Specifiesthehostnameofthemachineonwhichtheserverisrunning.Ifthevaluebeginswitha
slash,itisusedasthedirectoryfortheUnixdomainsocket.
-p
port
--port=
port
SpecifiestheTCPportorlocalUnixdomainsocketfileextensiononwhichtheserverislistening
forconnections.
-U
username
--username=
username
Usernametoconnectas.
-w
--no-password
Neverissueapasswordprompt.Iftheserverrequires passwordauthenticationandapassword
isnot availablebyothermeans suchasa
.pgpass
file,theconnectionattemptwillfail.This
optioncanbeusefulinbatchjobsandscriptswherenouserispresenttoenterapassword.
-W
--password
Forceclusterdbtopromptforapasswordbeforeconnectingtoadatabase.
This optionis neveressential,sinceclusterdbwillautomaticallypromptforapasswordifthe
serverdemands password authentication.However,clusterdb will waste aconnectionattempt
findingoutthattheserverwants apassword.Insomecases itis worthtyping
-W
toavoidthe
extraconnectionattempt.
--maintenance-db=
dbname
Specifiesthenameofthedatabasetoconnecttodiscoverwhatotherdatabasesshouldbeclus-
tered.Ifnotspecified,the
postgres
databasewillbeused,andifthatdoesnotexist,
template1
willbeused.
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clusterdb
Environment
PGDATABASE
PGHOST
PGPORT
PGUSER
Defaultconnectionparameters
Thisutility,likemostotherPostgreSQLutilities,alsouses theenvironmentvariablessupportedby
libpq(seeSection31.14).
Diagnostics
Incaseofdifficulty,seeCLUSTERandpsqlfordiscussionsofpotentialproblemsanderrormessages.
Thedatabaseservermustberunningatthetargetedhost.Also,anydefaultconnectionsettingsand
environmentvariablesusedbythelibpqfront-endlibrarywillapply.
Examples
Toclusterthedatabase
test
:
$ clusterdb test
Toclusterasingletable
foo
inadatabasenamed
xyzzy
:
$ clusterdb --table foo xyzzy
See Also
CLUSTER
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createdb
Name
createdb—createanewPostgreSQLdatabase
Synopsis
createdb
[
connection-option
...][
option
...][
dbname
[
description
]]
Description
createdbcreatesanewPostgreSQLdatabase.
Normally,thedatabase userwhoexecutes this command becomes the ownerofthe newdatabase.
However,adifferentownercanbespecifiedviathe
-O
option,iftheexecutinguserhasappropriate
privileges.
createdbisawrapperaroundtheSQLcommandCREATEDATABASE.Thereisnoeffectivediffer-
encebetweencreatingdatabasesviathisutilityandviaothermethodsforaccessingtheserver.
Options
createdbacceptsthefollowingcommand-linearguments:
dbname
Specifies the name ofthe database tobe created.The namemustbe unique among all Post-
greSQLdatabasesinthiscluster.Thedefaultistocreateadatabasewiththesamenameasthe
currentsystemuser.
description
Specifiesacommenttobeassociatedwiththenewlycreateddatabase.
-D
tablespace
--tablespace=
tablespace
Specifies thedefaulttablespace forthe database.(This name is processedas adouble-quoted
identifier.)
-e
--echo
Echothecommandsthatcreatedbgeneratesandsendstotheserver.
-E
encoding
--encoding=
encoding
Specifiesthecharacterencodingschemetobeusedinthisdatabase.Thecharactersetssupported
bythePostgreSQLserveraredescribedinSection22.3.1.
1635
createdb
-l
locale
--locale=
locale
Specifies the locale to be used in this database. This is equivalent to specifying both
--lc-collate
and
--lc-ctype
.
--lc-collate=
locale
SpecifiestheLC_COLLATEsettingtobeusedinthisdatabase.
--lc-ctype=
locale
SpecifiestheLC_CTYPEsettingtobeusedinthisdatabase.
-O
owner
--owner=
owner
Specifiesthedatabaseuserwhowillownthenewdatabase.(Thisnameisprocessedasadouble-
quotedidentifier.)
-T
template
--template=
template
Specifiesthetemplatedatabasefromwhichtobuildthisdatabase.(Thisnameisprocessedasa
double-quotedidentifier.)
-V
--version
Printthecreatedbversionandexit.
-?
--help
Showhelpaboutcreatedbcommandlinearguments,andexit.
Theoptions
-D
,
-l
,
-E
,
-O
,and
-T
correspondtooptionsoftheunderlyingSQLcommandCREATE
DATABASE;seethereformoreinformationaboutthem.
createdbalsoacceptsthefollowingcommand-lineargumentsforconnectionparameters:
-h
host
--host=
host
Specifiesthehostnameofthemachineonwhichtheserverisrunning.Ifthevaluebeginswitha
slash,itisusedasthedirectoryfortheUnixdomainsocket.
-p
port
--port=
port
Specifies the TCPport orthelocal Unixdomain socketfile extensiononwhichtheserveris
listeningforconnections.
-U
username
--username=
username
Usernametoconnectas.
-w
--no-password
Neverissueapasswordprompt.Iftheserverrequires passwordauthenticationandapassword
isnot availablebyothermeans suchasa
.pgpass
file,theconnectionattemptwillfail.This
optioncanbeusefulinbatchjobsandscriptswherenouserispresenttoenterapassword.
1636
createdb
-W
--password
Forcecreatedbtopromptforapasswordbeforeconnectingtoadatabase.
This optionisneveressential,since createdbwill automatically prompt forapasswordifthe
serverdemands password authentication.However,createdb will waste a connectionattempt
findingoutthattheserverwants apassword.Insomecases itis worthtyping
-W
toavoidthe
extraconnectionattempt.
--maintenance-db=
dbname
Specifiesthenameofthedatabasetoconnecttowhencreatingthenewdatabase.Ifnotspecified,
the
postgres
databasewillbeused;ifthatdoesnotexist(orifitisthenameofthenewdatabase
beingcreated),
template1
willbeused.
Environment
PGDATABASE
Ifset,thenameofthedatabasetocreate,unlessoverriddenonthecommandline.
PGHOST
PGPORT
PGUSER
Defaultconnectionparameters.
PGUSER
alsodeterminesthenameofthedatabasetocreate,ifit
isnotspecifiedonthecommandlineorby
PGDATABASE
.
Thisutility,likemostotherPostgreSQLutilities,alsouses theenvironmentvariablessupportedby
libpq(seeSection31.14).
Diagnostics
Incaseofdifficulty,seeCREATE DATABASE andpsqlfordiscussions ofpotentialproblems and
errormessages.Thedatabaseservermustberunningatthetargetedhost.Also,anydefaultconnection
settingsandenvironmentvariablesusedbythelibpqfront-endlibrarywillapply.
Examples
Tocreatethedatabase
demo
usingthedefaultdatabaseserver:
$ createdb demo
Tocreatethe database
demo
usingtheserveronhost
eden
,port5000,usingthe
LATIN1
encoding
schemewithalookattheunderlyingcommand:
$ createdb -p 5000 -h eden -E LATIN1 -e demo
CREATE DATABASE demo ENCODING ’LATIN1’;
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