pdf viewer library c# : How to copy pictures from pdf to word application SDK utility azure winforms html visual studio text18-part1771

STATISTICAL APPENDIX
International Monetary Fund | October 2015 
161
Table G. Key Data Documentation (continued)
Country
Currency
National Accounts
Prices (CPI)
Historical Data  
Source1
Latest Actual 
Annual Data
Base Year2
System of 
National 
Accounts
Use of Chain-
Weighted 
Methodology3
Historical Data 
Source1
Latest 
Actual 
Annual 
Data
St. Vincent and the 
Grenadines
Eastern Caribbean 
dollar
NSO
2014
20066
SNA 1993
NSO
2014
Sudan
Sudanese pound
NSO
2013
2007
Other
NSO
2013
Suriname
Surinamese dollar
NSO
2011
2007
SNA 1993
NSO
2014
Swaziland
Swaziland 
lilangeni
NSO
2010
2000
SNA 1993
NSO
2014
Sweden
Swedish krona
NSO
2014
2014
ESA 2010
From 1993
NSO
2014
Switzerland
Swiss franc
NSO
2014
2010
ESA 2010
From 1980
NSO
2014
Syria
Syrian pound
NSO
2010
2000
SNA 1993
NSO
2011
Taiwan Province of 
China
New Taiwan dollar
NSO
2014
2011
SNA 2008
NSO
2014
Tajikistan
Tajik somoni
NSO
2014
1995
SNA 1993
NSO
2014
Tanzania
Tanzania shilling
NSO
2012
2007
SNA 1993
NSO
2013
Thailand
Thai baht
NESDB
2014
2002
SNA 1993
From 1993
MoC
2014
Timor-Leste
U.S. dollar
MoF
2013
20106
Other
NSO
2014
Togo
CFA franc
MoF and NSO
2014
2000
SNA 1993
NSO
2014
Tonga
Tongan pa’anga
CB
2012
2010
SNA 1993
CB
2013
Trinidad and 
Tobago
Trinidad and 
Tobago dollar
NSO
2012
2000
SNA 1993
NSO
2013
Tunisia
Tunisian dinar
NSO
2014
2004
SNA 1993
From 2009
NSO
2014
Turkey
Turkish lira
NSO
2014
1998
ESA 1995
NSO
2014
Turkmenistan
New Turkmen 
manat
NSO
2014
2005
SNA 1993
From 2000
NSO
2014
Tuvalu
Australian dollar
PFTAC advisors
2012
2005
Other
NSO
2013
Uganda
Uganda shilling
NSO
2013
2010
SNA 1993
CB
2013/14
Ukraine
Ukrainian hryvnia
NSO
2014
2010
SNA 2008
From 2005
NSO
2014
United Arab 
Emirates
U.A.E. dirham
NSO
2014
2007
SNA 1993
NSO
2014
United Kingdom
Pound sterling
NSO
2014
2011
ESA 2010
From 1980
NSO
2014
United States
U.S. dollar
NSO
2014
2009
Other
From 1980
NSO
2014
Uruguay 
Uruguayan peso
CB
2014
2005
SNA 1993
NSO
2014
Uzbekistan
Uzbek sum
NSO
2014
1995
SNA 1993
NSO
2012
Vanuatu
Vanuatu vatu
NSO
2013
2006
SNA 1993
NSO
2014
Venezuela
Venezuelan 
bolívar fuerte
CB
2013
1997
SNA 2008
CB
2013
Vietnam
Vietnamese dong
NSO
2014
2010
SNA 1993
NSO
2014
Yemen
Yemeni rial
IMF staff
2008
1990
SNA 1993
NSO and CB
2009
Zambia
Zambian kwacha
NSO
2013
2010
SNA 1993
NSO
2014
Zimbabwe
U.S. dollar
NSO
2013
2009
Other
NSO
2014
How to copy pictures from pdf to word - copy, paste, cut PDF images in C#.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
Detailed tutorial for copying, pasting, and cutting image in PDF page using C# class code
copy image from pdf to ppt; how to copy pdf image to word document
How to copy pictures from pdf to word - VB.NET PDF copy, paste image library: copy, paste, cut PDF images in vb.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
VB.NET Tutorial for How to Cut or Copy an Image from One Page and Paste to Another
how to copy a picture from a pdf file; pdf cut and paste image
Table G. Key Data Documentation (continued)
Country
Government Finance
Balance of Payments
Historical Data  
Source1
Latest Actual 
Annual Data
Statistics 
Manual 
in Use at 
Source
Subsectors 
Coverage4
Accounting 
Practice5
Historical Data  
Source1
Latest 
Actual 
Annual Data
Statistics 
Manual 
in Use at 
Source
St. Vincent and the 
Grenadines
MoF
2014
1986
CG
C
CB
2014
BPM 5
Sudan
MoF
2013
2001
CG
A
CB
2013
BPM 5
Suriname
MoF
2014
1986
CG
C
CB
2014
BPM 5
Swaziland 
MoF
2012/13
2001
CG
A
CB
2013
BPM 6
Sweden
MoF
2012
2001
CG,LG,SS
A
NSO
2014
BPM 6
Switzerland
MoF
2012
2001
CG,SG,LG,SS
A
CB
2013
BPM 6
Syria
MoF
2009
1986
CG
C
CB
2009
BPM 5
Taiwan Province of 
China
MoF
2014
1986
CG,LG,SS
C
CB
2014
BPM 6
Tajikistan
MoF
2014
1986
CG,LG,SS
C
CB
2014
BPM 5
Tanzania
MoF
2013
2001
CG,LG
C
CB
2011
BPM 5
Thailand
MoF
2013/14
2001
CG,BCG,LG,SS
A
CB
2014
BPM 6
Timor-Leste
MoF
2013
2001
CG
C
CB
2014
BPM 5
Togo
MoF
2014
2001
CG
C
CB
2013
BPM 5
Tonga
CB and MoF
2012
2001
CG
C
CB and NSO
2014
BPM 6
Trinidad and 
Tobago
MoF
2012/13
1986
CG,NFPC
C
CB and NSO
2012
BPM 5
Tunisia
MoF
2014
1986
CG
C
CB
2014
BPM 5
Turkey 
MoF
2014
2001
CG,LG,SS
A
CB
2014
BPM 6
Turkmenistan 
MoF
2014
1986
CG,LG
C
NSO and IMF staff
2013
BPM 5
Tuvalu
IMF staff
2013
Other
CG
C/A
IMF staff
2013
BPM 6
Uganda
MoF
2013
2001
CG
C
CB
2013
BPM 6
Ukraine 
MoF
2014
2001
CG,SG,LG,SS
C
CB
2014
BPM 5
United Arab 
Emirates
MoF
2014
2001
CG,BCG,SG,SS
C
CB
2014
BPM 5
United Kingdom 
NSO
2014
2001
CG,LG
A
NSO
2014
BPM 6
United States
BEA
2014
2001
CG,SG,LG
A
NSO
2014
BPM 6
Uruguay
MoF
2014
1986
CG,LG,SS,MPC, 
NFPC
A
CB
2014
BPM 6
Uzbekistan
MoF
2014
Other
CG,SG,LG,SS
C
MEP
2014
BPM 5
Vanuatu
MoF
2014
2001
CG
C
CB
2013
BPM 5
Venezuela 
MoF
2010
2001
CG,LG,SS,NFPC
C
CB
2012
BPM 5
Vietnam
MoF
2014
2001
CG,SG,LG
C
CB
2014
BPM 5
Yemen
MoF
2013
2001
CG,LG
C
IMF staff
2009
BPM 5
Zambia
MoF
2014
1986
CG
C
CB
2014
BPM 6
Zimbabwe
MoF
2014
1986
CG
C
CB and MoF
2013
BPM 4
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual (number in parentheses following abbreviation signifies edition); CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; 
SNA = System of National Accounts.
1BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; FEO = Foreign Exchange Office; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning;  
MIAC = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NESDB =  National Economic and Social Development Board; NSO 
= National Statistics Office; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre; PMO = Prime Minister’s Office; 
SAFE = State Administration of Foreign Exchange.
2National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate 
the index. 
3Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers 
that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.
4For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central 
Government; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NMPC  = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public 
Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.
5Accounting Standard: A = Accrual; C = Cash.
6Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP.
VB.NET PDF Convert to Word SDK: Convert PDF to Word library in vb.
application. In addition, texts, pictures and font formatting of source PDF file are accurately retained in converted Word document file.
how to paste picture on pdf; how to copy picture from pdf
VB Imaging - VB Code 93 Generator Tutorial
pictures on PDF documents, multi-page TIFF, Microsoft Office Word, Excel and PowerPoint. Please create a Windows application or ASP.NET web form and copy the
paste image into pdf reader; how to paste a picture into pdf
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
International Monetary Fund | October 2015 
163
Fiscal Policy Assumptions
周e short-term fiscal policy assumptions used in the 
World Economic Outlook (WEO) are based on officially 
announced budgets, adjusted for differences between 
the national authorities and the IMF staff regarding 
macroeconomic assumptions and projected fiscal out-
turns. 周e medium-term fiscal projections incorporate 
policy measures that are judged likely to be imple-
mented. For cases in which the IMF staff has insuf-
ficient information to assess the authorities’ budget 
intentions and prospects for policy implementation, 
an unchanged structural primary balance is assumed 
unless indicated otherwise. Specific assumptions used 
in regard to some of the advanced economies follow. 
(See also TablesB5 to B9 in the online section of the 
Statistical Appendix for data on fiscal net lending/bor-
rowing and structural balances.)1
Argentina: Fiscal projections are based on the avail-
able information regarding budget outturn for the 
federal government and budget plans for provinces 
and on IMF staff macroeconomic projections.
Australia: Fiscal projections are based on Australian 
Bureau of Statistics data, the 2015–16 budget documents, 
and IMF staff estimates. 
Austria: For 2014, the creation of a defeasance 
structure for Hypo Alpe Adria is assumed to increase 
the general-government-debt-to-GDP ratio by 4.3 
percentage points, and the deficit effect arising from 
Hypo is assumed to be 1.4 percentage points.
Belgium: Projections reflect the authorities’ 2015 
budget (updated for new developments) and the 
2015–18 Stability Programme objectives, adjusted 
1 周e output gap is actual minus potential output, as a 
percentage of potential output. Structural balances are expressed 
as a percentage of potential output. 周e structural balance is the 
actual net lending/borrowing minus the effects of cyclical output 
from potential output, corrected for one-time and other factors, 
such as asset and commodity prices and output composition 
effects. Changes in the structural balance consequently include 
effects of temporary fiscal measures, the impact of fluctuations 
in interest rates and debt-service costs, and other noncyclical 
fluctuations in net lending/borrowing. 周e computations of 
structural balances are based on IMF staff estimates of potential 
GDP and revenue and expenditure elasticities. (See Annex I of 
the October1993 WEO.) Net debt is calculated as gross debt 
minus financial assets corresponding to debt instruments. Esti-
mates of the output gap and of the structural balance are subject 
to significant margins of uncertainty.
for differences in the IMF staff’s macroeconomic 
framework.
Brazil: For 2014, outturn estimates are based on the 
information available as of February 2015. Projec-
tions for 2015 take into account budget performance 
until April 2015, adjustment measures approved by 
the Congress and the Senate through May 2015, and 
the budget freeze (contingeciamento) announced by the 
government at the end of May 2015. In outer years, 
projections are consistent with the announced primary 
surplus objectives.
Canada: Projections use the baseline forecasts in the 
Economic Action Plan 2015 and 2015 provincial bud-
gets as available. 周e IMF staff makes adjustments to 
this forecast for differences in macroeconomic projec-
tions. 周e IMF staff forecast also incorporates the most 
recent data releases from Statistics Canada’s Canadian 
System of National Economic Accounts, including 
federal, provincial, and territorial budgetary outturns 
through the end of the second quarter of 2015.
Chile: Projections are based on the authorities’ 
budget projections, adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s 
projections for GDP and copper prices.
China: 周e pace of fiscal consolidation is likely to 
be more gradual, reflecting reforms to strengthen social 
safety nets and the social security system announced as 
part of the 周ird Plenum reform agenda.
Denmark: Projections for 2014–15 are aligned with 
the latest official budget estimates and the underly-
ing economic projections, adjusted where appropriate 
for the IMF staff’s macroeconomic assumptions. For 
2016–20, the projections incorporate key features 
of the medium-term fiscal plan as embodied in the 
authorities’ 2014 Convergence Programme submitted 
to the European Union (EU).
France: Projections for 2015 reflect the budget law. 
For 2016–17, they are based on the multiyear budget 
and the April 2015 Stability Programme, adjusted for 
differences in assumptions on macro and financial 
variables, and revenue projections. Historical fiscal data 
reflect the statistical institute’s May 2015 revision and 
update of the fiscal accounts and national accounts. 
Germany: 周e IMF staff’s projections for 2015 and 
beyond reflect the authorities’ adopted core federal 
government budget plan and the German Stability 
Programme: 2015 Update, adjusted for the differences 
in the IMF staff’s macroeconomic framework. 周e 
estimate of gross debt includes portfolios of impaired 
Box A1. Economic Policy Assumptions Underlying the Projections for Selected Economies
C# Imaging - C# Code 93 Generator Tutorial
pictures on PDF documents, multi-page TIFF, Microsoft Office Word, Excel and PowerPoint. Please create a Windows application or ASP.NET web form and copy the
how to copy picture from pdf and paste in word; copying image from pdf to powerpoint
C#: Use OCR SDK Library to Get Image and Document Text
color image recognition for scanned documents and pictures in C#. text content from whole PDF file, single PDF page and You can directly copy demos to your .NET
copy images from pdf to powerpoint; how to copy picture from pdf to word
WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: ADJUSTING TO LOWER COMMODITY PRICES
164 
International Monetary Fund | October 2015
assets and noncore business transferred to institutions 
that are winding up, as well as other financial sector 
and EU support operations.
Greece: 周e fiscal projections for 2015 and the 
medium term are IMF staff estimates based on the 
fiscal package included in the European Stability 
Mechanism program agreed between Greece and its 
European partners and on information available as of 
August 12, 2015.
Hong Kong SAR: Projections are based on the author-
ities’ medium-term fiscal projections on expenditures.
Hungary: Fiscal projections include IMF staff pro-
jections of the macroeconomic framework and of the 
impact of recent legislative measures, as well as fiscal 
policy plans announced in the 2015 budget.
India: Historical data are based on budgetary execu-
tion data. Projections are based on available informa-
tion on the authorities’ fiscal plans, with adjustments 
for IMF staff assumptions. Subnational data are 
incorporated with a lag of up to two years; general 
government data are thus finalized well after central 
government data. IMF and Indian presentations differ, 
particularly regarding divestment and license auction 
proceeds, net versus gross recording of revenues in cer-
tain minor categories, and some public sector lending.
Indonesia: IMF projections are based on moderate 
tax policy and administration reforms, fuel subsidy 
pricing reforms introduced in January 2015, and a 
gradual increase in social and capital spending over the 
medium term in line with fiscal space.
Ireland: Fiscal projections are based on the 2015 
budget, adjusted for differences between the IMF 
staff’s macroeconomic projections and those of the 
Irish authorities.
Italy: IMF staff estimates and projections are based 
on the fiscal plans included in the government’s 2015 
Budget, April 2015 Economic and Financial Docu-
ment, and subsequently approved measures. Estimates 
of the cyclically adjusted balance include the expen-
ditures to clear capital arrears in 2013, which are 
excluded from the structural balance. After 2015, the 
IMF staff projects convergence to a structural balance 
in line with Italy’s fiscal rule, which implies corrective 
measures in some years, as yet unidentified. 
Japan: 周e projections include fiscal measures 
already announced by the government, including 
consumption tax increases, earthquake reconstruction 
spending, and the stimulus package. 
Korea: 周e medium-term forecast incorporates the 
government’s announced medium-term consolidation 
path.
Mexico: Fiscal projections for 2015 are broadly in 
line with the approved budget; projections for 2016 
onward assume compliance with rules established in 
the Fiscal Responsibility Law.
Netherlands: Fiscal projections for the period 
2015–20 are based on the authorities’ Bureau for Eco-
nomic Policy Analysis budget projections, after differ-
ences in macroeconomic assumptions are adjusted for. 
Historical data were revised following the June 2014 
Central Bureau of Statistics release of revised macro 
data because of the adoption of the European System 
of National and Regional Accounts (ESA 2010) and 
the revisions of data sources.
New Zealand: Fiscal projections are based on the 
authorities’ 2015–16 budget documents and on IMF 
staff estimates. 
Portugal: For 2014, the general government fiscal 
balance does not include a one-off transaction arising 
from banking support, pending a decision on statistical 
classification by the Instituto Nacional de Estatística 
(INE)/Eurostat. 周e projection for 2015 reflects the 
authorities’ 2015 budget and first-half outturn; projec-
tions thereafter are based on IMF staff’s macroeconomic 
forecast, under the assumption of unchanged policies.
Russia: Projections for 2015–20 are based on the 
oil-price-based fiscal rule introduced in December 
2012, with adjustments by the IMF staff.
Saudi Arabia: IMF staff projections of oil rev-
enues are based on WEO baseline oil prices. On 
the expenditure side, wage bill estimates incorporate 
13th-month pay awards every three years in accor-
dance with the lunar calendar; projections assume 
that, to adjust to lower oil prices, capital spending 
falls as a percentage of GDP over the medium term as 
large-scale projects currently being implemented are 
completed and that spending in the January and April 
2015 fiscal packages is not repeated.
Singapore: For fiscal years 2014/15 and 2015/16, 
projections are based on budget numbers. For the 
remainder of the projection period, the IMF staff 
assumes unchanged policies.
South Africa: Fiscal projections are based on the 
authorities’ 2015 Budget Review.
Spain: For 2015 and beyond, fiscal projections 
are based on the measures specified in the Stabil-
Box A1 (continued)
VB.NET Image: VB.NET Codes to Load Images from File / Stream in .
Now you can freely copy the VB.NET sample this VB.NET imaging library with pictures of your provide powerful & profession imaging controls, PDF document, image
copy image from pdf acrobat; paste image into pdf
VB.NET Image: VB.NET Code to Create Watermark on Images in .NET
and whether to burn it to the pictures to make Please feel free to copy them to your program provide powerful & profession imaging controls, PDF document, tiff
how to cut an image out of a pdf; paste image in pdf preview
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
International Monetary Fund | October 2015 
165
ity Programme Update 2014–17, the 2015 budget 
plan issued in October 2014, and the 2015 budget 
approved in December 2014.
Sweden: Fiscal projections take into account the 
authorities’ projections based on the Spring Fiscal 
Policy Bill 2015. 周e impact of cyclical developments 
on the fiscal accounts is calculated using the Organisa-
tion for Economic Co-operation and Development’s 
2005 elasticity to take into account output and 
employment gaps.
Switzerland: 周e projections assume that fiscal 
policy is adjusted as necessary to keep fiscal balances 
in line with the requirements of Switzerland’s fiscal 
rules.
Turkey: Fiscal projections assume that both current 
and capital spending will be in line with the authori-
ties’ 2014–16 Medium Term Programme based on 
current trends and policies.
United Kingdom: Fiscal projections are based on the 
U.K. Treasury’s 2015 Summer Budget, published in 
July 2015. However, on the revenue side, the authori-
ties’ projections are adjusted for differences between 
IMF staff forecasts of macroeconomic variables (such 
as GDP growth) and the forecasts of these variables 
assumed in the authorities’ fiscal projections. IMF 
staff data exclude public sector banks and the effect of 
transferring assets from the Royal Mail Pension Plan 
to the public sector in April 2012. Real government 
consumption and investment are part of the real GDP 
path, which, according to the IMF staff, may or may 
not be the same as projected by the U.K. Office for 
Budget Responsibility. 
United States: Fiscal projections are based on the 
August 2015 Congressional Budget Office baseline 
adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeco-
nomic assumptions. 周e baseline incorporates the 
key provisions of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, 
including a partial rollback of the sequester spending 
cuts in fiscal years 2014 and 2015. 周e rollback is 
fully offset by savings elsewhere in the budget. In fis-
cal years 2016 through 2021, the IMF staff assumes 
that the sequester cuts will continue to be partially 
replaced, in proportions similar to those agreed 
upon under the Bipartisan Budget Act for fiscal years 
2014 and 2015, with back-loaded measures generat-
ing savings in mandatory programs and additional 
revenues. Fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect 
the IMF staff’s forecasts for key macroeconomic and 
financial variables and different accounting treatment 
of financial sector support and of defined-benefit 
pension plans and are converted to a general govern-
ment basis. Historical data start at 2001 for most 
series because data compiled according to the 2001 
Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM 2001) 
may not be available for earlier years.
Monetary Policy Assumptions
Monetary policy assumptions are based on the estab-
lished policy framework in each country. In most 
cases, this implies a nonaccommodative stance over 
the business cycle: official interest rates will increase 
when economic indicators suggest that inflation 
will rise above its acceptable rate or range; they will 
decrease when indicators suggest that inflation will 
not exceed the acceptable rate or range, that output 
growth is below its potential rate, and that the mar-
gin of slack in the economy is significant. On this 
basis, the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) 
on six-month U.S.-dollar deposits is assumed to 
average 0.4 percent in2015 and 1.2 percent in2016 
(see Table 1.1). 周e rate on three-month euro depos-
its is assumed to average 0.0percent in2015 and 
2016. 周e interest rate on six-month Japanese yen 
deposits is assumed to average 0.1 percent in 2015 
and 2016.
Australia: Monetary policy assumptions are in line 
with market expectations.
Brazil: Monetary policy assumptions are consistent 
with gradual convergence of inflation toward the 
middle of the target range over the relevant horizon.
Canada: Monetary policy assumptions are in line 
with market expectations.
China: Monetary policy will remain broadly 
unchanged from its current status, consistent with 
the authorities’ announcement of maintaining stable 
economic growth.
Denmark: 周e monetary policy is to maintain the 
peg to the euro.
Euro area: Monetary policy assumptions for euro 
area member countries are in line with market 
expectations.
Hong Kong SAR: 周e IMF staff assumes that the 
currency board system remains intact.
India: 周e policy (interest) rate assumption is con-
sistent with an inflation rate within the Reserve Bank 
of India’s targeted band.
Box A1 (continued)
C# Imaging - C# MSI Plessey Barcode Tutorial
Create high-quality MSI Plessey bar code pictures for almost Copy C#.NET code below to print an MSI a document file, like Word, Excel, PowerPoint, PDF and TIFF
copy image from pdf; cut and paste pdf image
C# Imaging - Scan RM4SCC Barcode in C#.NET
detect & decode RM4SCC barcode from scanned documents and pictures in your Decode RM4SCC from documents (PDF, Word, Excel and PPT) and extract barcode value as
how to copy and paste a picture from a pdf document; copy picture to pdf
WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: ADJUSTING TO LOWER COMMODITY PRICES
166 
International Monetary Fund | October 2015
Indonesia: Monetary policy assumptions are in line 
with a reduction of inflation to within the central 
bank’s targeted band by the end of 2015.
Japan: 周e current monetary policy conditions are 
maintained for the projection period, and no further 
tightening or loosening is assumed.
Korea: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with 
market expectations.
Mexico: Monetary assumptions are consistent with 
attaining the inflation target.
Russia: Monetary projections assume increasing 
exchange rate flexibility as part of the transition to 
the new full-fledged inflation-targeting regime, as 
indicated in recent statements by the Central Bank of 
Russia. Specifically, policy rates are assumed to remain 
at the current levels, gradually reducing the number of 
interventions in the foreign exchange markets.
Saudi Arabia: Monetary policy projections are based 
on the continuation of the exchange rate peg to the 
U.S. dollar.
Singapore: Broad money is projected to grow in line 
with the projected growth in nominal GDP.
South Africa: Monetary projections are consistent 
with South Africa’s 3–6 percent inflation target range.
Sweden: Monetary projections are in line with Riks-
bank projections.
Switzerland: Monetary policy variables reflect histori-
cal data from the national authorities and the market.
Turkey: Broad money and the long-term bond yield 
are based on IMF staff projections. 周e short-term 
deposit rate is projected to evolve with a constant 
spread against the interest rate of a similar U.S. 
instrument.
United Kingdom: Projections assume no change in 
monetary policy or the level of asset purchases until 
2016, consistent with market expectations.
United States: With employment conditions improv-
ing but wage growth yet to exert significant price 
pressure, the IMF staff expects the federal funds target 
to remain near zero until the end of 2015.
Box A1 (continued)
C# Imaging - Scan ISBN Barcode in C#.NET
which can be used to track images, pictures and documents BarcodeType.ISBN); // read barcode from PDF page Barcode from PowerPoint slide, you can copy demo code
how to paste a picture into a pdf; copy a picture from pdf
VB.NET Image: Easy to Create Ellipse Annotation with VB.NET
ellipse annotation to document files, like PDF & Word ellipse annotation on documents, images & pictures using VB in Visual Studio, you can copy the following
paste jpeg into pdf; copy pdf picture to powerpoint
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
International Monetary Fund | October 2015 
167
List of Tables
Output
A1.  Summary of World Output 
A2.  Advanced Economies: Real GDP and Total Domestic Demand 
A3.  Advanced Economies: Components of Real GDP 
A4.  Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Real GDP 
Inflation
A5.  Summary of Inflation 
A6.  Advanced Economies: Consumer Prices 
A7.  Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Consumer Prices 
Financial Policies
A8.  Major Advanced Economies: General Government Fiscal Balances and Debt 
Foreign Trade
A9.  Summary of World Trade Volumes and Prices 
Current Account Transactions
A10.  Summary of Current Account Balances 
A11.  Advanced Economies: Balance on Current Account 
A12.  Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Balance on Current Account 
Balance of Payments and External Financing
A13.  Summary of Financial Account Balances 
Flow of Funds
A14.  Summary of Net Lending and Borrowing  
Medium-Term Baseline Scenario
A15.  Summary of World Medium-Term Baseline Scenario 
WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: ADJUSTING TO LOWER COMMODITY PRICES
168 
International Monetary Fund | October 2015
Table A1. Summary of World Output1
(Annual percent change)
Average
Projections
1997–2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2020
World
4.0
5.7
3.1
0.0
5.4
4.2
3.4
3.3
3.4
3.1
3.6
4.0
Advanced Economies
2.8
2.8
0.2
–3.4
3.1
1.7
1.2
1.1
1.8
2.0
2.2
1.9
United States
3.3
1.8
–0.3
–2.8
2.5
1.6
2.2
1.5
2.4
2.6
2.8
2.0
Euro Area2
2.3
3.0
0.5
–4.6
2.0
1.6
–0.8
–0.3
0.9
1.5
1.6
1.6
Japan
0.9
2.2
–1.0
–5.5
4.7
–0.5
1.7
1.6
–0.1
0.6
1.0
0.7
Other Advanced Economies3
3.6
4.1
1.2
–2.0
4.6
2.8
1.7
2.1
2.8
2.2
2.4
2.6
Emerging Market and Developing Economies
5.4
8.7
5.8
3.1
7.5
6.3
5.2
5.0
4.6
4.0
4.5
5.3
Regional Groups
Commonwealth of Independent States4
5.5
9.0
5.3
–6.3
4.6
4.8
3.4
2.2
1.0
–2.7
0.5
2.5
Emerging and Developing Asia
7.1
11.2
7.3
7.5
9.6
7.9
6.8
7.0
6.8
6.5
6.4
6.5
Emerging and Developing Europe
4.1
5.5
3.1
–3.0
4.8
5.4
1.3
2.9
2.8
3.0
3.0
3.4
Latin America and the Caribbean
3.1
5.7
3.9
–1.3
6.1
4.9
3.1
2.9
1.3
–0.3
0.8
2.8
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and 
Pakistan
4.8
6.3
5.2
2.2
4.9
4.5
5.0
2.3
2.7
2.5
3.9
4.5
Middle East and North Africa
4.9
6.4
5.2
2.2
5.2
4.6
5.0
2.1
2.6
2.3
3.8
4.3
Sub-Saharan Africa
5.0
7.6
6.0
4.1
6.6
5.0
4.3
5.2
5.0
3.8
4.3
5.1
Memorandum
European Union
2.6
3.3
0.7
–4.3
2.1
1.8
–0.4
0.2
1.5
1.9
1.9
1.9
Low-Income Developing Countries
6.0
7.4
5.9
5.9
7.1
5.3
5.2
6.1
6.0
4.8
5.8
6.0
Analytical Groups
By Source of Export Earnings
Fuel
5.0
7.7
5.4
–0.9
5.1
5.1
4.8
2.5
2.3
0.1
2.2
3.5
Nonfuel
5.6
9.0
6.0
4.3
8.1
6.7
5.3
5.6
5.2
4.9
5.1
5.7
Of Which, Primary Products
3.8
6.7
3.8
1.0
6.5
5.6
3.1
4.1
2.5
2.2
2.1
3.3
By External Financing Source
Net Debtor Economies
4.4
6.7
4.3
1.9
6.7
5.1
4.1
4.5
4.1
3.7
4.4
5.3
Net Debtor Economies by  
Debt-Servicing Experience
Economies with Arrears and/or 
Rescheduling during 2010–14
5.2
6.8
5.2
–0.3
3.6
3.0
2.3
2.7
1.3
1.6
3.8
4.8
Memorandum
Median Growth Rate
Advanced Economies
3.5
4.2
1.0
–3.8
2.3
2.1
0.8
1.4
2.3
2.2
2.4
2.1
Emerging Market and Developing Economies
4.4
6.2
5.0
1.8
4.8
4.5
4.1
3.9
3.6
3.2
3.6
4.0
Low-Income Developing Countries
4.7
5.2
5.6
3.9
6.2
5.8
5.2
5.4
5.4
4.3
5.2
5.8
Output per Capita
Advanced Economies
2.1
2.0
–0.6
–4.1
2.5
1.2
0.6
0.6
1.2
1.4
1.7
1.5
Emerging Market and Developing Economies
4.1
7.2
4.3
2.0
6.3
5.2
3.9
3.9
3.3
2.9
3.4
4.2
Low-Income Developing Countries
3.7
5.2
3.8
3.7
5.0
4.2
2.8
4.0
3.9
2.8
3.7
4.0
World Growth Rate Based on Market Exchange
3.1
3.9
1.5
–2.0
4.1
3.0
2.4
2.4
2.7
2.5
3.0
3.2
Value of World Output (billions of U.S. dollars)
At Market Exchange Rates
37,621
57,516 63,014 59,683 65,339 72,423 73,777
75,467
77,269 73,507
76,321
96,193
At Purchasing Power Parities
54,442
78,743 82,644 83,045 88,523 94,013 98,714 103,554 108,777 113,162 118,519 149,464
1Real GDP.
2Data for Lithuania are included in the euro area aggregates but were excluded in the April 2015 World Economic Outlook. 
3Excludes the United States, euro area countries, and Japan.
4Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic 
structure.
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
International Monetary Fund | October 2015 
169
Table A2. Advanced Economies: Real GDP and Total Domestic Demand1
(Annual percent change)
Fourth Quarter2
Average
Projections
Projections 
1997–2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2020 2014:Q4 2015:Q4 2016:Q4
Real GDP
Advanced Economies
2.8
2.8
0.2 –3.4
3.1
1.7
1.2
1.1
1.8
2.0
2.2
1.9
1.8
2.0
2.3
United States
3.3
1.8 –0.3
–2.8
2.5
1.6
2.2
1.5
2.4
2.6
2.8
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.8
Euro Area3
2.3
3.0
0.5
–4.6
2.0
1.6
–0.8
–0.3
0.9
1.5
1.6
1.6
0.9
1.5
1.7
Germany
1.5
3.4
0.8
–5.6
3.9
3.7
0.6
0.4
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.3
1.5
1.6
1.6
France
2.4
2.4
0.2
–2.9
2.0
2.1
0.2
0.7
0.2
1.2
1.5
1.9
0.1
1.5
1.5
Italy
1.5
1.5 –1.0
–5.5
1.7
0.6
–2.8
–1.7
–0.4
0.8
1.3
1.0
–0.4
1.2
1.5
Spain
3.9
3.8
1.1
–3.6
0.0 –0.6
–2.1
–1.2
1.4
3.1
2.5
1.8
2.0
3.2
2.2
Netherlands
2.8
3.7
1.7
–3.8
1.4
1.7
–1.1
–0.5
1.0
1.8
1.9
2.1
1.5
0.8
2.8
Belgium
2.4
3.0
1.0
–2.6
2.5
1.6
0.1
0.3
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.0
1.7
1.4
Austria
2.5
3.6
1.5
–3.8
1.9
2.8
0.8
0.3
0.4
0.8
1.6
1.1
–0.2
1.3
2.2
Greece
4.1
3.5 –0.4
–4.4
–5.4 –8.9
–6.6
–3.9
0.8 –2.3
–1.3
2.4
1.4
–5.4
3.0
Portugal
2.3
2.5
0.2
–3.0
1.9 –1.8
–4.0
–1.6
0.9
1.6
1.5
1.2
0.6
1.6
1.5
Ireland
7.3
5.5 –2.2
–5.6
0.4
2.6
0.2
1.4
5.2
4.8
3.8
2.5
6.0
2.6
2.6
Finland
3.9
5.2
0.7
–8.3
3.0
2.6
–1.4
–1.1
–0.4
0.4
0.9
1.6
–0.5
1.0
0.4
Slovak Republic
4.3
10.7
5.4
–5.3
4.8
2.7
1.6
1.4
2.4
3.2
3.6
3.1
2.6
3.4
3.8
Lithuania
6.4
11.1
2.6 –14.8
1.6
6.1
3.8
3.3
2.9
1.8
2.6
3.6
2.6
1.2
3.6
Slovenia
4.1
6.9
3.3
–7.8
1.2
0.6
–2.7
–1.1
3.0
2.3
1.8
2.0
2.4
1.8
2.1
Luxembourg
4.9
8.4 –0.8
–5.4
5.7
2.6
–0.7
4.4
5.6
4.4
3.4
3.0
8.5
2.8
3.5
Latvia
7.6
9.8 –3.2 –14.2
–2.9
5.0
4.8
4.2
2.4
2.2
3.3
4.0
2.0
2.1
4.0
Estonia
7.1
7.7 –5.4 –14.7
2.5
7.6
5.2
1.6
2.9
2.0
2.9
3.4
3.4
3.1
3.0
Cyprus4
4.0
4.9
3.6
–2.0
1.4
0.3
–2.4
–5.4
–2.3
0.5
1.4
1.8
–1.8
. . .
. . .
Malta
2.3
3.9
3.3
–2.5
3.5
2.1
2.5
2.4
3.5
3.4
3.5
2.6
4.1
3.3
3.5
Japan
0.9
2.2 –1.0
–5.5
4.7 –0.5
1.7
1.6
–0.1
0.6
1.0
0.7
–0.8
1.3
1.3
United Kingdom
3.1
2.6 –0.3
–4.3
1.9
1.6
0.7
1.7
3.0
2.5
2.2
2.1
3.4
2.2
2.2
Korea
4.9
5.5
2.8
0.7
6.5
3.7
2.3
2.9
3.3
2.7
3.2
3.6
2.7
3.8
2.0
Canada
3.4
2.0
1.2
–2.7
3.4
3.0
1.9
2.0
2.4
1.0
1.7
2.0
2.5
0.5
2.0
Australia
3.6
4.5
2.7
1.6
2.3
2.7
3.6
2.1
2.7
2.4
2.9
2.8
2.5
2.5
3.2
Taiwan Province of China
4.9
6.5
0.7
–1.6
10.6
3.8
2.1
2.2
3.8
2.2
2.6
3.2
3.2
2.5
2.9
Switzerland
2.2
4.2
2.2
–2.1
2.9
1.9
1.1
1.8
1.9
1.0
1.3
1.9
2.0
0.5
1.5
Sweden
3.4
3.4 –0.6
–5.2
6.0
2.7
–0.3
1.3
2.3
2.8
3.0
2.1
2.6
2.6
3.0
Singapore
5.4
9.1
1.8
–0.6
15.2
6.2
3.4
4.4
2.9
2.2
2.9
3.2
2.2
2.1
2.7
Hong Kong SAR
3.7
6.5
2.1
–2.5
6.8
4.8
1.7
3.1
2.5
2.5
2.7
3.3
2.3
2.7
3.1
Norway
2.6
2.9
0.4
–1.6
0.6
1.0
2.7
0.7
2.2
0.9
1.3
2.0
3.0
–0.7
2.8
Czech Republic
3.1
5.5
2.7
–4.8
2.3
2.0
–0.9
–0.5
2.0
3.9
2.6
2.2
1.3
3.5
2.4
Israel
3.7
6.1
3.1
1.3
5.5
5.0
2.9
3.3
2.6
2.5
3.3
2.9
2.9
1.9
4.0
Denmark
2.3
0.8 –0.7
–5.1
1.6
1.2
–0.7
–0.5
1.1
1.6
2.0
2.2
1.4
1.7
0.9
New Zealand
3.4
3.7 –0.8
0.5
2.0
1.3
2.9
2.5
3.3
2.2
2.4
2.5
4.2
1.8
2.2
Iceland
4.5
9.5
1.5
–4.7
–3.6
2.0
1.2
3.9
1.8
4.8
3.7
2.4
1.9
4.4
3.2
San Marino
. . .
7.1
1.7 –12.8
–4.6 –9.5
–7.5
–4.5
–1.0
1.0
1.1
1.3
. . .
. . .
. . .
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies
2.5
2.1 –0.2
–3.8
2.9
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.7
1.9
2.2
1.7
1.6
1.9
2.2
Real Total Domestic Demand
Advanced Economies
2.9
2.3 –0.3 –3.7
3.0
1.4
0.8
0.8
1.8
2.2
2.5
2.0
1.7
2.3
2.6
United States
3.7
1.1 –1.3
–3.8
2.9
1.6
2.1
1.2
2.5
3.2
3.5
2.1
2.9
3.2
3.5
Euro Area3
2.3
2.8
0.3
–4.0
1.4
0.7
–2.3
–0.7
0.9
1.4
1.6
1.5
1.0
1.3
1.7
Germany
0.9
1.8
1.0
–3.2
2.9
3.0
–0.9
0.9
1.3
1.2
1.5
1.4
1.5
1.1
1.7
France
2.5
3.1
0.5
–2.5
2.1
2.0
–0.3
0.7
0.6
1.1
1.5
1.9
0.4
1.3
1.8
Italy
1.9
1.3 –1.2
–4.1
2.0 –0.6
–5.5
–2.5
–0.7
0.9
1.0
1.0
–1.0
1.4
1.3
Spain
4.8
4.1 –0.4
–6.0
–0.5 –2.7
–4.2
–2.7
2.3
3.7
2.4
1.4
2.8
4.4
1.1
Japan
0.5
1.1 –1.3
–4.0
2.9
0.4
2.6
1.9
–0.1
0.4
0.8
0.6
–1.8
1.6
0.9
United Kingdom
3.4
2.5 –1.3
–4.4
2.5
0.3
1.4
1.8
3.5
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.8
2.3
2.2
Canada
3.6
3.4
2.8
–2.7
5.2
3.3
2.2
1.8
1.3
0.3
0.8
1.9
1.3
–0.8
2.0
Other Advanced Economies5
3.3
4.9
1.7
–2.6
6.3
3.0
1.8
1.3
2.3
2.4
2.9
3.1
1.8
2.6
3.3
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies
2.7
1.6 –0.7
–3.7
2.9
1.4
1.1
1.1
1.7
2.1
2.4
1.8
1.6
2.3
2.5
1In this and other tables, when countries are not listed alphabetically, they are ordered on the basis of economic size.
2From the fourth quarter of the preceding year.
3Data for Lithuania are included in the euro area aggregates but were excluded in the April 2015 World Economic Outlook. 
4Owing to the unusual macroeconomic uncertainty, quarterly real GDP projections are not available.
5Excludes the G7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) and euro area countries.
WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: ADJUSTING TO LOWER COMMODITY PRICES
170 
International Monetary Fund | October 2015
Table A3. Advanced Economies: Components of Real GDP
(Annual percent change)
Averages
Projections
1997–2006
2007–16
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
Private Consumer Expenditure
Advanced Economies
3.0
1.3
2.4
0.1
–1.1
1.9
1.4
0.9
1.2
1.7
2.3
2.7
United States
3.8
1.7
2.2
–0.3
–1.6
1.9
2.3
1.5
1.7
2.7
3.2
3.5
Euro Area1
2.1
0.4
1.8
0.3
–1.1
0.8
0.0
–1.2
–0.6
0.9
1.8
1.5
Germany
1.0
0.8
0.0
0.5
0.3
0.3
1.3
0.9
0.8
1.0
1.8
1.4
France
2.5
1.0
2.5
0.4
0.2
1.8
0.5
–0.2
0.4
0.6
1.8
1.8
Italy
1.7
–0.5
1.2
–1.1
–1.5
1.2
0.0
–4.0
–2.8
0.3
0.7
1.1
Spain
3.9
0.1
3.3
–0.7
–3.6
0.3
–2.0
–2.9
–2.3
2.4
4.1
2.8
Japan
0.9
0.7
0.9
–0.9
–0.7
2.8
0.3
2.3
2.1
–1.3
–0.5
2.2
United Kingdom
4.0
1.0
2.6
–0.5
–3.1
0.4
0.1
1.1
1.7
2.5
3.1
2.6
Canada
3.5
2.5
4.2
2.9
0.3
3.4
2.3
1.9
2.5
2.7
2.3
2.8
Other Advanced Economies2
3.5
2.4
4.7
1.1
0.1
3.7
2.9
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.8
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies
2.8
1.3
1.9
–0.2
–1.1
1.8
1.4
1.0
1.3
1.7
2.3
2.8
Public Consumption
Advanced Economies
2.6
1.0
1.9
2.4
3.0
1.0
–0.6
0.3
–0.4
0.6
1.1
0.9
United States
2.1
0.3
1.4
2.5
3.7
0.1
–2.7
–0.9
–2.5
–0.5
0.6
1.2
Euro Area1
1.8
1.0
2.1
2.4
2.4
0.8
–0.1
–0.1
0.2
0.8
1.0
0.6
Germany
0.8
1.7
1.5
3.4
3.0
1.3
0.9
1.3
0.8
1.7
1.9
1.2
France
1.3
1.4
1.8
1.1
2.4
1.3
1.0
1.6
1.7
1.5
1.3
0.6
Italy
1.4
–0.2
0.4
1.0
0.4
0.6
–1.8
–1.2
–0.3
–1.0
0.2
0.0
Spain
4.5
1.1
6.2
5.9
4.1
1.5
–0.3
–3.7
–2.9
0.1
0.5
–0.2
Japan
2.1
1.1
1.1
–0.1
2.3
1.9
1.2
1.7
1.9
0.2
1.6
–0.9
United Kingdom
2.8
1.1
1.2
2.0
1.2
0.0
0.0
2.3
–0.3
1.6
2.0
0.8
Canada
2.1
1.3
2.8
4.6
3.3
2.7
0.8
1.2
0.4
0.2
–1.8
–0.7
Other Advanced Economies2
2.8
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.4
2.8
1.6
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.0
2.2
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies
1.9
0.7
1.4
2.1
2.9
0.7
–1.0
0.2
–0.8
0.2
0.9
0.7
Gross Fixed Capital Formation
Advanced Economies
3.3
0.5
2.4
–2.6
–11.1
1.9
2.9
2.2
0.9
2.9
2.6
3.4
United States
4.6
0.6
–1.2
–4.8
–13.1
1.1
3.7
6.3
2.4
4.1
4.0
5.4
Euro Area1
3.1
–0.7
4.9
–0.6
–11.3
–0.4
1.6
–3.6
–2.6
1.2
2.1
2.6
Germany
1.0
1.2
4.1
0.8
–9.9
5.0
7.4
0.1
–1.3
3.5
1.9
1.9
France
3.5
0.0
5.5
0.8
–9.1
2.1
2.1
0.2
–0.6
–1.2
–0.4
1.6
Italy
3.0
–3.0
1.6
–3.1
–9.9
–0.5
–1.9
–9.3
–5.8
–3.3
1.0
2.2
Spain
7.0
–2.9
4.4
–3.9
–16.9
–4.9
–6.3
–8.1
–3.8
3.4
5.9
3.8
Japan
–1.1
–0.7
0.3
–4.1
–10.6
–0.2
1.4
3.4
3.2
2.6
–0.5
–1.4
United Kingdom
2.3
1.5
5.3
–4.7
–14.4
5.9
2.3
0.7
3.4
8.6
5.5
4.6
Canada
5.9
0.7
3.2
1.6
–12.0
11.3
4.8
4.8
0.4
0.2
–3.3
–1.8
Other Advanced Economies2
3.5
2.4
6.6
0.3
–4.8
6.4
3.8
2.5
2.1
1.6
2.7
3.6
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies
3.0
0.3
0.9
–3.3
–11.9
2.1
3.2
3.3
1.4
3.1
2.4
3.3
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested