upload and view pdf in asp net c# : Paste image into pdf form SDK control service wpf web page winforms dnn sampling_information_goods1-part849

v
0
0
q
¯q
p
1−α
¯v
p
α(1−α)
Additional Demand
ReductioninDemand
(3a) Price Increases
v
0
0
q
¯q
p
1−α
¯v
p
α(1−α)
AdditionalDemand
ReductioninDemand
(3b)Sample PortionIncreases
Figure 3: The change in sampling induced demand due to an increase in price
p
(panel 3a) and an
increase inthe sampleportion
α
(panel 3b).
Proof. SeeAppendixA.
6
Lemma 1 shows that the sampling-induced demand is equal to the demand for the free sample
less the number of consumers that do not buy given sample experience. To understand the effects of
aprice change in sampling-induced demand, observe that increasing the price induces consumers to
switch from the paid to the free version. This in turn increases sampling-induced demand. At the
same time, the price increase induces some consumers who bought at the lower price to refrainfrom
buying,whichleads to a reductioninsampling-induced demand. Which ofthesetwo countervailing
effectsdominates dependsonthepricelevel beforethe pricechange: Atlowinitialpricesthedemand-
enhancing effect dominates, whereas at high initial prices the demand-reducing effect does (see Fig-
ure 3a). Intuitively, the demand-enhancing effect dominates at low prices because most consumers
initially buy, so an increase in price does not lead to a large loss of consumers that buy upon sample
experience. At high prices,however,the demand-reducing effect dominates because most consumers
buy given sample experience, so increasing the price leads to a large reduction in sampling-induced
demand.
7
Increasingthesampleportionalsohasacountervailingeffectonsampling-induceddemand,
where the sign depends onthe size of the sample portion before the price change (see Figure 3b). In
sum, increasing the sample portion has a demand-enhancing effect when the sample size is initially
6
AllproofscanbefoundinAppendixA.
7
Toseethisgeometrically,observethattheareaoftheparallelogramissmallerthantheareaofthetrapezoidatlowprices,
andviceversaathighprices(seeagainFigure3a).
11
Paste image into pdf form - copy, paste, cut PDF images in C#.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
Detailed tutorial for copying, pasting, and cutting image in PDF page using C# class code
how to copy pdf image to powerpoint; how to cut image from pdf file
Paste image into pdf form - VB.NET PDF copy, paste image library: copy, paste, cut PDF images in vb.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
VB.NET Tutorial for How to Cut or Copy an Image from One Page and Paste to Another
preview paste image into pdf; how to copy an image from a pdf file
small and a demand-reducing effect whenthesample portionis initially large.
We now derive the firm’s (total) demand for the paid version. This demand function is easily
obtainedby adding initial andsampling-induced demand,and thecomparative statics propertiesim-
mediately follow.
Lemma 2. Whenallconsumersmaybuy,thefirm’stotaldemandforthepaidversionis
D
P
1
(p,α) ≡ D
I
(p,α)+D
S
1
(p,α)
= 1 −
(1+ α)p
2
2α(1− α)
2
¯v¯q
.
Total demand is (i) decreasing in price
p
,implying that potential demand-enhancing effects via increases in
sample-induced demand arealways dominated bythe reduction in initial demand
;
(ii)increasing (decreasing) in
the sample portion
α
when thesample portion isinitially small (large)
;
(iii) increasing in valuation
¯v
;
and (iv)
increasing inquality experience
¯q
.
Case II
:
Low-ValuationConsumersNever Buy
The consumers with the lowest valuations never buy the product given sample experience if the fol-
lowing conditionholds.
Condition2b.Consumerswiththelowestvaluationinthemarketcannotbepersuadedtobuytheproducteven
if they experience thehighest possible samplequality, that is,if
¯q < p/(α(1 −α))
.
This is visualized by inspection of the indifference curve drawn in Figure 2b. In contrast to the
previous case,wenow requirethattheindifference curve hits the vertical axis above
¯q
,implying con-
sumers with
v= 0
do notbuy.
The next lemma describes the demand generated by letting consumers evaluate product quality
via a sample.
Lemma 3. Whenlow-valuationconsumersneverbuy,samplinginduceddemandisgivenby
D
S
2
(p,α)=
α((1 −α)¯q− p)
2
2(1− α)3¯v¯q
.
Lemma 3 shows thatsampling-induceddemandis decreasinginprice. Sincethefirm offersa large
12
C# PDF Image Extract Library: Select, copy, paste PDF images in C#
Studio .NET. Extract various types of image from PDF file, like XObject Image, XObject Form, Inline Image, etc. Support .NET WinForms
copy picture from pdf to powerpoint; paste image on pdf preview
VB.NET PDF Image Extract Library: Select, copy, paste PDF images
VB.NET. Extract multiple types of image from PDF file in VB.NET, like XObject Image, XObject Form, Inline Image, etc. Support .NET
copy pdf picture to powerpoint; copy paste image pdf
sample portion,only consumers with high valuations will buy. Giventhelarge sample portion, how-
ever, the demand-reducing effect of a price increase dominates the demand-enhancing effect that re-
sultsfromanincreaseinthenumberofconsumersthattakethefreesample.
8
Again,sampling-induced
demand can eitherbe increasing or decreasing due to a change in the sample portion, depending on
how largethesampleportioninitiallyis. Increasingthesampleportionhasademand-enhancing effect
whenthesamplesizeisinitially small and a demand-reducing effectwhenitis initially large.
The nextlemma describes the firm’s total demand for the paid versionand its comparative statics
properties.
Lemma 4. Whenlow-valuationconsumersneverbuy,thefirm’s(total)demandforthepaidversionis
D
P
2
(p,α) ≡ D
I
(p,α)+ D
S
(p,α)
= 1 −
p
(1 −α)¯v
+
α((1 − α)¯q −p)
2
2(1 −α)3¯v¯q
.
Total demand is (i) decreasing in price
p
;
(ii) increasing (decreasing) in the sample portion
α
when the sample
portion isinitially small (large)
;
(iii) increasing invaluation
¯v
;
and (iv)increasing inquality experience
¯q
.
To sum up, it is useful to note that the demand functions for the paid versions have the same
comparative statics propertiesinbothcases. Wenow shiftfocus to firm decisions.
4 Firm Decisions
Thissectionexamines optimalfirmdecisions. Dependingonconsumers’experiencedquality,thefirm
potentiallyderivessampling-induceddemand fromeitherall consumersorhigh-valuationconsumers
only. Thus,thefirm essentially has two strategies available: eitherto de facto targetall consumers or
totargethigh-valuationconsumers only.
Weproceedasfollows: First,wecharacterizethefirm’soptimal pricing andsamplingdecision. Sec-
ond, we analyze the “Targeting All Consumers”-strategy(Case I) and the “Targeting High-Valuation
Consumers”-strategy (Case II). Finally, we discuss the conditions under which the firm should adopt
either one of the two strategies.
8
Toseethisgeometrically,inspectionofFigure3a is useful: Sincethearea ofthe parallelogramislargerthan theareaof
thetrapezoidathighpricesinCaseI,thisisafortiorisoinCaseII(wherepricesareevenhigherforagivensamplesize).
13
VB.NET PDF insert image library: insert images into PDF in vb.net
Insert images into PDF form field in VB.NET. An independent .NET framework component supports inserting image to PDF in preview without adobe PDF control
copy and paste images from pdf; how to paste a picture in a pdf
C# PDF Page Extract Library: copy, paste, cut PDF pages in C#.net
Ability to copy selected PDF pages and paste into another PDF file. The portable document format, known as PDF document, is a widely-used form of file that
how to copy pictures from a pdf to word; copy image from pdf to powerpoint
4.1 Optimal Pricing and Sampling
The firm’s decision variables price
p
and sample portion
α
are modeled as the outcome of a two-
stage decision problem. We suppose that the decision about the sample portion precedes the pricing
decision.
9
Wethereforefirstdeterminethe pricefora givensampleportionbymaximizing theproduct
marketprofit
π
i
(p
i
i
)= pD
P
i
(p
i
i
)+ a
f
D
F
(p
i
i
)
,
i= 1,2
.
(2)
The product market profit is the sum of revenues from selling the paid version and advertising rev-
enues, respectively.
10
Subscript
i
refers to the two cases and we let
(p
i
i
)
denote the corresponding
decisions.Thesolutionto thefirst-orderconditionwithrespectto
p
D
P
i
(p
i
i
)+p
i
∂D
P
i
(p
i
i
)
∂p
i
+a
f
∂D
F
(p
i
i
)
∂p
i
=0
yields the best-response function
p
i
i
)
, which indicates how the price
p
i
varies with sample size.
Substituting
p
i
i
)
into the product market profit function yields
π
i
i
)
,the product market profitin
terms of
α
i
.Thefirmderives the optimal sampleportionbymaximizing itstotalprofit
Π
i
(α) = π
i
(α)−F
where
F
denotesthefixedcoststoproducetheinformationgood.
11
Makingthedependenceonmodel
parameters explicit, we let profit-maximizing choice
α
i
i
(a
f
,¯v,¯q)
denotethe optimal samplepor-
tion, withthecorrespondingoptimal price being
p
i
(a
f
,¯v, ¯q) = p
i
i
(a
f
,¯v, ¯q),a
f
,¯v, ¯q)
.
To understand how changes inparametervalues affect the optimal price,we decomposetheprice
change into asampling-mediatedeffect and adirecteffect. To make this more explicit, let the generic
variable
x
stand for one of the model parameters
a
f
,
¯v
,or
¯q
. Then, the change in price due to an
exogenousvariationof
x
isgivenby
dp
i
dx
=
∂p
i
i
,x)
∂α
i
i
dx
+
∂p
i
i
,x)
∂x
,
wherethefirsttermontheright-hand side is the sampling-mediated effectand thesecond term is the
9
However, the solutiontothe problemwould be the same when thedecisionsaremadesimultaneouslyas the decision
hasnoexternaleffects.Wemerelyusethisassumptionforconvenience.
10
Notethattheproductmarketprofitisequaltorevenueundertheassumptionofzerounitproductioncosts.
11
Weassumethatthefixed cost donotexceedtheproductmarketprofit. Hence,theydonotchangetheanalysisand can
thereforebeomitted.
14
C# PDF Form Data Read Library: extract form data from PDF in C#.
it should have functions for processing text, image as well Code: Retrieve All Form Fields from a PDF File in Please directly copy and paste C# demo code below
copy image from pdf preview; copy and paste image from pdf
VB.NET PDF Page Extract Library: copy, paste, cut PDF pages in vb.
Dim page As PDFPage = doc.GetPage(3) ' Select image by the point (50F, 100F below will show you how to copy pages from a PDF file and paste into another one
copy image from pdf; how to copy a picture from a pdf to a word document
direct effect. Importantly, the sign of the sampling-mediated effect depends on the slope of the best-
response function evaluated at the optimal sample portion. We now proceed to characterize optimal
sampling and pricing for our twotargeting strategies.
4.2 Case I
:
Targeting All Consumers
Whenall consumersmaybuy,thefirm’s productmarketprofit is
π
1
(p
1
1
)= p
1
1−
(1 +α
1
)p
2
1
1
(1 −α
1
)
2
¯v¯q
+a
f
p
1
(1 −α
1
)¯v
.
The best-responsefunctionforpriceis givenby
p
1
1
)=
1
(1 −α
1
)(¯v(1− α
1
)+ a
f
)¯q
3(1+ α
1
)
,
(3)
andthereduced-formprofitfunctionis
Π
1
1
)=
1
(¯v(1 − α
1
)+ a
f
)
3
¯q
27(1− α
1
)(1 +α
1
)¯v2
−F.
(4)
The nextresultcharacterizes theoptimal sample portionandcomparativestatics properties thereof.
Proposition1. Whentargetingallconsumers,theoptimalsampleportionis
α
1
(a
f
,¯v) =
24¯v2 + (¯v + a
f
)
2
9¯v2
cos
π+ϕ
3
(¯v + a
f
)
6¯v
,
(5)
where
ϕ= arccos
(¯v + a
f
)
90¯v
2
+(¯v + a
f
)
2
24¯v2 +(¯v +a
f
)
2
3
2
.
Theoptimal sampleportion is(i) increasing in
a
f
,(ii) decreasing in
¯v
,and (iii) independentof
¯q
.
Thecomparativestaticsresultshaveintuitiveexplanations. First,when
a
f
increases,thefirmhasan
incentivetoofferalargersampleportiontoincreasethedemandforthefreeversion.Whiletheincrease
15
C# PDF insert image Library: insert images into PDF in C#.net, ASP
installed. Able to zoom and crop image and achieve image resizing. Merge several images into PDF. Insert images into PDF form field.
copy and paste image from pdf to word; copy pdf picture to word
VB.NET PDF Form Data Read library: extract form data from PDF in
PDF software, it should have functions for processing text, image as well as field. RasterEdge .NET PDF SDK is such one provide various of form field edit
how to copy picture from pdf to word; how to paste a picture into a pdf document
in the sample portion may reduce the revenues from the paid version, the increase in advertising
revenues overcompensates the potential loss. Second,an increase in
¯v
leads to higher initial demand.
Tofurtherincrease revenues from thepaidversion,the firm hasanincentiveto offera smaller sample
portion. Third, and less intuitive, increases of
¯q
affect neither initial demand nor the demand for the
free sample. Therefore, the firm has no incentive to adjust the size of the sample portion when the
sampling-induceddemandincreases.
To study how changes in parameter values affect the optimal price, we use the slope of the best-
response function evaluated at the optimal sample portion to determine the sign of the sampling-
mediatedeffect.
Claim 1. Offeringalargersampleportiongoesalongwithalowerpriceforthepaidversionoftheproduct,
sincetheslopeofthe best-response functionisnegativewhenevaluated at theoptimalsample portion
α
1
,that is,
dp
1
1
)/dα
1
|
α
1
1
<0
.
Inspection of the response function shows that the sign of all direct effects is positive. Adding
sampling-mediatedand direct effects, wecancomputethe total effect onprice.
Proposition 2. Whentargeting allconsumers, the optimalprice
p
1
(a
f
,¯v, ¯q)
is (i) increasing in
a
f
if
0 <
a
f
/¯v < 0.35
and decreasing in
a
f
if
0.35 < a
f
/¯v < 0.45
,(ii)increasing
¯v
,and (iii) increasing in
¯q
.
Theambiguity ofthefirstcomparativestaticsresultstems fromcountervailingsampling-mediated
anddirecteffects. Thedirecteffectispositivesincethefirmhasanincentivetoinducetheconsumersto
take the free sample. Thesampling-mediated effectis negativeas a higher
a
f
leads to a largersample
portion,whichin turn decreases the price. Which ofthe two effects dominates depends ontheinitial
level ofadvertisingrevenues: If
a
f
islow,thefirmshouldshiftdemandtothe freeversionwhereasthe
firm should not do so if
a
f
is high. If the ratio of
a
f
/¯v
exceeds 0.45, the optimal sample portion will
be a boundary solution,thatis eitherequal to 0 (no sample) orequal to1 (no paidversion). However,
it is unlikely that corner solutions occur as we can predict an optimal sample portion for cases for
advertising revenues as highas 45% ofthehighestvaluation
¯v
.Second,asa larger
¯v
calls fora smaller
sample portion, the sampling-mediated effect is positive, which further reinforces the positive direct
effect. Therefore, the firm should increase its price to skim consumers’ higher valuations and accept
lower sales from the paid version. Third, as changes in
¯q
do not affect the optimal sample portion,
there is only a (positive) directeffect of
¯q
on price which leads the firm to increase its price to benefit
from higheradvertising revenuesfrom the freesample.
16
4.3 Case II
:
Targeting High-Valuation Consumers
Whenlow-valuationconsumers neverbuy,thefirm’s productmarketprofitis
π
2
(p
2
2
)= p
2
1−
p
2
(1 −α
2
)¯v
α
2
(p
2
−(1 −α
2
)¯q)
2
2(1 − α
2
)3¯v¯q
+a
f
p
2
(1 −α
2
)¯v
,
andthebest-response functionis givenby
p
2
2
)=
1−α
2
2
2¯q+
(4 −3α
2
2
)¯q− 6α
2
((1 −α
2
)¯v + a
f
)
¯q
.
(6)
Proposition3. Whentargetinghigh-valuationconsumers,theoptimalsampleportionischaracterizedby
α
2
(a
f
,¯v, ¯q)=
2
¯q(2¯v − ¯q)− (a
f
+¯v)
(2¯v − ¯q)
.
(7)
If
¯q < 2¯v
,the optimal sampleportion is (i) decreasing in
a
f
,(ii)increasing in
¯v
,and (iii) increasing in
¯q
.
Wenowprovideanintuitiveexplanationforthesecomparativestaticsresults.
12
First,anincreasein
a
f
leads tohigheradvertising revenues. However, thefirm has anincentive to shiftdemandfrom the
freetothepaidversion,sinceitoffersalargesampleportionwhentargetinghigh-valuationconsumers.
Second, anincrease in
¯v
leads to a reduction inthe demand forthe free sample since more consumers
chooseto buy initially. Tocompensateforthecorrespondingloss inrevenue,the firm hasan incentive
to offer a larger sample portion. Third, a larger experienced quality
¯q
leads to a greater demand for
the paid version, whichgives the firm anincentive to increase
α
and thereby the demand forthe free
sample.
Similartothetargeting-all-consumers strategy,thereis aninverserelationshipbetweenthepriceof
the paid versionandthe sample portion,asfollows.
Claim 2. Whentargetinghigh-valuationconsumers,offeringalargersampleportiongoesalongwithalower
price for thepaid version of theproduct, sincethe slope ofthebest-response functionis negative whenevaluated
at the optimal sampleportion
α
,that is,
dp
2
2
)/dα
2
|
α
2
2
<0
.
Thenext propositioncharacterizes the optimal priceand its comparativestatics properties.
12
WeshowinSection4.4thattherestriction
¯q <2¯v
isalwaysfulfilledundertheconditionsofCaseII.
17
Proposition 4. Whentargetinghigh-valuationconsumersand
¯q < 2¯v
,the optimal price
p
2
(a
f
,¯v,¯q)
is (i)
increasing in
a
f
,(ii) decreasing in
¯v
,and (iii) increasing in
¯q
.
First,thecomparativestaticseffectof
a
f
onpriceresultsfromthepositivesampling-mediatedeffect
beingdominatedbythenegativedirecteffect. Tounderstandthisatfirstglancecounter-intuitiveeffect,
note that the demand of the free version is large and the sampling-induced demand is small when
targeting high-valuationconsumers. As the firm already earnpossible advertising revenues from the
free sample, the firm has an incentive to increase its price to increase the revenues from initial and
sample induced demand. Further, an increase in
¯v
leads to higher initial demand. Intuitively, the
firm’s incentive to lower theprice stems fromthe factthata reductioninprice further increasesinitial
demand (both the sampling-mediated and the direct effect are negative). Third, the direct effect of a
higher
¯q
on price is positive, i.e. higher experienced quality results in a higher price. Although the
sampling-mediated effect is negative,thefirmhas an incentive to increase its price to furtherincrease
its sampling-induced demand.
4.4 Optimal Strategy
We have shownhowquality experience
¯q
determineswhetherthe firm shouldfocus ondemand from
all consumers orhigh-valuation consumers only fora givenprice
p
and sample portion
α
.Inthis sec-
tionweshowthatthe ratioofexperiencedtoexpectedquality determinesthefirm’s targetingstrategy
and that the firm should never offer a free sample when experienced quality is lower than expected
quality.
The following lemma characterizes how optimal firm strategy is determined by the proportionof
the twoquality levels
¯v
and
¯q
.
Lemma 5. Theoptimalsampleportion
α
i
(a
f
,¯v, ¯q)
is homogeneous of degree 0 in (
a
f
,¯v, ¯q
)and the optimal
price
p
i
(a
f
,¯v, ¯q) = p
i
i
(a
f
,¯v,¯q);a
f
,¯v, ¯q)
is homogeneous of degree 1 in
(a
f
,¯v,¯q)
.
Thefirststatementallowsus to scaleparameters byany positivenumber—andthusspecifically by
afactor of
1/¯v
—without changing the optimal sample portion, so that
α
i
(a
f
,¯v, ¯q) = α
i
(a
f
/¯v,1, ¯q/¯v)
.
We therefore reduce the dimensionof the parameterspace and study the set of admissible parameter
constellations
a
f
and
¯q
measuredin terms of
¯v
graphically. The secondstatementsimplymeans that a
givenproportional change in parameter values leads to the same proportional change in the optimal
price.
18
(4a) Case I
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
(4b) CaseII
Figure4: Parameter Combinations andOptimal Strategies.
With this inmind, we determine the parameter combinations that lead to targeting all consumers
(Case I) vs. targeting high valuation consumers (Case II) as strategy, illustrated in Figure 4, which
utilized the normalization
¯v ≡ 1
. The two shaded areas define, respectively, the set of admissible
parameterconstellations forthetargeting-all-consumersandthetargeting-high-valuations-consumers
strategies. The bordersof theseareas are definedby theconditions
¯q ≥
p
1
1−α
1
,
¯q ≥
p
1
α
1
(1 −α
1
)
,
and
¯v ≥
p
1
1−α
1
(Case I)
and
¯q ≥
p
2
1− α
2
,
¯q ≤
p
2
α
2
(1 − α
2
)
,
and
¯v ≥
p
2
1−α
2
,
(Case II)
respectively, which are unaffected by proportional changes in parameter values.
13
Inspection of Fig-
ure4 revealsthattheratioof
¯q/¯v
(herereducedtojust
¯q
)determinesoptimal firmstrategy,independent
ofthe level ofadvertisingrevenuesperconsumer. Thefirm shouldtargetall consumersif experienced
quality noticeably exceeds expectedquality.
14
In contrast, the firm shouldtarget only high-valuation
consumers if consumers’ experienced quality is close to expected quality. The figure reveals further
that the firm should neveroffer a free sample whenexpected quality exceeds experiencedquality. To
put this result into perspective, recall that the firm has private information about the distribution of
13
ThefirstrestrictionisderivedfromCondition1,thesecondfromConditions 2aand2b,andthethirdfromourassump-
tionthatinitialdemandispositive,which is
¯v >p/(1−α)
.
14
Put differently, this condition requires that average experienced quality exceeds average expected quality under our
assumptionsonthedistributionofqualities.
19
expected and experiencedquality and hence about
¯v
and
¯q
.Given this knowledge,thefirm can easily
choosetheappropriatesampling strategy.
Morespecifically, inspectionof the figureshows that targeting-high-valuation-consumers strategy
is appropriate if the consumers have “rational” expectations in the sense that the distributions of ex-
pected and experienced qualities coincide (
¯v = ¯q
). However, if
¯q > ¯v
,the optimal sampling strategy
depends on the specificparameter constellations, as follows. The targeting-all-consumers strategy is
anoptimalstrategyifandonlyifexperiencedqualityexceedsexperiencedqualitybyafactorofatleast
1.5. In contrast, the targeting-high-valuation-consumers strategy is appropriate if
¯q
is close to
¯v
and
doesnotexceeditby a factor ofmorethan1.2. The nextsectionpresentsa moregeneral model which
covers quality ratios between1.2 and 1.5.
5 Model Extensions
We broaden our proposed model by relaxing and generalizing some of the assumptions regarding
consumers updating behavior and firms’ revenue streams. Specifically, we allow both updating of
expectations to be more general and for a firm to receive advertising revenues from the paid version
as well as the free sample. First, consumers who take a free sample of an information good may not
update their initial valuation as a linear multiple of the sample portion as proposed in (1). To allow
consumerstoputadifferentweightonexperiencedqualitybasedonthesampleportion,wegeneralize
the updatingruleas follows:
v
b
q+(1 −α
b
)v
,
(8)
where
b> 0
is the weight consumers place on experienced quality in updating their prior valuation
v
. When
b< 1
,consumers put more weight on the sample portionand thus onexperiencedquality,
whereas if
b> 1
,consumers place less weight on experienced quality (as they might if the expected
quality tobe highly variable). Notethat
b= 1
represents a marketwherethe weightontheexperience
withthe freesampleis equal totheportionofthe value oftheinformationgoodofferedforfree which
was the initial assumptionin(1).
Second, firms receive in many cases advertising revenues not only from the free sample but also
from thepaidversionoftheinformationgood. Toconsiderthissecondsource of advertisingrevenues
20
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested