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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
References
Description
amcanreturn
regproc
pg_proc
.oid
Function tocheck
whether index supports
index-only scans, or
zero if none
amcostestimate
regproc
pg_proc
.oid
Function toestimate
cost of an index scan
amoptions
regproc
pg_proc
.oid
Function toparse and
validate
reloptions
for an index
48.4.
pg_amop
The catalog
pg_amop
stores information about operators associated with access method operator
families. There is one row for each operator that is a member of an operator family. A family member
can be either a search operator or an ordering operator. An operator can appear in more than one
family, but cannotappear in more than one searchpositionnor more than one orderingpositionwithin
afamily. (It is allowed, though unlikely, for an operator to be used for both search and ordering
purposes.)
Table 48-4.
pg_amop
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
oid
oid
Row identifier (hidden
attribute; must be
explicitly selected)
amopfamily
oid
pg_opfamily
.oid
The operator family
this entry is for
amoplefttype
oid
pg_type
.oid
Left-hand input data
type of operator
amoprighttype
oid
pg_type
.oid
Right-hand input data
type of operator
amopstrategy
int2
Operator strategy
number
amoppurpose
char
Operator purpose,
either
s
for search or
o
for ordering
amopopr
oid
pg_operator
.oid
OID of the operator
amopmethod
oid
pg_am
.oid
Index access method
operator family is for
amopsortfamily
oid
pg_opfamily
.oid
The B-tree operator
family this entry sorts
according to, if an
ordering operator; zero
if a search operator
A“search” operator entry indicates that an index of this operator family can be searched to find all
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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
rows satisfying
WHERE indexed_column operator constant
.Obviously, such an operator must
return
boolean
,and its left-hand input type must match the index’s column data type.
An “ordering” operator entry indicates that an index of this operator family can be scanned to re-
turn rows in the order represented by
ORDER BY indexed_column operator constant
.Such an
operator could return any sortable data type, though again its left-hand input type must match the in-
dex’s column data type. The exactsemantics of the
ORDER BY
are specifiedby the
amopsortfamily
column, which must reference a B-tree operator family for the operator’s result type.
Note: At present, it’s assumed that the sort order for an ordering operator is the default for the
referenced operator family, i.e.,
ASC NULLS LAST
.This might someday be relaxed by adding ad-
ditional columns to specify sort options explicitly.
An entry’s
amopmethod
must match the
opfmethod
of its containing operator family (including
amopmethod
here is an intentionaldenormalization of the catalog structure for performance reasons).
Also,
amoplefttype
and
amoprighttype
must match the
oprleft
and
oprright
fields of the
referenced
pg_operator
entry.
48.5.
pg_amproc
The catalog
pg_amproc
stores information about support procedures associated with access method
operator families. There is one row for each support procedure belonging to an operator family.
Table 48-5.
pg_amproc
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
oid
oid
Row identifier (hidden
attribute; must be
explicitly selected)
amprocfamily
oid
pg_opfamily
.oid
The operator family
this entry is for
amproclefttype
oid
pg_type
.oid
Left-hand input data
type of associated
operator
amprocrighttype
oid
pg_type
.oid
Right-hand input data
type of associated
operator
amprocnum
int2
Support procedure
number
amproc
regproc
pg_proc
.oid
OID of the procedure
The usual interpretation of the
amproclefttype
and
amprocrighttype
fields is that they identify
the left and right input types of the operator(s) that a particular support procedure supports. For some
access methods these matchtheinput datatype(s) of the support procedure itself, for others not. There
is a notion of “default” support procedures for an index, which are those with
amproclefttype
and
amprocrighttype
both equal to the index operator class’s
opcintype
.
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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
48.6.
pg_attrdef
The catalog
pg_attrdef
stores columndefault values. The maininformationaboutcolumns is stored
in
pg_attribute
(see below). Only columns that explicitly specify a default value (when the table
is created or the column is added) will have an entry here.
Table 48-6.
pg_attrdef
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
oid
oid
Row identifier (hidden
attribute; must be
explicitly selected)
adrelid
oid
pg_class
.oid
The table this column
belongs to
adnum
int2
pg_attribute
.attnum
The number of the
column
adbin
pg_node_tree
The internal
representation of the
column default value
adsrc
text
Ahuman-readable
representation of the
default value
The
adsrc
fieldis historical, andis bestnot used, because itdoes nottrack outside changes thatmight
affecttherepresentation of the defaultvalue. Reverse-compiling the
adbin
field(with
pg_get_expr
for example) is a better way to display the default value.
48.7.
pg_attribute
The catalog
pg_attribute
stores information about table columns. There will be exactly one
pg_attribute
row for every column in every table in the database. (There will also be attribute
entries for indexes, and indeed all objects that have
pg_class
entries.)
The term attribute is equivalent to column and is used for historical reasons.
Table 48-7.
pg_attribute
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
attrelid
oid
pg_class
.oid
The table this column
belongs to
attname
name
The column name
atttypid
oid
pg_type
.oid
The data type of this
column
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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
References
Description
attstattarget
int4
attstattarget
controls the level of
detail of statistics
accumulated for this
column by ANALYZE.
Azero value indicates
that no statistics should
be collected. A
negative value says to
use the system default
statistics target. The
exact meaningof
positive values is data
type-dependent. For
scalar data types,
attstattarget
is
both the target number
of “most common
values” to collect, and
the target number of
histogram bins to
create.
attlen
int2
Acopy of
pg_type.typlen
of
this column’s type
attnum
int2
The number of the
column. Ordinary
columns are numbered
from 1 up. System
columns, such as
oid
,
have (arbitrary)
negative numbers.
attndims
int4
Number of
dimensions, if the
column is anarray
type; otherwise 0.
(Presently, the number
of dimensions of an
array is not enforced,
so any nonzero value
effectively means “it’s
an array”.)
attcacheoff
int4
Always -1 in storage,
but when loaded into a
row descriptor in
memory this might be
updated to cache the
offset of the attribute
within the row
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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
References
Description
atttypmod
int4
atttypmod
records
type-specific data
supplied at table
creation time (for
example, the maximum
length of a
varchar
column). It is passed to
type-specific input
functions and length
coercion functions. The
value will generally be
-1 for types that do not
need
atttypmod
.
attbyval
bool
Acopy of
pg_type.typbyval
of this column’s type
attstorage
char
Normally a copy of
pg_type.typstorage
of this column’s type.
For TOAST-able data
types, this can be
altered after column
creation to control
storage policy.
attalign
char
Acopy of
pg_type.typalign
of this column’s type
attnotnull
bool
This represents a
not-null constraint. It is
possible to change this
column to enable or
disable the constraint.
atthasdef
bool
This column has a
default value, in which
case there will be a
corresponding entry in
the
pg_attrdef
catalog that actually
defines the value.
attisdropped
bool
This column has been
dropped and is no
longer valid. A
dropped column is still
physically present in
the table, but is ignored
by the parser and so
cannot be accessed via
SQL.
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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
References
Description
attislocal
bool
This column is defined
locally in the relation.
Note that a column can
be locally defined and
inherited
simultaneously.
attinhcount
int4
The number of direct
ancestors this column
has. A column with a
nonzero number of
ancestors cannot be
dropped nor renamed.
attcollation
oid
pg_collation
.oid
The defined collation
of the column, or zero
if the column is not of
acollatable data type.
attacl
aclitem[]
Column-level access
privileges, if any have
been granted
specifically on this
column
attoptions
text[]
Attribute-level options,
as “keyword=value”
strings
attfdwoptions
text[]
Attribute-level foreign
data wrapper options,
as “keyword=value”
strings
In a dropped column’s
pg_attribute
entry,
atttypid
is reset to zero, but
attlen
and the other
fields copied from
pg_type
are still valid. This arrangement is needed to cope with the situation
where the dropped column’s data type was later dropped, and so there is no
pg_type
row anymore.
attlen
and the other fields can be used tointerpret the contents of a row of the table.
48.8.
pg_authid
The catalog
pg_authid
contains information about database authorization identifiers (roles). A
role subsumes the concepts of “users” and “groups”. A user is essentially just a role with the
rolcanlogin
flag set. Any role (with or without
rolcanlogin
)can have other roles as members;
see
pg_auth_members
.
Since this catalog contains passwords, it must not be publicly readable.
pg_roles
is a publicly read-
able view on
pg_authid
that blanks out the password field.
Chapter 20 contains detailed information about user and privilege management.
Because user identities are cluster-wide,
pg_authid
is shared across all databases of a cluster: there
is only one copy of
pg_authid
per cluster, not one per database.
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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Table 48-8.
pg_authid
Columns
Name
Type
Description
oid
oid
Row identifier (hidden attribute;
must be explicitly selected)
rolname
name
Role name
rolsuper
bool
Role has superuser privileges
rolinherit
bool
Role automatically inherits
privileges of roles it is a
member of
rolcreaterole
bool
Role can create more roles
rolcreatedb
bool
Role can create databases
rolcatupdate
bool
Role can update system
catalogs directly. (Even a
superuser cannot do this unless
this column is true)
rolcanlogin
bool
Role can log in. That is, this
role can be given as the initial
session authorization identifier
rolreplication
bool
Role is a replication role. That
is, this role can initiate
streaming replication (see
Section 25.2.5) and set/unset
the system backup mode using
pg_start_backup
and
pg_stop_backup
rolconnlimit
int4
For roles that can log in, this
sets maximum number of
concurrent connections this role
can make. -1 means no limit.
rolpassword
text
Password (possibly encrypted);
null if none. If the password is
encrypted, this column will
begin with the string
md5
followed by a 32-character
hexadecimal MD5 hash. The
MD5hash will be of the user’s
passwordconcatenated to their
user name. For example, if user
joe
has password
xyzzy
,
PostgreSQL will store the md5
hash of
xyzzyjoe
.A password
that does not follow that format
is assumed to be unencrypted.
rolvaliduntil
timestamptz
Password expiry time (only
used for password
authentication); null if no
expiration
1784
Chapter 48. System Catalogs
48.9.
pg_auth_members
The catalog
pg_auth_members
shows the membership relations between roles. Anynon-circular set
of relationships is allowed.
Because user identities are cluster-wide,
pg_auth_members
is shared across all databases of a clus-
ter: there is only one copy of
pg_auth_members
per cluster, not one per database.
Table 48-9.
pg_auth_members
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
roleid
oid
pg_authid
.oid
ID of a role that has a
member
member
oid
pg_authid
.oid
ID of a role that is a
member of
roleid
grantor
oid
pg_authid
.oid
ID of the role that
granted this
membership
admin_option
bool
True if
member
can
grant membership in
roleid
to others
48.10.
pg_cast
The catalog
pg_cast
stores data type conversion paths, both built-in and user-defined.
It should be noted that
pg_cast
does not represent every type conversionthat the system knows how
to perform; only those that cannot be deduced from some generic rule. For example, casting between
adomain and its base type is not explicitly represented in
pg_cast
.Another important exception
is that “automatic I/O conversion casts”, those performed using a data type’s own I/O functions to
convert toor from
text
or other string types, are not explicitly represented in
pg_cast
.
Table 48-10.
pg_cast
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
oid
oid
Row identifier (hidden
attribute; must be
explicitly selected)
castsource
oid
pg_type
.oid
OID of the source data
type
casttarget
oid
pg_type
.oid
OID of the target data
type
castfunc
oid
pg_proc
.oid
The OID of the
function to use to
perform this cast. Zero
is stored if the cast
method doesn’t require
afunction.
1785
Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
References
Description
castcontext
char
Indicates what
contexts the cast can be
invokedin.
e
means
only as anexplicit cast
(using
CAST
or
::
syntax).
a
means
implicitly in
assignment to a target
column, as well as
explicitly.
i
means
implicitly in
expressions, as well as
the other cases.
castmethod
char
Indicates how the cast
is performed.
f
means
that the function
specified inthe
castfunc
field is
used.
i
means that the
input/output functions
are used.
b
means that
the types are
binary-coercible, thus
no conversion is
required.
The cast functions listed in
pg_cast
must always take the cast source type as their first argument
type, and return the cast destination type as their result type. A cast function can have up to three
arguments. The second argument, if present, must be type
integer
;it receives the type modifier
associated with the destination type, or -1 if there is none. The third argument, if present, must be
type
boolean
;it receives
true
if the cast is an explicit cast,
false
otherwise.
It is legitimate to create a
pg_cast
entry in which the source and target types are the same, if the
associated functiontakes more than one argument. Such entries represent “length coercion functions”
that coerce values of the type to be legal for a particular type modifier value.
When a
pg_cast
entry has different source and target types and a function that takes more than one
argument, it represents converting from one type toanother and applying a lengthcoercion ina single
step. Whenno such entry is available, coercion to a type that uses a type modifier involves two steps,
one to convert between data types and a second to apply the modifier.
48.11.
pg_class
The catalog
pg_class
catalogs tables and most everything else that has columns or is otherwise
similar to a table. This includes indexes (but see also
pg_index
), sequences, views, materialized
views, composite types, and TOAST tables; see
relkind
.Below, when we mean all of these kinds
of objects we speak of “relations”. Not all columns are meaningful for all relation types.
Table 48-11.
pg_class
Columns
1786
Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
References
Description
oid
oid
Row identifier (hidden
attribute; must be
explicitly selected)
relname
name
Name of the table,
index, view, etc.
relnamespace
oid
pg_namespace
.oid
The OID of the
namespace that
contains this relation
reltype
oid
pg_type
.oid
The OID of the data
type that corresponds
to this table’s row type,
if any (zero for
indexes, which have no
pg_type
entry)
reloftype
oid
pg_type
.oid
For typed tables, the
OID of the underlying
composite type, zero
for all other relations
relowner
oid
pg_authid
.oid
Owner of the relation
relam
oid
pg_am
.oid
If this is an index, the
access method used
(B-tree, hash, etc.)
relfilenode
oid
Name of the on-disk
file of this relation;
zero means this is a
“mapped” relation
whose disk file name is
determined by
low-level state
reltablespace
oid
pg_tablespace
.oid
The tablespace in
which this relationis
stored. If zero, the
database’s default
tablespace is implied.
(Not meaningful if the
relation has no on-disk
file.)
relpages
int4
Size of the on-disk
representation of this
table in pages (of size
BLCKSZ
). This is only
an estimate used by the
planner. It is updated
by
VACUUM
,
ANALYZE
,
and a few DDL
commands such as
CREATE INDEX
.
1787
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