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G.2. Server Applications
ThissectioncoversPostgreSQLserver-relatedapplicationsin
contrib
.Theyaretypicallyrunonthe
hostwherethedatabaseserverresides.SeealsoReferenceIII,PostgreSQLServerApplications for
informationaboutserverapplicationsthatpartofthecorePostgreSQLdistribution.
pg_archivecleanup
Name
pg_archivecleanup—cleanupPostgreSQLWALarchivefiles
Synopsis
pg_archivecleanup
[
option
...]
archivelocation oldestkeptwalfile
Description
pg_archivecleanupisdesignedtobeusedasan
archive_cleanup_command
tocleanupWALfile
archiveswhenrunningasastandbyserver(seeSection25.2).pg_archivecleanupcanalsobeusedas
astandaloneprogramtocleanWALfilearchives.
Toconfigureastandbyservertousepg_archivecleanup,putthisintoits
recovery.conf
configura-
tionfile:
archive_cleanup_command = ’pg_archivecleanup
archivelocation
%r’
where
archivelocation
isthedirectoryfromwhichWALsegmentfilesshouldberemoved.
Whenusedwithinarchive_cleanup_command,allWALfileslogicallyprecedingthevalueofthe
%r
argumentwillberemovedfrom
archivelocation
.Thisminimizes thenumberoffiles thatneed
toberetained,while preservingcrash-restart capability.Useofthisparameterisappropriateifthe
archivelocation
is a transientstaging areafor this particularstandbyserver,butnotwhen the
archivelocation
isintendedasalong-termWALarchivearea,orwhenmultiplestandbyservers
arerecoveringfromthesamearchivelocation.
When usedas a standalone programallWAL files logically preceding the
oldestkeptwalfile
willberemovedfrom
archivelocation
.Inthis mode,ifyouspecifya
.backup
filename,then
onlythefileprefixwillbeusedas the
oldestkeptwalfile
.This allowsyoutoremoveallWAL
filesarchivedpriortoaspecificbasebackupwithouterror.Forexample,thefollowingexamplewill
removeallfilesolderthanWALfilename
000000010000003700000010
:
pg_archivecleanup -d archive 000000010000003700000010.00000020.backup
pg_archivecleanup:
keep WAL file "archive/000000010000003700000010" and later
pg_archivecleanup:
removing file "archive/00000001000000370000000F"
pg_archivecleanup:
removing file "archive/00000001000000370000000E"
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pg_archivecleanup
pg_archivecleanup assumes that
archivelocation
is a directory readable and writable by the
server-owninguser.
Options
pg_archivecleanupacceptsthefollowingcommand-linearguments:
-d
Printlotsofdebugloggingoutputon
stderr
.
-n
Printthenamesofthefilesthatwouldhavebeenremovedon
stdout
(performsadryrun).
-V
--version
Printthepg_archivecleanupversionandexit.
-xextension
Whenusingtheprogramasastandaloneutility,provideanextensionthatwillbestrippedfrom
allfilenamesbeforedecidingiftheyshouldbedeleted.Thisistypicallyusefulforcleaningup
archivesthathavebeencompressedduringstorage,andthereforehavehadanextensionadded
bythecompressionprogram.Forexample:
-x .gz
.
-?
--help
Showhelpaboutpg_archivecleanupcommandlinearguments,andexit.
Notes
pg_archivecleanupis designed to work withPostgreSQL 8.0and laterwhen used as astandalone
utility,orwithPostgreSQL9.0andlaterwhenusedasanarchivecleanupcommand.
pg_archivecleanupiswritteninCandhasaneasy-to-modifysourcecode,withspecificallydesignated
sectionstomodifyforyourownneeds
Examples
OnLinuxorUnixsystems,youmightuse:
archive_cleanup_command = ’pg_archivecleanup -d /mnt/standby/archive %r 2>>cleanup.log’
wherethearchivedirectoryisphysicallylocatedonthestandbyserver,sothatthe
archive_command
isaccessingitacrossNFS,butthefilesarelocaltothestandby.Thiswill:
producedebuggingoutputin
cleanup.log
removeno-longer-neededfilesfromthearchivedirectory
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pg_archivecleanup
Author
SimonRiggs<
simon@2ndquadrant.com
>
See Also
pg_standby
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pg_standby
Name
pg_standby—supportsthecreationofaPostgreSQLwarmstandbyserver
Synopsis
pg_standby
[
option
...]
archivelocation nextwalfile xlogfilepath
[
restartwalfile
]
Description
pg_standbysupportscreationofa“warmstandby”databaseserver.Itisdesignedtobeaproduction-
readyprogram,aswellasacustomizabletemplateshouldyourequirespecificmodifications.
pg_standbyisdesignedtobeawaiting
restore_command
,whichisneededtoturnastandardarchive
recoveryintoawarmstandbyoperation.Otherconfigurationisrequiredaswell,allofwhichisde-
scribedinthemainservermanual(seeSection25.2).
Toconfigureastandbyservertousepg_standby,putthisintoits
recovery.conf
configurationfile:
restore_command = ’pg_standby
archiveDir
%f %p %r’
where
archiveDir
isthedirectoryfromwhichWALsegmentfilesshouldberestored.
If
restartwalfile
isspecified,normallybyusingthe
%r
macro,thenallWALfileslogicallypre-
cedingthisfilewillberemovedfrom
archivelocation
.This minimizesthenumberoffilesthat
needtoberetained,whilepreservingcrash-restartcapability.Useofthisparameterisappropriateif
the
archivelocation
isatransientstagingareaforthisparticularstandbyserver,butnotwhenthe
archivelocation
isintendedasalong-termWALarchivearea.
pg_standbyassumes that
archivelocation
is adirectory readablebytheserver-owninguser.If
restartwalfile
(or
-k
)isspecified,the
archivelocation
directorymustbewritabletoo.
Therearetwowaystofailovertoa“warmstandby”databaseserverwhenthemasterserverfails:
SmartFailover
Insmartfailover,theserverisbroughtupafterapplyingallWALfilesavailableinthearchive.
Thisresultsinzerodataloss,evenifthestandbyserverhasfallenbehind,butifthereisalotof
unappliedWALitcanbealongtimebeforethestandbyserverbecomesready.Totriggerasmart
failover,createatriggerfilecontainingtheword
smart
,orjustcreateitandleaveitempty.
FastFailover
Infastfailover,the serveris brought upimmediately.AnyWAL files inthearchivethathave
notyetbeenappliedwillbeignored,andalltransactionsinthosefilesarelost.Totriggerafast
failover,createatriggerfileandwritetheword
fast
intoit.pg_standbycanalsobeconfigured
toexecuteafastfailoverautomaticallyifnonewWALfileappearswithinadefinedinterval.
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pg_standby
Options
pg_standbyacceptsthefollowingcommand-linearguments:
-c
Use
cp
or
copy
commandtorestoreWALfilesfromarchive.Thisistheonlysupportedbehavior
sothisoptionisuseless.
-d
Printlotsofdebugloggingoutputon
stderr
.
-k
Removefiles from
archivelocation
sothatnomore thanthis manyWAL files before the
current one are kept in the archive. Zero (the default) means not to remove any files from
archivelocation
.This parameterwillbesilentlyignoredif
restartwalfile
is specified,
sincethatspecificationmethodismoreaccurateindeterminingthecorrectarchivecut-offpoint.
UseofthisparameterisdeprecatedasofPostgreSQL8.3;itissaferandmoreefficienttospecify
a
restartwalfile
parameter.Atoosmallsettingcouldresultinremovaloffilesthatarestill
neededforarestartofthestandbyserver,whileatoolargesettingwastesarchivespace.
-rmaxretries
Setthemaximumnumberoftimestoretrythecopycommandifitfails(default3).Aftereach
failure,wewaitfor
sleeptime
*
num_retries
sothatthewaittimeincreasesprogressively.
Sobydefault,wewillwait5secs,10secs,then15secsbeforereportingthefailurebacktothe
standbyserver.Thiswillbeinterpretedasendofrecoveryandthestandbywillcomeupfullyas
aresult.
-ssleeptime
Setthenumberofseconds(upto60,default5)tosleepbetweenteststoseeiftheWALfileto
berestoredisavailableinthearchiveyet.Thedefaultsettingisnotnecessarilyrecommended;
consultSection25.2fordiscussion.
-ttriggerfile
Specify a triggerfile whose presence should cause failover. It is recommendedthatyouuse
astructuredfilename toavoidconfusionastowhichserveris beingtriggered whenmultiple
serversexistonthesamesystem;forexample
/tmp/pgsql.trigger.5432
.
-V
--version
Printthepg_standbyversionandexit.
-wmaxwaittime
SetthemaximumnumberofsecondstowaitforthenextWALfile,afterwhichafastfailover
willbeperformed.Asettingofzero(thedefault)meanswaitforever.Thedefaultsettingisnot
necessarilyrecommended;consultSection25.2fordiscussion.
-?
--help
Showhelpaboutpg_standbycommandlinearguments,andexit.
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pg_standby
Notes
pg_standbyisdesignedtoworkwithPostgreSQL8.2andlater.
PostgreSQL8.3providesthe
%r
macro,whichisdesignedtoletpg_standbyknowthelastfileitneeds
tokeep.WithPostgreSQL8.2,the
-k
optionmustbeusedifarchivecleanupisrequired.Thisoption
remainsavailablein8.3,butitsuseisdeprecated.
PostgreSQL8.4providesthe
recovery_end_command
option.Withoutthisoptionaleftovertrigger
filecanbehazardous.
pg_standbyiswritteninCandhasaneasy-to-modifysourcecode,withspecificallydesignatedsec-
tionstomodifyforyourownneeds
Examples
OnLinuxorUnixsystems,youmightuse:
archive_command = ’cp %p .../archive/%f’
restore_command = ’pg_standby -d -s 2 -t /tmp/pgsql.trigger.5442 .../archive %f %p %r 2>>standby.log’
recovery_end_command = ’rm -f /tmp/pgsql.trigger.5442’
wherethearchivedirectoryisphysicallylocatedonthestandbyserver,sothatthe
archive_command
isaccessingitacrossNFS,butthefilesarelocaltothestandby(enablinguseof
ln
).Thiswill:
producedebuggingoutputin
standby.log
sleepfor2secondsbetweenchecksfornextWALfileavailability
stopwaitingonlywhenatriggerfilecalled
/tmp/pgsql.trigger.5442
appears,andperform
failoveraccordingtoitscontent
removethetriggerfilewhenrecoveryends
removeno-longer-neededfilesfromthearchivedirectory
OnWindows,youmightuse:
archive_command = ’copy %p ...\\archive\\%f’
restore_command = ’pg_standby -d -s 5 -t C:\pgsql.trigger.5442 ...\archive %f %p %r 2>>standby.log’
recovery_end_command = ’del C:\pgsql.trigger.5442’
Note that backslashes need to be doubled in the
archive_command
, but not in the
restore_command
or
recovery_end_command
.Thiswill:
usethe
copy
commandtorestoreWALfilesfromarchive
producedebuggingoutputin
standby.log
sleepfor5secondsbetweenchecksfornextWALfileavailability
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pg_standby
stop waiting only when a trigger file called
C:\pgsql.trigger.5442
appears, and perform
failoveraccordingtoitscontent
removethetriggerfilewhenrecoveryends
removeno-longer-neededfilesfromthearchivedirectory
The
copy
commandonWindowssets thefinalfilesizebeforethefileiscompletelycopied,which
wouldordinarilyconfusepg_standby.Thereforepg_standbywaits
sleeptime
secondsonceitsees
theproperfilesize.GNUWin32’s
cp
setsthefilesizeonlyafterthefilecopyiscomplete.
SincetheWindowsexampleuses
copy
atbothends,eitherorbothserversmightbe accessingthe
archivedirectoryacrossthenetwork.
Author
SimonRiggs<
simon@2ndquadrant.com
>
See Also
pg_archivecleanup
2914
pg_test_fsync
Name
pg_test_fsync—determinefastestwal_sync_methodforPostgreSQL
Synopsis
pg_test_fsync
[
option
...]
Description
pg_test_fsyncis intendedtogiveyouareasonableideaofwhatthefastestwal_sync_methodis on
yourspecific system,as well assupplyingdiagnostic informationinthe event ofan identifiedI/O
problem.However,differences shown bypg_test_fsync mightnotmake anysignificant difference
in realdatabase throughput,especiallysince manydatabase servers are not speed-limited by their
transaction logs. pg_test_fsync reports average file sync operation time in microseconds for each
wal_sync_method
,whichcanalsobeusedtoinformeffortstooptimizethevalueofcommit_delay.
Options
pg_test_fsyncacceptsthefollowingcommand-lineoptions:
-f
--filename
Specifiesthefilenametowritetestdatain.Thisfileshouldbeinthesamefilesystemthatthe
pg_xlog
directoryis orwillbeplacedin.(
pg_xlog
contains the WAL files.) The defaultis
pg_test_fsync.out
inthecurrentdirectory.
-s
--secs-per-test
Specifies the numberofseconds foreach test. The more time per test, the greaterthe test’s
accuracy,butthelongerittakes torun.Thedefaultis5seconds,whichallowstheprogramto
completeinunder2minutes.
-V
--version
Printthepg_test_fsyncversionandexit.
-?
--help
Showhelpaboutpg_test_fsynccommandlinearguments,andexit.
2915
pg_test_fsync
Author
BruceMomjian<
bruce@momjian.us
>
See Also
postgres
2916
pg_test_timing
Name
pg_test_timing—measuretimingoverhead
Synopsis
pg_test_timing
[
option
...]
Description
pg_test_timingisatooltomeasurethetimingoverheadonyoursystemandconfirmthatthesystem
time nevermoves backwards. Systems that are slow tocollect timing data cangive less accurate
EXPLAIN ANALYZE
results.
Options
pg_test_timingacceptsthefollowingcommand-lineoptions:
-d
duration
--duration=
duration
Specifiesthetestduration,inseconds.Longerdurationsgiveslightly betteraccuracy,andare
more likelyto discoverproblems with the system clock moving backwards.The default test
durationis3seconds.
-V
--version
Printthepg_test_timingversionandexit.
-?
--help
Showhelpaboutpg_test_timingcommandlinearguments,andexit.
Usage
Interpretingresults
Goodresultswillshowmost(>90%)individualtimingcallstakelessthanonemicrosecond.Average
perloopoverheadwillbeevenlower,below100nanoseconds.This examplefroman Inteli7-860
systemusingaTSCclocksourceshowsexcellentperformance:
Testing timing overhead for 3 seconds.
Per loop time including overhead: 35.96 nsec
Histogram of timing durations:
2917
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