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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
ON pl.pid = psa.pid;
Also, if you are using prepared transactions, the
virtualtransaction
column can be joined to
the
transaction
column of the
pg_prepared_xacts
view to get more information on prepared
transactions that hold locks. (A prepared transaction can never be waiting for a lock, but it continues
to hold the locks it acquired while running.) For example:
SELECT
*
FROM pg_locks pl LEFT JOIN pg_prepared_xacts ppx
ON pl.virtualtransaction = ’-1/’ || ppx.transaction;
The
pg_locks
viewdisplays data from boththeregular lockmanager andthe predicatelock manager,
which are separatesystems; inaddition, the regular lockmanager subdivides its locks into regular and
fast-path locks. This data is not guaranteed to be entirely consistent. When the view is queried, data
on fast-path locks (with
fastpath
=
true
)is gathered from each backend one at a time, without
freezing the state of the entire lock manager, so it is possible for locks to be taken or released while
information is gathered. Note, however, that these locks are known not to conflict with any other
lock currently in place. After all backends have been queried for fast-path locks, the remainder of the
regular lock manager is locked as a unit, and a consistent snapshot of all remaining locks is collected
as an atomic action. After unlocking the regular lockmanager, the predicate lockmanager is similarly
locked and all predicate locks are collected as an atomic action. Thus, with the exception of fast-
path locks, each lock manager will deliver a consistent set of results, but as we do not lock both
lock managers simultaneously, it is possible for locks to be taken or released after we interrogate the
regular lock manager and before we interrogate the predicate lock manager.
Locking the regular and/or predicate lock manager could have some impacton database performance
if this view is very frequently accessed. The locks are held only for the minimum amount of time
necessary toobtaindata from the lockmanagers, but this does not completelyeliminate the possibility
of a performance impact.
48.61.
pg_matviews
The view
pg_matviews
provides access to useful information about each materialized view in the
database.
Table 48-62.
pg_matviews
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
schemaname
name
pg_namespace
.nspname
Name of schema
containing materialized
view
matviewname
name
pg_class
.relname
Name of materialized
view
matviewowner
name
pg_authid
.rolname
Name of materialized
view’s owner
tablespace
name
pg_tablespace
.spcname
Name of tablespace
containing materialized
view (null if default for
database)
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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
References
Description
hasindexes
boolean
True if materialized
view has (or recently
had) any indexes
ispopulated
boolean
True if materialized
view is currently
populated
definition
text
Materialized view
definition (a
reconstructed
SELECT
query)
48.62.
pg_prepared_statements
The
pg_prepared_statements
view displays all the prepared statements that are available in the
current session. See PREPARE for more information about prepared statements.
pg_prepared_statements
contains one row for each prepared statement. Rows are added to the
view when a new prepared statement is created and removed when a prepared statement is released
(for example, via the DEALLOCATE command).
Table 48-63.
pg_prepared_statements
Columns
Name
Type
Description
name
text
The identifier of the prepared
statement
statement
text
The query string submitted by
the client to create this prepared
statement. For prepared
statements created via SQL,
this is the
PREPARE
statement
submitted by the client. For
prepared statements created via
the frontend/backend protocol,
this is the text of the prepared
statement itself.
prepare_time
timestamptz
The time at which the prepared
statement was created
parameter_types
regtype[]
The expected parameter types
for the prepared statement in
the form of an array of
regtype
.The OID
corresponding to an element of
this array can be obtained by
casting the
regtype
value to
oid
.
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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
Description
from_sql
boolean
true
if the prepared statement
was created via the
PREPARE
SQL statement;
false
if the
statement was prepared via the
frontend/backend protocol
The
pg_prepared_statements
view is read only.
48.63.
pg_prepared_xacts
The view
pg_prepared_xacts
displays information about transactions that are currently prepared
for two-phase commit (see PREPARE TRANSACTION for details).
pg_prepared_xacts
contains one row per prepared transaction. An entry is removed when the
transaction is committed or rolled back.
Table 48-64.
pg_prepared_xacts
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
transaction
xid
Numeric transaction
identifier of the
prepared transaction
gid
text
Global transaction
identifier that was
assigned to the
transaction
prepared
timestamp with
time zone
Time at which the
transaction was
prepared for commit
owner
name
pg_authid
.rolname
Name of the user that
executed the
transaction
database
name
pg_database
.datname
Name of the database
in which the
transaction was
executed
When the
pg_prepared_xacts
viewisaccessed, the internaltransaction manager data structures are
momentarily locked, and a copy is made for the view to display. This ensures that the view produces
aconsistent set of results, while not blocking normal operations longer than necessary. Nonetheless
there could be some impact on database performance if this view is frequently accessed.
48.64.
pg_roles
The view
pg_roles
provides access to information about database roles. This is simply a publicly
readable view of
pg_authid
that blanks out the password field.
This view explicitly exposes the OID column of the underlying table, since that is needed to do joins
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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
to other catalogs.
Table 48-65.
pg_roles
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
rolname
name
Role name
rolsuper
bool
Role has superuser
privileges
rolinherit
bool
Role automatically
inherits privileges of
roles it is a member of
rolcreaterole
bool
Role can create more
roles
rolcreatedb
bool
Role can create
databases
rolcatupdate
bool
Role can update
system catalogs
directly. (Evena
superuser cannot do
this unless this column
is true)
rolcanlogin
bool
Role can log in. That
is, this role can be
given as the initial
session authorization
identifier
rolreplication
bool
Role is a replication
role. That is, this role
can initiate streaming
replication (see Section
25.2.5) and set/unset
the system backup
mode using
pg_start_backup
and
pg_stop_backup
rolconnlimit
int4
For roles that can log
in, this sets maximum
number of concurrent
connections this role
can make. -1 means no
limit.
rolpassword
text
Not the password
(always reads as
********
)
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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
References
Description
rolvaliduntil
timestamptz
Password expiry time
(only used for
password
authentication); null if
no expiration
rolconfig
text[]
Role-specific defaults
for run-time
configuration variables
oid
oid
pg_authid
.oid
ID of role
48.65.
pg_rules
The view
pg_rules
provides access to useful informationabout query rewrite rules.
Table 48-66.
pg_rules
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
schemaname
name
pg_namespace
.nspname
Name of schema
containing table
tablename
name
pg_class
.relname
Name of table the rule
is for
rulename
name
pg_rewrite
.rulename
Name of rule
definition
text
Rule definition (a
reconstructed creation
command)
The
pg_rules
view excludes the
ON SELECT
rules of views and materialized views; those can be
seen in
pg_views
and
pg_matviews
.
48.66.
pg_seclabels
The view
pg_seclabels
provides information about security labels. It as an easier-to-query version
of the
pg_seclabel
catalog.
Table 48-67.
pg_seclabels
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
objoid
oid
any OID column
The OID of the object
this security label
pertains to
classoid
oid
pg_class
.oid
The OID of the system
catalog this object
appears in
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Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
References
Description
objsubid
int4
For a security label on
atable column, this is
the column number
(the
objoid
and
classoid
refer to the
table itself). For all
other object types, this
column is zero.
objtype
text
The type of object to
which this label
applies, as text.
objnamespace
oid
pg_namespace
.oid
The OID of the
namespace for this
object, if applicable;
otherwise NULL.
objname
text
The name of the object
to which this label
applies, as text.
provider
text
pg_seclabel
.provider
The label provider
associated with this
label.
label
text
pg_seclabel
.label
The security label
applied to this object.
48.67.
pg_settings
The view
pg_settings
provides access to run-time parameters of the server. It is essentially an
alternative interface to the SHOW and SET commands. It also provides access to some facts about
each parameter that are not directlyavailable from
SHOW
,such as minimum and maximum values.
Table 48-68.
pg_settings
Columns
Name
Type
Description
name
text
Run-time configuration
parameter name
setting
text
Current value of the parameter
unit
text
Implicit unit of the parameter
category
text
Logical group of the parameter
short_desc
text
Abrief description of the
parameter
extra_desc
text
Additional, more detailed,
description of the parameter
context
text
Context required to set the
parameter’s value (see below)
1853
Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
Description
vartype
text
Parameter type (
bool
,
enum
,
integer
,
real
,or
string
)
source
text
Source of the current parameter
value
min_val
text
Minimum allowed value of the
parameter (null for
non-numeric values)
max_val
text
Maximum allowed value of the
parameter (null for
non-numeric values)
enumvals
text[]
Allowed values of an enum
parameter (null for non-enum
values)
boot_val
text
Parameter value assumed at
server startup if the parameter
is not otherwise set
reset_val
text
Value that
RESET
would reset
the parameter to in the current
session
sourcefile
text
Configuration file the current
value was set in (null for values
set from sources other than
configuration files, or when
examined bya non-superuser);
helpful when using
include
directives in configuration files
sourceline
integer
Line number within the
configuration file the current
value was set at (null for values
set from sources other than
configuration files, or when
examined bya non-superuser)
There are several possible values of
context
.In order of decreasingdifficultyof changingthesetting,
they are:
internal
These settings cannot be changed directly; they reflect internally determined values. Some of
them may be adjustable by rebuilding the server with different configuration options, or by
changing options supplied to
initdb
.
postmaster
These settings can only be applied when the server starts, so any change requires restarting the
server. Values for these settings are typically stored in the
postgresql.conf
file, or passed on
the command line when starting the server. Of course, settings with any of the lower
context
types can also be set at server start time.
sighup
Changes to these settings canbe made in
postgresql.conf
withoutrestartingthe server. Send
1854
Chapter 48. System Catalogs
aSIGHUP signal to the postmaster to cause it to re-read
postgresql.conf
and apply the
changes. The postmaster will also forward the SIGHUP signal to its child processes so that they
all pick up the new value.
backend
Changes tothese settings canbe made in
postgresql.conf
withoutrestarting the server;they
can also be set for a particular session in the connection request packet (for example, via libpq’s
PGOPTIONS
environment variable). However, these settings never change in a session after it is
started. If you change them in
postgresql.conf
,send a SIGHUP signal to the postmaster to
cause it to re-read
postgresql.conf
.The new values will only affect subsequently-launched
sessions.
superuser
Thesesettingscanbesetfrom
postgresql.conf
,or withinasessionvia the
SET
command;but
only superusers can change them via
SET
.Changes in
postgresql.conf
will affect existing
sessions only if no session-local value has been established with
SET
.
user
These settings can be set from
postgresql.conf
,or within a session via the
SET
command.
Anyuser is allowedtochange his session-localvalue. Changes in
postgresql.conf
willaffect
existing sessions only if no session-local value has been establishedwith
SET
.
See Section 18.1 for more information about the various ways to change these parameters.
The
pg_settings
view cannot be inserted into or deleted from, but it can be updated. An
UPDATE
applied to a row of
pg_settings
is equivalent to executing the SET command on that named pa-
rameter. The change only affects the value used by the current session. If an
UPDATE
is issued within
atransaction that is later aborted, the effects of the
UPDATE
commanddisappear whenthe transaction
is rolled back. Once the surrounding transaction is committed, the effects will persist until the end of
the session, unless overridden by another
UPDATE
or
SET
.
48.68.
pg_shadow
The view
pg_shadow
exists for backwards compatibility: it emulates a catalog that existed in Post-
greSQL before version 8.1. It shows properties of all roles that are marked as
rolcanlogin
in
pg_authid
.
The name stems from the fact that this table should not be readable by the public since it contains
passwords.
pg_user
is a publicly readable view on
pg_shadow
that blanks out the password field.
Table 48-69.
pg_shadow
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
usename
name
pg_authid
.rolname
User name
usesysid
oid
pg_authid
.oid
ID of this user
usecreatedb
bool
User can create
databases
usesuper
bool
User is a superuser
1855
Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
References
Description
usecatupd
bool
User can update
system catalogs. (Even
asuperuser cannot do
this unless this column
is true.)
userepl
bool
User can initiate
streaming replication
and put the system in
and out of backup
mode.
passwd
text
Password (possibly
encrypted); null if
none. See
pg_authid
for details of how
encrypted passwords
are stored.
valuntil
abstime
Password expiry time
(only used for
password
authentication)
useconfig
text[]
Session defaults for
run-time configuration
variables
48.69.
pg_stats
The view
pg_stats
provides access to the information stored in the
pg_statistic
catalog. This
view allows access only to rows of
pg_statistic
that correspond to tables the user has permission
to read, and therefore it is safe to allow public read access to this view.
pg_stats
is also designed to present the information in a more readable format than the underlying
catalog — at the cost that its schema must be extended whenever new slot types are defined for
pg_statistic
.
Table 48-70.
pg_stats
Columns
Name
Type
References
Description
schemaname
name
pg_namespace
.nspname
Name of schema
containing table
tablename
name
pg_class
.relname
Name of table
attname
name
pg_attribute
.attname
Name of the column
described by this row
inherited
bool
If true, this row
includes inheritance
child columns, not just
the values in the
specified table
1856
Chapter 48. System Catalogs
Name
Type
References
Description
null_frac
real
Fraction of column
entries that are null
avg_width
integer
Average width in bytes
of column’s entries
n_distinct
real
If greater than zero,
the estimated number
of distinct values in the
column. If less than
zero, the negative of
the number of distinct
values divided by the
number of rows. (The
negated form is used
when
ANALYZE
believes that the
number of distinct
values is likely to
increase as the table
grows; the positive
form is used when the
column seems to have a
fixed number of
possible values.) For
example, -1 indicates a
unique column in
which the number of
distinct values is the
same as the number of
rows.
most_common_vals
anyarray
Alist of the most
common values in the
column. (Null if no
values seem tobe more
common than any
others.)
most_common_freqs
real[]
Alist of the
frequencies of the most
common values, i.e.,
number of occurrences
of each divided by total
number of rows. (Null
when
most_common_vals
is.)
1857
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