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Chapter 9. Functions and Operators
Function
Return Type
Description
Example
Result
ascii(
string
)
int
ASCII code of
the first character
of the argument.
For UTF8 returns
the Unicode code
point of the
character. For
other multibyte
encodings, the
argument must be
an ASCII
character.
ascii(’x’)
120
btrim(
string
text
[,
characters
text
])
text
Remove the
longest string
consisting only of
characters in
characters
(a
space by default)
from the start and
end of
string
btrim(’xyxtrimyyx’,
’xy’)
trim
chr(
int
)
text
Character with
the given code.
For UTF8 the
argument is
treated as a
Unicode code
point. For other
multibyte
encodings the
argument must
designate an
ASCII character.
The NULL (0)
character is not
allowed because
text data types
cannot store such
bytes.
chr(65)
A
concat(
str
"any"
[,
str
"any"
[, ...]
])
text
Concatenate the
text
representations of
all the arguments.
NULL arguments
are ignored.
concat(’abcde’,
2, NULL, 22)
abcde222
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Chapter 9. Functions and Operators
Function
Return Type
Description
Example
Result
concat_ws(
sep
text
,
str "any"
[,
str "any"
[,
...] ])
text
Concatenate all
but the first
argument with
separators. The
first argument is
used as the
separator string.
NULL arguments
are ignored.
concat_ws(’,’,
’abcde’, 2,
NULL, 22)
abcde,2,22
convert(
string
bytea
,
src_encoding
name
,
dest_encoding
name
)
bytea
Convert string to
dest_encoding
.
The original
encoding is
specified by
src_encoding
.
The
string
must
be valid in this
encoding.
Conversions can
be defined by
CREATE
CONVERSION
.
Also there are
some predefined
conversions. See
Table 9-8 for
available
conversions.
convert(’text_in_utf8’,
’UTF8’,
’LATIN1’)
text_in_utf8
represented in
Latin-1 encoding
(ISO 8859-1)
convert_from(
string
bytea
,
src_encoding
name
)
text
Convert string to
the database
encoding. The
original encoding
is specified by
src_encoding
.
The
string
must
be valid in this
encoding.
convert_from(’text_in_utf8’,
’UTF8’)
text_in_utf8
represented in the
current database
encoding
convert_to(
string
text
,
dest_encoding
name
)
bytea
Convert string to
dest_encoding
.
convert_to(’some
text’,
’UTF8’)
some text
represented in the
UTF8 encoding
decode(
string
text
,
format
text
)
bytea
Decode binary
data from textual
representation in
string
.Options
for
format
are
same as in
encode
.
decode(’MTIzAAE=’,
’base64’)
\x3132330001
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Chapter 9. Functions and Operators
Function
Return Type
Description
Example
Result
encode(
data
bytea
,
format
text
)
text
Encode binary
data into a textual
representation.
Supported formats
are:
base64
,
hex
,
escape
.
escape
converts zero
bytes and
high-bit-set bytes
to octal sequences
(
\nnn
)and
doubles
backslashes.
encode(E’123\\000\\001’,
’base64’)
MTIzAAE=
format
(
formatstr
text
[,
formatarg "any"
[, ...] ])
text
Format
arguments
according to a
format string. This
function is similar
to the C function
sprintf
.See
Section 9.4.1.
format(’Hello
%s, %1$s’,
’World’)
Hello World,
World
initcap(
string
)
text
Convert the first
letter of eachword
to upper case and
the rest to lower
case. Words are
sequences of
alphanumeric
characters
separated by
non-alphanumeric
characters.
initcap(’hi
THOMAS’)
Hi Thomas
left(
str text
,
n int
)
text
Return first
n
characters in the
string. When
n
is
negative, return all
but last |
n
|
characters.
left(’abcde’,
2)
ab
length(
string
)
int
Number of
characters in
string
length(’jose’)
4
length(
string
bytea
,
encoding
name
)
int
Number of
characters in
string
in the
given
encoding
.
The
string
must
be valid in this
encoding.
length(’jose’,
’UTF8’)
4
180
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Chapter 9. Functions and Operators
Function
Return Type
Description
Example
Result
lpad(
string
text
,
length int
[,
fill text
])
text
Fill up the
string
to length
length
by
prepending the
characters
fill
(a
space by default).
If the
string
is
already longer
than
length
then
it is truncated (on
the right).
lpad(’hi’, 5,
’xy’)
xyxhi
ltrim(
string
text
[,
characters
text
])
text
Remove the
longest string
containing only
characters from
characters
(a
space by default)
from the start of
string
ltrim(’zzzytrim’,
’xyz’)
trim
md5(
string
)
text
Calculates the
MD5 hash of
string
,returning
the result in
hexadecimal
md5(’abc’)
900150983cd24fb0
d6963f7d28e17f72
pg_client_encoding()
name
Current client
encoding name
pg_client_encoding()
SQL_ASCII
quote_ident(
string
text
)
text
Return the given
string suitably
quoted to be used
as an identifier in
an SQL statement
string. Quotes are
added only if
necessary (i.e., if
the string contains
non-identifier
characters or
would be
case-folded).
Embedded quotes
are properly
doubled. See also
Example 40-1.
quote_ident(’Foo
bar’)
"Foo bar"
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Chapter 9. Functions and Operators
Function
Return Type
Description
Example
Result
quote_literal(
string
text
)
text
Return the given
string suitably
quoted to be used
as a string literal
in an SQL
statement string.
Embedded
single-quotes and
backslashes are
properly doubled.
Note that
quote_literal
returns null on
null input; if the
argument might
be null,
quote_nullable
is often more
suitable. See also
Example 40-1.
quote_literal(E’O\’Reilly’)
’O”Reilly’
quote_literal(
value
anyelement
)
text
Coerce the given
value to text and
then quote it as a
literal. Embedded
single-quotes and
backslashes are
properly doubled.
quote_literal(42.5)
’42.5’
quote_nullable(
string
text
)
text
Return the given
string suitably
quoted to be used
as a string literal
in an SQL
statement string;
or, if the argument
is null, return
NULL
.Embedded
single-quotes and
backslashes are
properly doubled.
See alsoExample
40-1.
quote_nullable(NULL)
NULL
182
Chapter 9. Functions and Operators
Function
Return Type
Description
Example
Result
quote_nullable(
value
anyelement
)
text
Coerce the given
value to text and
then quote it as a
literal; or, if the
argument is null,
return
NULL
.
Embedded
single-quotes and
backslashes are
properly doubled.
quote_nullable(42.5)
’42.5’
regexp_matches(
string
text
,
pattern
text
[,
flags
text
])
setof text[]
Return all
captured
substrings
resulting from
matching a
POSIX regular
expression against
the
string
.See
Section 9.7.3 for
more information.
regexp_matches(’foobarbequebaz’,
’(bar)(beque)’)
{bar,beque}
regexp_replace(
string
text
,
pattern
text
,
replacement text
[,
flags text
])
text
Replace
substring(s)
matching a
POSIX regular
expression. See
Section 9.7.3 for
more information.
regexp_replace(’Thomas’,
’.[mN]a.’,
’M’)
ThM
regexp_split_to_array(
string
text
,
pattern
text
[,
flags
text
])
text[]
Split
string
using a POSIX
regular expression
as the delimiter.
See Section 9.7.3
for more
information.
regexp_split_to_array(’hello
world’,
E’\\s+’)
{hello,world}
regexp_split_to_table(
string
text
,
pattern
text
[,
flags
text
])
setof text
Split
string
using a POSIX
regular expression
as the delimiter.
See Section 9.7.3
for more
information.
regexp_split_to_table(’hello
world’,
E’\\s+’)
helloworld
(2
rows)
repeat(
string
text
,
number
int
)
text
Repeat
string
the specified
number
of times
repeat(’Pg’,
4)
PgPgPgPg
183
Chapter 9. Functions and Operators
Function
Return Type
Description
Example
Result
replace(
string
text
,
from text
,
to text
)
text
Replace all
occurrences in
string
of
substring
from
with substring
to
replace(’abcdefabcdef’,
’cd’, ’XX’)
abXXefabXXef
reverse(
str
)
text
Return reversed
string.
reverse(’abcde’)
edcba
right(
str text
,
n int
)
text
Return last
n
characters in the
string. When
n
is
negative, return all
but first |
n
|
characters.
right(’abcde’,
2)
de
rpad(
string
text
,
length int
[,
fill text
])
text
Fill up the
string
to length
length
by
appending the
characters
fill
(a
space by default).
If the
string
is
already longer
than
length
then
it is truncated.
rpad(’hi’, 5,
’xy’)
hixyx
rtrim(
string
text
[,
characters
text
])
text
Remove the
longest string
containing only
characters from
characters
(a
space by default)
from the end of
string
rtrim(’trimxxxx’,
’x’)
trim
split_part(
string
text
,
delimiter
text
,
field int
)
text
Split
string
on
delimiter
and
return the given
field (counting
from one)
split_part(’abc~@~def~@~ghi’,
’~@~’, 2)
def
strpos(
string
,
substring
)
int
Location of
specified substring
(same as
position(
substring
in
string
)
,but
note the reversed
argument order)
strpos(’high’,
’ig’)
2
substr(
string
,
from
[,
count
])
text
Extract substring
(same as
substring(
string
from
from
for
count
)
)
substr(’alphabet’,
3, 2)
ph
184
Chapter 9. Functions and Operators
Function
Return Type
Description
Example
Result
to_ascii(
string
text
[,
encoding
text
])
text
Convert
string
to ASCII from
another encoding
(only supports
conversion from
LATIN1
,
LATIN2
,
LATIN9
,and
WIN1250
encodings)
to_ascii(’Karel’)
Karel
to_hex(
number
int
or
bigint
)
text
Convert
number
to its equivalent
hexadecimal
representation
to_hex(2147483647)
7fffffff
translate(
string
text
,
from text
,
to text
)
text
Any character in
string
that
matches a
character in the
from
set is
replaced by the
corresponding
character in the
to
set. If
from
is
longer than
to
,
occurrences of the
extra characters in
from
are
removed.
translate(’12345’,
’143’, ’ax’)
a2x5
The
concat
,
concat_ws
and
format
functions are variadic, so it is possible to pass the values to
be concatenated or formatted as an array marked with the
VARIADIC
keyword (see Section 35.4.5).
The array’s elements are treated as if they were separate ordinary arguments to the function. If the
variadic array argument is NULL,
concat
and
concat_ws
return NULL, but
format
treats a NULL
as a zero-element array.
See also the aggregate function
string_agg
in Section 9.20.
Table 9-8. Built-in Conversions
Conversion Name
a
Source Encoding
Destination Encoding
ascii_to_mic
SQL_ASCII
MULE_INTERNAL
ascii_to_utf8
SQL_ASCII
UTF8
big5_to_euc_tw
BIG5
EUC_TW
big5_to_mic
BIG5
MULE_INTERNAL
big5_to_utf8
BIG5
UTF8
euc_cn_to_mic
EUC_CN
MULE_INTERNAL
euc_cn_to_utf8
EUC_CN
UTF8
euc_jp_to_mic
EUC_JP
MULE_INTERNAL
euc_jp_to_sjis
EUC_JP
SJIS
185
Chapter 9. Functions and Operators
Conversion Name
a
Source Encoding
Destination Encoding
euc_jp_to_utf8
EUC_JP
UTF8
euc_kr_to_mic
EUC_KR
MULE_INTERNAL
euc_kr_to_utf8
EUC_KR
UTF8
euc_tw_to_big5
EUC_TW
BIG5
euc_tw_to_mic
EUC_TW
MULE_INTERNAL
euc_tw_to_utf8
EUC_TW
UTF8
gb18030_to_utf8
GB18030
UTF8
gbk_to_utf8
GBK
UTF8
iso_8859_10_to_utf8
LATIN6
UTF8
iso_8859_13_to_utf8
LATIN7
UTF8
iso_8859_14_to_utf8
LATIN8
UTF8
iso_8859_15_to_utf8
LATIN9
UTF8
iso_8859_16_to_utf8
LATIN10
UTF8
iso_8859_1_to_mic
LATIN1
MULE_INTERNAL
iso_8859_1_to_utf8
LATIN1
UTF8
iso_8859_2_to_mic
LATIN2
MULE_INTERNAL
iso_8859_2_to_utf8
LATIN2
UTF8
iso_8859_2_to_windows_1250
LATIN2
WIN1250
iso_8859_3_to_mic
LATIN3
MULE_INTERNAL
iso_8859_3_to_utf8
LATIN3
UTF8
iso_8859_4_to_mic
LATIN4
MULE_INTERNAL
iso_8859_4_to_utf8
LATIN4
UTF8
iso_8859_5_to_koi8_r
ISO_8859_5
KOI8R
iso_8859_5_to_mic
ISO_8859_5
MULE_INTERNAL
iso_8859_5_to_utf8
ISO_8859_5
UTF8
iso_8859_5_to_windows_1251
ISO_8859_5
WIN1251
iso_8859_5_to_windows_866
ISO_8859_5
WIN866
iso_8859_6_to_utf8
ISO_8859_6
UTF8
iso_8859_7_to_utf8
ISO_8859_7
UTF8
iso_8859_8_to_utf8
ISO_8859_8
UTF8
iso_8859_9_to_utf8
LATIN5
UTF8
johab_to_utf8
JOHAB
UTF8
koi8_r_to_iso_8859_5
KOI8R
ISO_8859_5
koi8_r_to_mic
KOI8R
MULE_INTERNAL
koi8_r_to_utf8
KOI8R
UTF8
koi8_r_to_windows_1251
KOI8R
WIN1251
koi8_r_to_windows_866
KOI8R
WIN866
koi8_u_to_utf8
KOI8U
UTF8
mic_to_ascii
MULE_INTERNAL
SQL_ASCII
186
Chapter 9. Functions and Operators
Conversion Name
a
Source Encoding
Destination Encoding
mic_to_big5
MULE_INTERNAL
BIG5
mic_to_euc_cn
MULE_INTERNAL
EUC_CN
mic_to_euc_jp
MULE_INTERNAL
EUC_JP
mic_to_euc_kr
MULE_INTERNAL
EUC_KR
mic_to_euc_tw
MULE_INTERNAL
EUC_TW
mic_to_iso_8859_1
MULE_INTERNAL
LATIN1
mic_to_iso_8859_2
MULE_INTERNAL
LATIN2
mic_to_iso_8859_3
MULE_INTERNAL
LATIN3
mic_to_iso_8859_4
MULE_INTERNAL
LATIN4
mic_to_iso_8859_5
MULE_INTERNAL
ISO_8859_5
mic_to_koi8_r
MULE_INTERNAL
KOI8R
mic_to_sjis
MULE_INTERNAL
SJIS
mic_to_windows_1250
MULE_INTERNAL
WIN1250
mic_to_windows_1251
MULE_INTERNAL
WIN1251
mic_to_windows_866
MULE_INTERNAL
WIN866
sjis_to_euc_jp
SJIS
EUC_JP
sjis_to_mic
SJIS
MULE_INTERNAL
sjis_to_utf8
SJIS
UTF8
tcvn_to_utf8
WIN1258
UTF8
uhc_to_utf8
UHC
UTF8
utf8_to_ascii
UTF8
SQL_ASCII
utf8_to_big5
UTF8
BIG5
utf8_to_euc_cn
UTF8
EUC_CN
utf8_to_euc_jp
UTF8
EUC_JP
utf8_to_euc_kr
UTF8
EUC_KR
utf8_to_euc_tw
UTF8
EUC_TW
utf8_to_gb18030
UTF8
GB18030
utf8_to_gbk
UTF8
GBK
utf8_to_iso_8859_1
UTF8
LATIN1
utf8_to_iso_8859_10
UTF8
LATIN6
utf8_to_iso_8859_13
UTF8
LATIN7
utf8_to_iso_8859_14
UTF8
LATIN8
utf8_to_iso_8859_15
UTF8
LATIN9
utf8_to_iso_8859_16
UTF8
LATIN10
utf8_to_iso_8859_2
UTF8
LATIN2
utf8_to_iso_8859_3
UTF8
LATIN3
utf8_to_iso_8859_4
UTF8
LATIN4
utf8_to_iso_8859_5
UTF8
ISO_8859_5
utf8_to_iso_8859_6
UTF8
ISO_8859_6
utf8_to_iso_8859_7
UTF8
ISO_8859_7
utf8_to_iso_8859_8
UTF8
ISO_8859_8
utf8_to_iso_8859_9
UTF8
LATIN5
187
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