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The Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven 
Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.  
201 
MRRT-Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test 
n.s.-not-significant 
NAEP- National Assessment of Educational Progress 
NALT-Northwest Achievement Levels Test 
N-Number 
P-Phonetic 
PALS-Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies 
PIAT-Peabody Individualized Achievement Test 
PPVT-Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 
PTR-Programmed Tutorial Reading 
R- Randomized Experiment 
RAILS-Reading and Integrated Literacy Strategies 
RI-Reading Intervention 
RQE- Randomized Quasi-Experiment 
RR-Reading Recovery 
RTI-Response to Intervention 
SAT- Stanford Achievement Test 
SD- Standard Deviation 
SDRT- Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test 
SFA-Success for All 
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The Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven 
Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.  
202 
SG-Small Group 
SHIP- Schools and Homes in Partnership 
SMART-Start Making a Reader Today 
S-Small 
TDI-Teacher-Directed Instruction 
TERA-Test of Early Reading Ability 
TOWRE- Test of Word Reading Efficiency 
TPRI-Texas Primary Reading Inventory 
TPRI-Texas Primary Reading Inventory 
WISC- Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children  
WJ- Woodcock-Johnson 
WRAPS-Word Reading and Phonics Skills 
WRAT-Wide Range Achievement Test 
WWC-What Works Clearinghouse 
W-White 
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The Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven 
Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.  
203 
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The Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven 
Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.  
204 
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The Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the 
Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.  
205 
Study
Design 
Large/Small
Duration
N
Grade
Sample Characteristics
Posttest
Effect Sizes by 
Subgroup/
Measure
Overall 
Effect Size
Reading Recovery
Pinnell et al. (1994)
Randomized (L)
1 year
33 schools        
193 students 
(31E, 162C)    
1
Urban, suburban, and rural 
schools in Ohio; 
74%W, 26% AA, 65% FL 
Gates MacGinitie
+0.19 
CTBS
Comprehension
+0.55
Vocabulary
+0.48
Curry, Griffith, & Williams 
(1995)
Matched (L)
1 year
553 students
(268E, 285C)
1
High-poverty students in 
Austin, TX. 
47%AA, 47%H, 6%W
ITBS
-0.16
BAS Word Reading
+0.87
WRAPS
+0.65
BAS Word Reading
+0.84
Neale Prose Reading
+0.85
Neale Analysis of Reading Ability
+1.15
Passage Reading
+1.00
Cloze Test of Syntactic Awareness
+0.46
Word Attack Skills Test
+0.82
Escamilla (1994)
Matched (S)
1 year
6 schools
46 students
(23E, 23C)
1
Spanish-dominant students 
in Southern Arizona
Aprenda
+0.30
CAT
Comprehension
+0.03
Vocabulary
-0.15
Woodcock Johnson
Word ID
+0.65
Word Attack
+1.02
Passage Comprehension
+0.39
Word Efficiency
+1.28
Non-Word Efficiency
+1.17
+0.52
+0.85
-0.09
Table 1
One-to-One Tutoring by Teachers
Torgesen, Wagner, & Rashotte 
(1997)
2 1/2 years
Center, Wheldall, Freeman, 
Outhred, & McNaughton (1995)
+0.86
Urban schools in New 
South Wales
Year 1
15 schools         
(10E, 5C)        
56 students 
(22E, 34C)
Randomized (S)
Other One-to-One Tutoring by Teachers
Auditory Discrimination in Depth
50%W, 49%AA
K-2
Huggins (1999)
+0.90
65 students
(33E, 32C) 
Ages 6-7
198 students
(89E, 109C)
1 year
Matched (S)
High-poverty students in 
Detroit, MI
1
30 schools
122 students
(70E, 52C)
1 year
Matched (S)
Low-achieving students in 
Columbus, Ohio
1
12 schools
187 students
(126E, 26C)
1 year
Randomized (S)
1 year
Matched (S)
Primary schools in 
England 
42% FL, 16% ELLs
Pinnell, DeFord, & Lyons (1988)
Burroughs-Lange (2008)
Hurry & Sylva (2007)
+0.76
Low-achieving students in 
London, England with 
high proportions of ELLs 
and children receiving FL
Ages 5-7
42 schools
(21E, 21C)
234 students
(87E,147C)
1 year
Matched (S)
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The Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the 
Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.  
206 
Woodcock Johnson adaptations
Word Attack
+0.92
Passage Comprehension
+0.80
Woodcock Johnson
Word Attack 
+1.00
Passage Comprehension
+1.31
Word recognition
+0.81
Passage reading
+1.00
Woodcock Johnson
Word ID
+0.70
Word Attack
+1.28
Passage Comprehension
+1.14
Reading Rescue
Ehri et al. (2007)
(Teacher tutors only)
Matched (S)
6 months
102 students
(32E, 70C)
1
Spanish-dominant students 
in a large city  95%FL
Gates MacGinitie
+1.08
BAS Word Reading
+0.40
Neale Analysis of Reading Ability
Accuracy
+0.62
Comprehension
+0.94
Woodcock 
Word ID
+0.99
Word Attack
+0.96
GORT Oral Reading Quotient
+0.75
Word Reading
+0.77
Word Reading Efficiency
+0.80
Woodcock Johnson
Letter-Word ID
+0.24
Word Attack
+0.25
Blachman, Schatschneider, 
Fletcher, Francis, Clonan, 
Shaywitz, & Shaywitz (2004)
+0.65
Brown, Morris, & Fields (2005)
(Teacher tutors only)
Urban schools in the 
intermountain west    46% 
FL, 42% minority, 25% 
ELLs
+1.03
1 year
Schools in rural Northern 
England
Intensive Reading Remediation
+0.85
School in 4 districts in 
upstate NY
2, 3
69 students
(37E, 32C)
1 year
Randomized (S)
7 schools
59 students
(17E, 42C)
Matched (S)
Ages 6-7
63 students:
(32 E, 31C)
7 months
Matched (S)
Hatcher, Hulme, & Ellis (1994)
1
11 schools
(6E, 5C)
86 students
(43E, 43C)
2-6
1
4 schools
(2E, 2C)
49 students
(23E, 26C)
Santa & Hǿien (1999)
Matched (S)
Morris, Tyner, & Perney (2000)
Reading with Phonology
+1.04
Lower middle class 
schools in Montana
1 year
Matched (S)
+0.86
High-poverty AA schools 
in Tennessee
1 year
Early Steps/ Howard Street Tutoring
Targeted Reading Intervention
Vernon-Feagans, Amendum, 
Kainz, Ginsberg, & Bock (2009), 
Study 1
+0.25
Randomized quasi-
experimental (S)
1 year
6 schools
125 students
(59E, 66C)
K, 1
Rural impoverished 
counties in the southeast; 
80%FL, 49% AA, 33%W, 
10% AI
The Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the 
Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.  
207 
Woodcock Johnson
Word Attack
+0.27
Letter-Word ID
+0.24
Passage Comprehension
+0.50
SDRT-Comprehension
+0.10
SDRT-Phonetic Analysis
+0.09
Woodcock Word Attack
+0.30
K-ABC Reading/Decoding
+0.29
Arnold et al. (1977)
Matched (S)
7 months
3 schools
63 students
(23E, 40C)
1
2 inner city and 1 middle 
class school
WRAT-Reading
+0.34
Mantzicopoulos et al. (1992)
Note: L=large study with at least 250 students; S=small study with less than 250 students; E=Experimental; C=Control; FL=Free/reduced-price lunch; W=White; AA=African American; H=Hispanic; 
AI=American Indian; ELL=English language learner; RR=Reading Recov
+0.19
Middle-class children in 
suburban San Francisco in 
lowest third of their class
1-2
116 students
(59E, 57C)
2 years
Randomized (S)
TEACH
Vernon-Feagans, Amendum, 
Kainz, Ginsberg, & Bock (2009), 
Study 2
Randomized quasi-
experimental (S)
1 year
4 schools
43 classrooms
(26E, 17C)
151 students
(97E, 54C)
K, 1
Rural Texas and New 
Mexico; 37%W, 26% AA, 
35% Other
+0.34
Note: L=large study with at least 250 students; S=small study with less than 250 students; E=Experimental; C=Control; FL=Free/reduced-price lunch; W=White; AA=African American; H=Hispanic; 
AI=American Indian; ELL=English language learner; RR=Reading Recovery; CTBS=Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills; ITBS=Iowa Test of Basic Skills; CAT=California Achievement Test; 
ADD=Auditory Discrimination in Depth; BAS=British Ability Scales; WRAPS=Word Reading and Phonics Scale; GORT=Gray Oral Reading Test; SDRT=Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test; K-
ABC=Kaufmann Assessment Battery for Children; WRAT=Wide Range Achievement Test. 
The Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the 
Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.  
208 
Study
Design 
Large/Small
Duration
N
Grade
Sample Characteristics
Posttest
Effect Sizes by 
Subgroup/
Measure
Overall 
Effect Size
Sound Partners
Woodcock Johnson
Word ID
+0.50
Word Attack
+0.77
Passage Comprehension
+0.81
TOWRE
Phonemic Decoding
+0.38
Sight Word Reading
+0.52
Bryant
+1.13
WRAT-Reading
+0.74
Woodcock Johnson
Basic Skills
+0.26
Comprehension
+0.22
DIBELS
Nonsense Word Fluency
+0.54
Oral Reading Fluency
+0.35
Woodcock Word Attack and 
Word ID composite
+0.49
DIBELS-Fluency
+0.55
Woodcock Johnson
Word ID
+0.86
Word Attack
+1.06
Passage Comprehension
+0.66
TOWRE
Phonemic Decoding
+0.55
Sight Words
+0.56
Reading Rate
+0.33
Reading Accuracy
+0.66
WRAT 
+1.02
Compton (1992)
Randomized (L)
1 semester
483 students
(266E, 217C)
1
Kalamazoo, MI
53% minority
ITBS
+0.22
Woodcock Johnson
Word ID
+0.62
Passage Comprehension
+0.36
Word Comprehension
+0.46
Oral Reading Fluency
+0.54
Vadasy, Sanders, & Peyton (2005)
+0.71
Urban schools in the 
northwest
1
57 students
(38E, 19C)
1 year
Matched (S)
Table 2
Tutoring by Paraprofessionals and Volunteers
Tutoring by Paraprofessionals
Mooney (2003)
The Reading Connection
Start Making a Reader Today (SMART)
+0.50
Oregon
1-2
6 schools
24 classrooms
84 students
(43E, 41C)
2 years
Randomized (S)
Baker, Gersten, & Keating (2000)
11 schools
99 students
(79E, 20 C)
1 year
Randomized (S)
Jenkins, Peyton, Sanders, & 
Vadasy (2004)
+0.34
Students at risk for 
emotional and behavioral 
disorders in midwestern                  
city ; 55% FL, 68%W, 
21%AA, 9%H
1
7 schools
47 students
(28E, 19C)
1 year
Randomized (S)
+0.69
Urban schools in the 
northwest
1
Vadasy, Sanders, & Tudor (2007)
+0.52
Urban schools in the 
northwest
2-3
43 students
(23E, 20C)
15 weeks
Randomized (S)
The Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the 
Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.  
209 
Woodcock Johnson
Passage Comprehension
+0.51
Letter-Word ID
+0.14
Word Attack
+0.03
CTBS Total Reading
Same-school controls
+0.66
Different-school controls
+0.77
McGrady (1984)
Matched (S)
1 year
6 schools
69 students
(35E, 34C)
4
Rural/suburban middle 
class schools in Indiana. 
Students below 37th 
percentile
ITBS Comprehension
+0.20
Ehri et al. (2007)
(Paraprofessional tutors)
Matched (S)
6 months
96 students
(26E, 70C)
1
Spanish-dominant students 
in a large city;
95% FL
Gates MacGinitie
+0.89
Woodcock Johnson
Word Attack
+0.07
Passage Comprehension
+0.95
Word Recognition
+0.60
Passage Reading
+0.58
Experience Corps
Woodcock Johnson
Word Attack
+0.10
Passage Comprehension
+0.13
Book Buddies
WRAT-Reading
+1.00
Words read correctly per minute
+0.78
HOSTS
Ramey (1991) 
Matched (S)
1 year
238 students
(18E, 220C)
2-5
Low-achieving students in 
Seattle
CAT-Reading
+0.05
1
63 students
(21E, 42C)
1 year
Matched (S)
Brown et al. (2005)
(Paraprofessional tutors)
Reading Rescue
Howard Street Tutoring
+0.55
Mayfield (2000)
Edmark Reading Program
+0.23
Low-achieving non-special-
ed students in rural 
Louisiana
1
3 schools
60 students
(31E, 29C)
1 semester
Randomized (S)
Programmed Tutorial Reading
+0.89
South Bronx, NY
Students in lowest 25% of 
grade at end of K;
99% FL, 69%H, 30%AA
1
55 students
(28E, 27C)
4 months
Meier & Invernizzi (2001)
Randomized (S)
Tutoring by Volunteers
Urban schools in the 
intermountain west. 
46% FL; 42% minority, 
25% ELLs
Schools in Boston, New 
York, Port Arthur, Texas 
94%FL, 58%AA, 36%H, 
24%ELL
+0.11
Morrow-Howell, et al. (2009)
Randomized (L)
1 year
881 students 
(430E, 451C)
1-3
Wallach and Wallach
+0.71
Rural Roanoke Rapids, NC
1
58 students
(20E, 38C)
1 year
Matched (S)
Dorval, Wallach, & Wallach, 
(1978)
The Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the 
Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.  
210 
Other Volunteer Tutoring
Ritter (2000)
Randomized (L)
1 year
11 schools
385 students
(196E, 189C)
2-5
Philadelphia, PA.
87% FL, 96%AA
SAT-9
-0.10
Woodcock Johnson
Letter ID
+0.23
Word Attack
+0.80
Clay Observational Survey
Reading Level
+0.35
Word Knowledge
+0.18
Woodcock Johnson
Word ID
+0.59
Word Attack
+0.93
Passage Comprehension
+0.49
TOWRE Real Words
+0.41
TOWRE Non Words
+1.44
Cohort 2
Woodcock Johnson
Word ID
+0.11
Word Attack
+0.80
Passage Comprehension
-0.16
TOWRE Real Words
+0.14
TOWRE Non Words
+0.61
DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency
+0.31
Note: L=large study with at least 250 students; S=small study with less than 250 students; E=Experimental; C=Control; FL=Free/reduced-price lunch; W=White; AA=African American; H=Hispanic; 
ELL=English language learner; TOWRE=Test of Word Reading Efficienc
Cohort 1           
Matched     
Cohort 2    
Randomized
Allor & McCathren (2004)
Rimm-Kaufman, Kagan, & Byers 
(1999)
+0.52
+0.54
Cohort 1:
100%FL, 100%AA
Cohort 2:
94%FL, 96% AA
1
Cohort 1
8 schools
86 students
(61E, 25C)
Cohort 2
10 schools
157 students
(76E, 81C)
6 months
North-central Florida 
53%W, 38%W, 58%FL
1
10 schools
47 students
(23E, 24C)
3 months
Randomized (S)
Pullen et al. (2004)
+0.27
Cambridge, MA
29%AA, 26% Haitian 
Creole, 26% W, 60% FL
1
42 students
(21E, 21C)
1 year
Randomized (S)
Cohort 1
Note: L=large study with at least 250 students; S=small study with less than 250 students; E=Experimental; C=Control; FL=Free/reduced-price lunch; W=White; AA=African American; H=Hispanic; 
ELL=English language learner; TOWRE=Test of Word Reading Efficiency; WRAT=Wide Range Achievement Test; DIBELS=Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills; ITBS=Iowa Test of 
Basic Skills; CAT=California Achievement Test. 
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