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5
Silverman and Hines (2009) also focused on which instructional methods work best in building word
knowledge for pre-school to second-grade students.They investigated the use of multimedia to enhance read-
alouds and vocabulary instruction for English language learners (ELL) and English speaking students. This study had
two interventions: one with multimedia, the other without. In both conditions, the teachers used a scripted lesson
on habitats using both narrative and informational texts.The intervention took place over four three-week cycles,
one cycle for each habitat studied. Students were introduced to the books in the same order and eight words 
per book were chosen as the target words. The multimedia condition included four videos, one for each habitat.
Students were shown video clips after reading to facilitate their review of all of the words taught.Findings
indicated that the use of multimedia provided no statistically significant difference for English speaking students.
The use of multimedia for English language learners, however, was significant. Data indicate that the gap between
English learning and English speaking students was narrowed not only for the targeted vocabulary words but for
general vocabulary knowledge as well.
Questioning and language engagement
Questioning and language engagement enhance students’ word knowledge. Children are more likely 
to learn the meaning of the new words when teachers highlight targeted vocabulary through questioning or
comments.To eliminate the possibility of prior learning,Ard and Beverly (2004) used researcher-developed
“storybooks” to introduce nonsense words to children.The researchers found that children’s understanding and
memory of the “words” increased when teachers asked questions and made comments clarifying the meaning 
of the new “words.”
Also studying the effects of teacher questioning, Blewitt, Rump,Shealy, and Cook (2009) conducted two
experiments: one to assess the effect of low- and high-demand questions on word learning during storybook
reading; the other to address the value of scaffolding questioning as students become more familiar with words.
They found that preschoolers made greater gains in word learning when questions were scaffolded, that is, when
teachers initially asked low-demand questions and gradually increased the complexity of the questions to the high-
demand level.
Considering language engagement, Connor, Morrison and Slominski (2006) studied the language interaction
between teachers and students during typical preschool emergent literacy activities such as alphabet recognition,
letter-word association, and vocabulary games.They found a substantial variance in time spent on emergent literacy
activities (from four to 90 minutes;from half-day to full day sessions; and from two to five days per week).They
also found that classrooms ranged from language-centered environments (where children were immersed in oral
language, reading, and writing experiences) to environments where children engaged in predominantly non-literacy
learning activities.An interesting related finding was that children experience very different learning opportunities
even when they are classmates in the same learning environment. This suggests the importance of considering
background knowledge and experience on learning outcomes.
In a multi-focused experimental study,Coyne, McCoach,and Kapp (2007) extended word learning beyond 
the storybook reading session for kindergarten students. Children were divided into three groups, each receiving a
different instructional approach to learning new words.One group was given the opportunity to learn the targeted
words through interactive experiences that extended beyond just listening to the oral reading of the text.The
investigators found that vocabulary instruction should include teacher-student dialogue and interactive activities
that target the new words.The data indicated minimal word learning through incidental exposure of the words
(reading the story without direct instruction) and only partial knowledge of the targeted vocabulary when word
definitions were embedded during the story reading. Extending word knowledge through dialogue and interactive
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experiences produced a statistically significant difference and,based on assessment data,children maintained word
knowledge for six to eight weeks after instruction.
Similar findings were reported by Leung (2008),who conducted a study of preschoolers’ knowledge of
scientific vocabulary. Results indicated the greatest gains in word knowledge were made when an interactive
approach was used. First, teachers engaged students in dialogue during an interactive read-aloud of informational
picture books.Vocabulary and concepts were reinforced through student retellings and a hands-on activity that
related to the targeted words and meanings.
6
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Conclusions
7
Vocabulary instruction is a crucial component of reading instruction.The goal of vocabulary instruction is to help
students learn the meanings of many words so they can communicate effectively and achieve academically.
Effective vocabulary instruction requires educators to intentionally provide many rich, robust opportunities for
students to learn words, related concepts, and their meanings. Students need strong instructional opportunities to
build their personal warehouse of words,to develop deep levels of word knowledge, and acquire a toolbox of
strategies that aids their independent word acquisition.
This review of current vocabulary research confirms the benefits of explicit teaching over implicit teaching in
promoting vocabulary development. Results from this review suggest that effective and efficient research-based
methods are available when selecting a particular instructional approach.The findings also suggest several
instructional implications for promoting word knowledge:
• Frequent exposure to targeted vocabulary words. Biemiller and Boote (2006) found that repeated
reading of a storybook resulted in greater average gains in word knowledge for young children.
• Explicit instruction of targeted vocabulary words. Biemiller and Boote (2006) also found that word
explanations taught directly during the reading of a storybook enhanced children’s understanding of word
meanings. Nash and Snowling (2006) found that using a contextual approach to instruction produced greater
vocabulary gains than lessons that emphasized learning word definitions.
• Questioning and language engagement. Scaffolding questions, that is, moving from low-demand
questions to high-demand questions, promotes greater gains in word learning (Blewitt, Rump, Shealy,& Cook,
2009).Vocabulary instruction should include teacher-student activities and interactive activities that target new
words (Coyne,McCoach & Kapp, 2007).
In summary, active vocabulary instruction should permeate a classroom and contain rich and interesting
information.Vocabulary instruction should cover many words that have been skillfully and carefully chosen to
reduce vocabulary gaps and improve students’ abilities to apply word knowledge to the task of comprehension.
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Studies reviewed for this synthesis
Appendix
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11
Appendix
Studies reviewed for this synthesis
Ard & Beverly (2004)
Vocabulary dimension
This experimental study examined the effect
of adult questions and comments during
joint book reading on pre-K children’s
acquisition of nonsense words.
Participants
40 preschoolers (divided into four groups 
of 10)
Description of intervention
Four condition groups:
1. (JBRO) Joint book reading only—3
exposures
2. (JBRQ) Repeated joint book reading with
questions—6 exposures
3. (JBRC) Repeated joint book reading with
comments—6 exposures
4. (JBRQC) Repeated joint book reading
with both questions and comments—
9 exposures
Outcome Measures
PPVT-III and Expressive One Word Picture
Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT)
Findings
Children who heard scripted questions and
comments indentified approximately two
more words than children in the control and
questions-only groups. Joint book reading
with comments appeared more effective
than joint book reading with questions.
Biemiller & Boote (2006)
Vocabulary dimension
The effect of direct word meaning
instruction during repeated book reading vs.
repeated book reading without instruction
on the acquisition of word meanings was
studied using a pretest-posttest assessment
design.
Participants
Kindergarten, first grade, and second 
grade students in a Catholic school in
Toronto, Canada
Description of intervention
Two studies:
In Study 1, K–2 students were read two
books twice in one week; a third book was
read four times. Students were pre- and
post-tested on 24 word meanings with 
12 word meanings instructed and 12 word
meanings not instructed.
Study 2 was conducted in the same school
as Study 1, but during the next school year.
A five-day instructional sequence was
developed for each story and word
meanings taught were increased from 4 to
6 to 7 to 9. Each story was read four times,
with a review each day. On Day 5, context
sentences were added.
Outcome measure
A general vocabulary test
Findings
Two studies:
In Study 1, an average gain of 12% on
word meanings was obtained using
repeated readings. Adding word explanation
added a 10% gain for a total gain of 22%.
Kindergarten students made the 
greatest gain.
In Study 2, a gain of 41% in word meaning
was found. In this study a substantial
number of word meanings were taught
using repeated oral reading of stories
combined with explanations of words. The
researchers suggest that teaching 400 word
meanings per year is a reasonable goal.
Blewitt, Rump, Shealy,
& Cook (2009)
Vocabulary dimension
This two-part experimental study assessed:
(1) whether low- or high-demand questions
are more effective for learning new words
from stories, and (2) the effect a scaffolding
approach to asking questions had on
learning new words.
Participants
60 (experiment 1) and 50 (experiment 
2) three-year-old children from a suburban
preschool
Description of intervention
Three illustrated storybooks were created
and used in this experiment to study the
impact of repeated reading, comments,
and questioning.
Outcome measures
Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary
Test; PPVT-III; New Word Production Test;
New Word Comprehension Test
Findings
Initial word learning involving a word-
referent association is benefited by both
low- and high-demand questions. Deeper
understanding of a word’s meaning is
better supported when adults begin with
low-demand questions and add high-
demand questions as children become
familiar with the word (scaffolding).
12
Appendix
Studies reviewed for this synthesis (continued)
Cain (2007)
Vocabulary dimension
This experimental design research study
investigated whether or not the use of
explanation facilitates children’s ability 
to derive accurate word meanings from 
story context.
Participants
45 British children aged 7 to 8 years old.
Description of intervention
Students read short stories containing
different novel words. Each of the 16 
stories contained contextual clues that
students could use to infer the meaning 
of the novel word. Students were asked 
to define the novel word at the end of 
each story.
Group assignment based on student scores
on British Picture Vocabulary Scales (BPVS)
and the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability
(NARA-II).
Outcome measure
Ratings of definition correctness
Findings
All students improved in the quality of their
word definitions, but the greatest gains
were made when children explained their
own definitions or the experimenter’s
correct definition.This study found that
explanation is a useful instructional
technique that facilitates children’s ability 
to derive word meanings from context.
Connor, Morrison & 
Slominski (2006)
Vocabulary dimension
This correlation study examined the
language engagement of preschoolers 
with their teachers in relation to emergent
literacy learning activities (alphabet, letter-
word recognition, and vocabulary growth).
Participants
156 preschool children across six school
sites (34 classrooms).
Description of intervention
The researchers examined the content of
literacy activities across four dimensions:
teacher managed versus teacher-child
managed versus child-managed, code
focused versus meaning focused, explicit
versus implicit, and student versus
classroom level instruction.
Teacher and parent questionnaires, as well
as video-taped classroom visits were used
to obtain data on student background and
language skills.
Outcome measures
Alphabet Task (informal assessment);
Woodcock-Johnson-II (Letter-Word
Recognition, and Vocabulary)
Findings
Although the researchers acknowledge
shortcomings in the research design and
limitations to the research findings (no
causal findings), they note two key findings:
•There is “substantial variability in the
amounts and types of language and
literacy activities children experienced”
•The learning activities “systematically
related to preschoolers’ language and
emergent literacy skills in a complex,
interactive fashion.”
Coyne, McCoach
& Kapp (2007)
Vocabulary dimension
This experimental research consisted of two
studies to evaluate the effectiveness of
extended instruction with kindergarten
students in a small-group intervention
model to examine the amount and quality
of word learning that children experience as
a result of extended instruction.
Participants
31 kindergarten students who attended 
a K–4 elementary school in a small
Northeastern town.
Description of intervention
Two studies:
Study 1: Children were directly taught the
meanings of three target vocabulary words
in the context of story reading. Children’s
understanding of the target words was
extended through interactive opportunities
as well as increased exposure to the
targeted words in various contexts beyond
the story reading.The incidental exposure
consisted of hearing the three targeted
words three times during the story reading.
Study 2: The same procedure was followed
for extended instruction as in Study 1;
however, rather than incidental exposure,
children received embedded instruction:
they not only heard the targeted words
during story reading, but were provided
with simple definitions of the words.
Outcome measures
Three experimenter-developed individual
assessments
Findings
Statistically significant findings indicated
that in both studies, the kindergarten
students learned the meanings of targeted
words to a greater extent when an
extended method of vocabulary instruction
was used. Incidental exposure resulted in
almost no word learning and embedded
instruction resulted in only partial word
learning.
13
Appendix
Studies reviewed for this synthesis (continued)
Coyne, Simmons, Kame`enui,
& Stoolmiller (2004)
Vocabulary dimension
Using an experimental design, this study
focused on determining the critical
components of early literacy instruction 
and how instructional time should be
allocated.A secondary analysis questioned
the impact of explicit, systematic, and
strategic instruction on children at risk 
for reading difficulty.
Participants
96 kindergarten children from seven schools
were divided into three 
treatment groups:
•Storybook intervention
•Phonologic and alphabetic skills 
(code-based group)
•Sounds and Letters module 
(control group)
Description of intervention
Children received 108 30-minute lessons
based on 40 storybooks from November to
May.Three target vocabulary words were
explicitly taught from each storybook.A
systematic cycle of instruction provided
storybook rereading and student retellings
with prompts.
Outcome measure
Experimenter-developed expressive measure
of explicitly taught vocabulary
Findings
The group receiving the code-based
instruction outperformed the storybook and
control group on measures of phonologic
and alphabetic skills.The storybook group,
however, scored significantly higher than
the code-based and control groups on
expressive vocabulary.
A second analysis found that students 
with lower receptive vocabulary skills, as
measured by the PPVT, benefited more
(learned more vocabulary word meanings)
from the storybook intervention compared
with students who did not receive the
storybook intervention.Teaching word
meanings explicitly in the context of
storybook reading resulted in the same level
of vocabulary growth for students with
smaller initial vocabularies as it did for
students with larger vocabularies.
Justice, Meier,
& Walpole (2005)
Vocabulary dimension
A pretest-posttest comparison group was
used to study the influence of small-group
storybook reading sessions on the
acquisition of vocabulary words for
kindergarten students at risk for reading
difficulties. Secondary analyses focused 
on the impact of word elaboration and
examined differential responses to
treatment for children with high versus 
low vocabulary skills.
Participants
57 kindergarten students from two
elementary schools (six classrooms) 
in a small urban community in a mid-
Atlantic state.
Description of intervention
Children were randomly assigned to the
treatment or comparison group. Children in
the treatment group were further divided
into small groups of three to six children.
Students in the treatment group were
exposed to 60 novel words from 10
storybooks. The reader provided the
meaning and gave examples for 30 of the
targeted 60 words. The other 30 words
were given incidental exposure.
Outcome measures
PPVT-III; Expressive One Word Picture
Vocabulary Test—Revised
Findings
Incidental exposure to novel words over
four repeated readings resulted in negligible
word learning for kindergarten children at
risk for reading difficulties. Using an
elaborated approach to learning novel
words showed significant, but modest
gains.The researchers suggest that due to
the modest gains, storybook reading may
not provide an efficient route to novel 
word learning.
14
Appendix
Studies reviewed for this synthesis (continued)
Leung (2008)
Vocabulary dimension
An experimental design that explored
young children’s learning of scientific
vocabulary, this study focused on the
effectiveness of retelling and hands-on
science activities related to concepts
presented in a book.
Participants
37 preschool children (ages three 
to four years) at an urban YWCA 
Child Development Center in a
Southeastern state.
Description of intervention
All children participated in book reading
sessions using informational text on the
science topic of light and color. Half of the
children immediately retold the book.All
children were provided with hands-on
activities after the retellings.Thirty-two
targeted words were selected from the
three books used for the study.
Outcome measures
PPVT-III, EVT, and investigator 
designed assessment
Findings
Children who participated in the book
retellings were better able to explain the
meanings of the targeted words. Study
findings indicate that young children can
learn scientific names for complex concepts.
McGregor, Sheng,
& Ball (2007)
Vocabulary dimension
Semantic and lexical aspects of word
learning over time were studied using an
experimental design.
Participants
34 monolingual eight-year-olds were
recruited for this study via a newspaper
advertisement.
Description of intervention
The children participated in vocabulary
lessons for four sessions (three sessions
during three consecutive weeks and one
session one month later) that focused 
on 20 words and referents from 
foreign cultures.
Outcome measures
EVT; Nonword Repetition Test, K-BIT2
Findings
Semantic and lexical knowledge accrued
over time and were maintained after a 
one-month interval. Higher frequency of
exposure to the targeted words had an
immediate effect on semantic learning 
and a gradual effect on lexical learning.
Frequency of exposure to the targeted
words coupled with informative context
promoted semantic learning, suggesting
that speech-language pathologists should
consider the richness of the learning context
as well as the redundancy of exposures to
enhance word learning.
Nash & Snowling (2006)
Vocabulary dimension
A study of the efficacy of two forms of
vocabulary intervention (definition method
and the context method).
Participants
24 children aged seven to eight years old,
with poor vocabulary knowledge.
Description of intervention
The children were divided into two groups.
One group was taught new vocabulary
words using definitions; the other group
was taught a strategy for obtaining word
meaning from written context.
Outcome measures
BPVS-II, ERNNI, Suffolk Reading Test,
NARA-II, Experimental Vocabulary
Knowledge, investigator-designed
assessments
Findings
Both groups showed greater knowledge of
the taught vocabulary directly after
instruction. Three months later, the context
group showed significantly better expressive
vocabulary knowledge and comprehension
of text containing the targeted vocabulary.
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