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WANOptimization
WANOptimizationfeaturesrequiresignificantmemoryresourcesandgenerateahighamountofI/Oondisk.
BeforeenablingWANOptimization,ensurethatthememoryusageisnottoohigh.Ifpossible,avoidotherdisk-
intensivefeaturessuchasheavytrafficloggingonthesamediskastheoneconfiguredforWANOptimization
needs.
Ingeneral,itispreferabletoenabletheTransparentModecheckboxandensurethatroutingbetweenthetwo
endpointsisacceptable.SomeprotocolsmaynotworkwellwithoutenablingTransparentMode.
OtherbestpracticesforutilizingtheWANOptimizationfeaturefollow.
SharingtheWANOpt.tunnelfortrafficofthesamenature
WANoptimizationtunnelsharingisrecommendedforsimilartypesofWANoptimizationtraffic(suchasCIFS
trafficfromdifferentservers).However,tunnelsharingfordifferenttypesoftrafficisnotrecommended.For
example,aggressiveandnon-aggressiveprotocolsshouldnotsharethesametunnel.
OrderingWANOpt.rulesappropriately
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Precise,portspecificWANOptimizationrulesshouldbeatthetopofthelist.
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Genericrules,suchasoverallTCP,shouldbeatthebottomofthelist.
AvoidingmixingprotocolsinaWANOpt.tunnel
Differentprotocolsmaybemoreorlesstalkativeorinteractive.Mixingprotocolsinatunnelmayresultsinadelay
forsomeofthem.Itisrecommendedtodefineprotocolspecificwan-optimizationrulesandrestricttheportsto
thenecessaryonesonlyforperformancereasons.
SettingcorrectconfigurationoptionsforCIFSWANOpt.
EnsurethattheWANOptimizationrulescoverTCPports139and445(onthesameortwodifferentrules).Also
ensurethatTransparentModeisselected.
SettingcorrectconfigurationoptionsforMAPIWANOpt.
ForMAPIWANOptimization,onlyspecifyarulewithTCPport135(unlesstheMAPIcontrolportisconfigured
differently).DeriveddatasessionsusingotherrandomportswillbehandledbytheCIFSwan-optimization
daemonevenwithonlythecontrolportconfigured.
TestingWANOpt.inalab
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EnsurethatWANemulatorsareusedtosimulatetheWAN.IfnoWANemulatorisused,itisexpectedtohave
betterresultswithoutWANOptimizationthanwithWANOptimization.
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Totestthedifferencebetweencoldtransfers(first-timetransfers)andwarmtransfers,itisrecommendedto
generatearandomfileofthecoldtransfertoensurethatthetestisthefirsttimethatthefilehasbeenseen.
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BestPracticesforFortiOS5.2
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WANOptimization
Regardingbytecompressionandtypeoffile
Enablingbytecompressiononfiletransfersalreadycompressed(.jpegfiles,compressedarchive,etc.)won't
provideanyperformanceincreaseandcouldbeseenasamisuseofCPUresources.
Regardingnetworkaddresstranslation(NAT)
SelectingtheNATfeatureinasecuritypolicydoesnothaveanyinfluenceonWANOptimizationtraffic.
HighAvailability
Thereisnobenefittousingactive-activemode,soforpureWANOptimizationneeds,useactive-passivemode.
RefertotheFGCPHighAvailabilitysectionforotherbestpracticesrelatedtoHA.
Authenticationwithspecificpeers
ConfigureWANoptimizationauthenticationwithspecificpeers.Acceptinganypeerisnotrecommendedasthis
canbelesssecure.
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BestPracticesforFortiOS5.2
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VirtualDomains(VDOMs)
VDOMscanprovideseparatefirewallpoliciesand,inNAT/Routemode,completelyseparateconfigurationsfor
routingandVPNservicesforeachconnectednetworkororganization.Thissectionprovidesalistofbestpractices
forconfiguringVDOMs.
Per-VDOMresourcesettings
WhileGlobalresourcesapplytoresourcessharedbythewholeFortiGateunit,per-VDOMresourcesarespecific
toonlyoneVirtualDomain.
Bydefaultalltheper-VDOMresourcesettingsaresettonolimits.ThismeansthatanysingleVDOMcanuseup
alltheresourcesoftheentireFortiGateunitifitneedstodoso.ThiswouldstarvetheotherVDOMsforresources
tothepointwheretheywouldbeunabletofunction.Forthisreason,itisrecommendedthatyousetsome
maximumsonresourcesthataremostvitaltoyourcustomers.
VirtualdomainsinNAT/Routemode
OnceyouhaveenabledvirtualdomainsandcreatedoneormoreVDOMs,youneedtoconfigurethem.Itis
recommendedthatyouperformthefollowingtasksintheordergiven(whileyoumaynotrequireallforyour
networktopology):
1. Changethemanagementvirtualdomain.
2. ConfigureFortiGateinterfacesinaNAT/RouteVDOM.
3. ConfigureVDOMrouting.
4. ConfiguresecuritypoliciesforNAT/RouteVDOMs.
5. ConfigureUTMprofilesforNAT/RouteVDOMs.
6. Testtheconfiguration.
Virtualclustering
Ifyoudecidetodisableoverrideforclurstering,asaresultofpersistentrenegotiating,youshoulddisableitfor
bothclusterunits.
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BestPracticesforFortiOS5.2
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Explicitproxy
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Forexplicitproxies,whenconfiguringlimitsonthenumberofconcurrentusers,youneedtoallowforthenumberof
usersbasedontheirauthenticationmethod.Otherwiseyoumayrunoutofuserresourcesprematurely.
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Eachsession-basedauthenticateduseriscountedasasingleuserusingtheirauthenticationmembership
(RADIUS,LDAP,FSAE,localdatabaseetc.)tomatchusersinothersessions.Sooneauthenticateduserinmultiple
sessionsisstilloneuser.
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Forallothersituations,thesourceIPaddressisusedtodetermineauser.Allsessionsfromasinglesourceaddress
areassumedtobefromthesameuser.
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SettheexplicitwebproxyandexplicitFTPproxyDefaultFirewallPolicyActiontoDeny.Thismeansthatafirewall
policyisrequiredtousetheseexplicitproxies,allowingyoutocontrolaccessandimposesecurityfeatures.
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DonotenabletheexplicitweborFTPproxyonaninterfaceconnectedtotheInternet.Thisisasecurityrisk
becauseanyoneontheInternetwhofindstheproxycoulduseittohidetheirsourceaddress.Ifyoumustenablethe
proxyonsuchaninterfacemakesureauthenticationisrequiredtousetheproxy.
34
BestPracticesforFortiOS5.2
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Wireless
Thefollowingsectioncontainsalistofbestpracticesforwirelessnetworkconfigurationswithregardtoencryption
andauthentication,geographiclocation,networkplanning,powerusage,clientloadbalancing,localbridging,
SSIDs,andtheuseofstaticIPs.
Encryptionandauthentication
Itisbestpracticetoalwaysenablethestrongestuserauthenticationandencryptionmethodthatyourclient
supports.Fortinetrecommendsthefollowingsecurity,inorderofstrongesttoweakest:
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WPA2-Enterprise802.1x/EAP-Personalpre-sharedkey(8-63characters)
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WPA-Enterprise802.1x/EAP-Personalpre-sharedkey(8-63characters)
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WEP128-26Hexadecimaldigitkey
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WEP64-10Hexadecimaldigitkey
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None-Opensystem
Geographiclocation
EnsurethattheFortiGatewirelesscontrollerisconfiguredforyourgeographiclocation.Thisensuresthatthe
availableradiochannelsandradiopowerareincompliancewiththeregulationsinyourregion.
ThemaximumallowedtransmitterpowerandpermittedradiochannelsforWi-Finetworksdependontheregion
inwhichthenetworkislocated.Bydefault,theWiFicontrollerisconfiguredfortheUnitedStates.Ifyouare
locatedinanyotherregion,youneedtosetyourlocationbeforeyoubeginconfiguringwirelessnetworks.
ThelocationsettingcanonlybechangedfromCLI.TochangethecountrytoFrance,forexample,enterthe
following:
config wireless-controller setting
set country FR
end
Toseethelistofcountrycodes,enteraquestionmark(‘?’)inplaceofthecountrycode.
Usinganincorrectgeographiclocationisacommonerrorthatcanleadtounpredicableresultsontheclientside.
Networkplanning
Itisrecommendedthatyouperformapropersitesurveypriorpositionnigthewirelessaccesspoint.Inorderto
evaluatethecoverageareaenvironment,thefollowingcriteriasmustbetakenintoaccount:
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Sizeofcoveragearea
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Bandwidthrequired
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Clientwirelesscapabilities
35
BestPracticesforFortiOS5.2
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Wireless
AftercompletingaRFsitesurvey,you’llhaveagoodideaofthenumberandlocationofaccesspointsneededto
provideuserswithadequatecoverageandperformance.
However,priortoinstallingtheaccesspoints,besuretodeterminetheRFchannel(s)youplantouse.Thiswill
ensurethatuserscanroamthroughoutthefacilitywithsubstantialperformance.
Toavoidco-channelinterference,adjacentWi-FiAPsmustbeconfiguredtousenon-overlappingchannels.
Otherwise,you’llfindpoorperformancewilldegradebecauseofinterferencebetweenaccesspoints.
Itisrecommendedtostaticallyconfigurethenon-overloppingchannelsoneveryaccesspoint,usingoneCustom
APprofileperAP(orgroupofAPs).Ifstaticconfigurationcannotbeused,theFortiOSWi-FiControllerincludes
theAutomaticRadioResourceProvisioning(ARRP)feature.
LoweringthepowerleveltoreduceRFinterference
RelevantProduct(s):FortiAP
ReducingpowerreducesunwantedcoverageandpotentialinterferencetootherWLANs.Areasofunwanted
coverageareapotentialsecurityrisk.Ifpossible,reducethetransmitterpowerofyourwirelessaccesspointso
thatthesignalisnotavailablebeyondtheareaswhereitisneeded.AutoTxPowerControlcanbeenabledto
automaticallyadjustthetransmitpower.
IncaseswherecustomerscomplainaboutslowwirelesstrafficthroughaFortiAP,itmightbenecessarytotryto
reducethepossibilityofRFinterference.ItisbestpracticenottolocateFortiAPsnearsteelbeamsorother
interferingmaterials.Youcantryusingawirelesssniffertooltocollectthewirelesspacketsandthenanalyzethe
extentofairinterference.
AcommonmistakeisspacingFortiAPsbaseduponthe5Ghzradiofrequency.The2.4Ghzsignaltravelsfurther.
YouhavetwooptionswhenconfrontedwithslowwirelesstrafficthroughaFortiAP:
Option#1:Reducingtransmitpower
Performaspeedtestandrecordtheresults.SetoneoftheradiosonaFortiAPtobeindedicatedmonitoring
mode.ThenobservehowmanyAPsaredetected.IfthenumberofAPsistoohigh(i.e.,greaterthan20),try
reducingthetransmitpowerintheWTPprofilefortheFortiAPsuntilthenumberofdedicatedAPshasdropped
significantly.
Repeatthespeedtest.
Option#2:EnsuringthatVAPsaredistributedovertheavailablechannels
Nobuilt-intoolsareavailabletomeasureRFinterferencedirectly.However,FortiOS5.0doesallowforautomatic
poweradjustment,whichshouldminimizetheoccurrenceofRFinterference.
Wirelessclientloadbalancing
Wirelessloadbalancingallowsyourwirelessnetworktomoreefficientlydistributewirelesstrafficamongwireless
accesspointsandavailablefrequencybands.FortiGatewirelesscontrollerssupportthefollowingtypesofclient
loadbalancing:
36
BestPracticesforFortiOS5.2
Wireless
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AccessPointHand-off-Thewirelesscontrollersignalsaclienttoswitchtoanotheraccesspoint.
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FrequencyHand-off-Thewirelesscontrollermonitorstheusageof2.4GHzand5GHzbands,andsignalsclients
toswitchtothelesser-usedfrequency.
Localbridging
Wheneverpossible,uselocalbridgingtooffloadtheCAPWAPtunnel.Notethatinthiscase,Wi-Ficlientdevices
obtainIPaddressesfromthesameDHCPserveraswireddevicesontheLAN.ThevlanIDcanonlybeconfigured
fromtheCLI:
config wireless-controller vap
edit "vaplocalbridge"
set vdom "root"
set ssid "testvaplocalbrdige"
set local-bridging enable
set vlanid 40 ---> only available in CLI
next
end
AdvertisingSSIDs
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ItishighlyrecommendedtoadvertisetheSSID.Itmakesiteasierforcustomersandwirelessclients.Also,ifyou
'hide'theSSID(knownas‘networkcloaking’),thenclientswillalwayslookforitwhenthey'reoutsidethecoverage
area,whichsearchesforknownSSIDs,ineffectleakingtheSSIDanyway.RefertoRFC3370.Furthermore,many
ofthelatestBroadcomdriversdonotsupporthiddenSSIDforWPA2.
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Forsecurityreason,youmightwanttopreventdirectcommunicationbetweenyourwirelessclients.Inthiscase,
enableBlockIntra-SSIDTraffic(intheSSIDconfiguration).
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Inanetworkwithmultiplewirelesscontrollers,youneedtochangethemeshSSIDsothateachmeshroothasa
uniqueSSID.OthercontrollersusingthesamemeshrootSSIDmightbedetectedasfakeorrogueAPs.GotoWiFi
&SwitchController>WiFINetwork>SSIDtochangetheSSID.Fortinetalsorecommendsthatyoucreatea
newpresharedkeyinsteadofusingthedefault.
37
BestPracticesforFortiOS5.2
UsingstaticIPsinaCAPWAP configuration
UsingstaticIPsinaCAPWAP configuration
InalargeFortiAPdeploymentwithmorethan20FortiAPsconnectingtoaFortigateWirelessController(AC),itis
recommendedtousestaticIPsontheaccesspointsinsteadofDHCP,settingtheACIPstaticallyandtheAC
discoverytypetostatic(Type1),insteadoflearningitthroughbroadcast,multicast,orDHCP.
ThismakesmanagementoftheAPseasiersinceyouknowtheexactIPofeachaccesspoint.Troubleshooting
alsobecomeseasierasthedebugoftheACcontrollerwon’tcontinuouslyattemptthedifferentdiscovery
methodsinsequence(broadcast>multicast>static).
38
BestPracticesforFortiOS5.2
Loggingandreporting
Thedefaultlogdevicesettingsmustbemodifiedsothatsystemperformanceisnotcompromised.TheFortiGate
unit,bydefault,hasallloggingofFortiGatefeaturesenabled,exceptfortrafficlogging.Thedefaultlogging
locationwillbeeithertheFortiGateunit’ssystemmemoryorharddisk,dependingonthemodel.Unitswitha
flashdiskarenotrecommendedfordisklogging.
Logmanagement
WhentheFortiGateunitrecordsFortiGateactivity,valuableinformationiscollectedthatprovidesinsightinto
howtobetterprotectnetworktrafficagainstattacks,includingmisuseandabuse.Thereisalottoconsiderbefore
enablingloggingonaFortiGateunit,suchaswhatFortiGateactivitiestoenableandwhichlogdeviceisbest
suitedforyournetwork’sloggingneeds.AplancanhelpyouindecidingtheFortiGateactivitiestolog,alog
device,aswellasabackupsolutionintheeventthelogdevicefails.
Thisplanshouldprovideyouwithanoutline,similartothefollowing:
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WhatFortiGateactivitiesyouwantand/orneedlogged(forexample,securityfeatures).
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Theloggingdevicebestsuitedforyournetworkstructure.
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Ifyouwantorrequirearchivingoflogfiles.
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Ensuringlogsarenotlostintheeventafailureoccurs.
Aftertheplanisimplemented,youneedtomanagethelogsandbepreparedtoexpandonyourlogsetupwhen
thecurrentloggingrequirementsareoutgrown.Goodlogmanagementpracticeshelpyouwiththesetasks.
Logmanagementpracticeshelpyoutoimproveandmanageloggingrequirements.Loggingisanever-expanding
toolthatcanseemtobeadauntingtasktomanage.Thefollowingmanagementpracticeswillhelpyouwhen
issuesarise,oryourloggingsetupneedstobeexpanded.
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Revisityourplanonayearlybasistoverifythatyourloggingneedsarebeingmetbyyourcurrentlogsetup.For
example,yourcompanyororganizationmayrequirearchivallogging,butnotatthebeginningofyournetwork’s
lifespan.ArchivallogsarestoredonaFortiGateunit’slocalharddrive,aFortiAnalyzerunit,oraFortiCloudserver,
inincreasingorderofsize.
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Configureanalertmessagethatwillnotifyyouofactivitiesthatareimportanttobeawareabout.Forexample:ifa
branchofficedoesnothaveaFortiGateadministrator,youwillneedtoknowatalltimesthattheIPsecVPNtunnel
isstillupandrunning.AnalertemailnotificationmessagecanbeconfiguredtosendonlyifIPsectunnelerrors
occur.
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Ifyourorganizationorcompanyusespeer-to-peerprogramssuchasSkypeorotherinstantmessagingsoftware,
usetheIMusagedashboardwidgetortheExecutiveSummary’sreportwidget(Top10ApplicationBandwidth
UsagePerHourSummary)tohelpyoumonitortheusageofthesetypesofinstantmessagingsoftware.These
widgetscanhelpyouindetermininghowtheseapplicationsarebeingused,includingifthereisanymisuseand
abuse.Theirinformationistakenfromapplicationlogmessages;however,applicationlogmessagesshouldbe
viewedaswellsincetheycontainthemostdetailedinformation.
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Ensurethatyourbackupsolutionisup-to-date.Ifyouhaverecentlyexpandedyourlogsetup,youshouldalsoreview
yourbackupsolution.Thebackupsolutionprovidesawaytoensurethatalllogsarenotlostintheeventthatthelog
devicefailsorissuesarisewiththelogdeviceitself.
39
BestPracticesforFortiOS5.2
Loggingandreporting
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Whendownloadinglogmessagesandviewingthemonacomputer,thelogfilewillbedownloadedlikeanyother
file.Logfilenamescontaintheirlogtypeanddateinthename,soitisrecommendedtocreateafolderinwhichto
archiveyourlogmessages,astheycanbesortedeasily.
Systemmemoryandharddisks
IftheFortiGateunithasaharddisk,itisenabledbydefaulttostorelogs.Thisalsomeansthatyoudonothaveto
enablethisandconfigurethesettingsforloggingtotheharddisk,butmodifythesesettingssothatitis
configuredforyournetworkloggingrequirements.
IftheFortiGateunithasonlyflashmemory,diskloggingisdisabledbydefault,asitisnotrecommended.
Constantrewritestoflashdrivescanreducethelifetimeandefficiencyofthememory.Itmustbeenabledinthe
CLIunderconfiglogdisksetting.
Forsomelow-endmodels,diskloggingisunavailable.Checkaproduct’sFeatureMatrixformoreinformation.In
eithercase,FortinetrecommendsusingeitheraFortiAnalyzerunitortheFortiCloudservice.
40
BestPracticesforFortiOS5.2
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