view pdf in asp net mvc : Add hyperlink pdf file SDK Library project wpf asp.net web page UWP What%20is%20identity%20(as%20we%20now%20see%20the%20world)2-part1034

whenraisingachild(therolefunction),anditmakessensetohavesomegeneralprinciples,
whichKrepscall\corporateculture,"touseasroughguidesformakingdecisionsasthese
situationsarise.Theguidelinesmightbecastasmoralvirtues(\goodmothersareprotective
oftheirchildren"),asrulesofthumb(\don’ttrustmembersofanotherclan"),orcorporate
guidelines (\the e customer r is s always s right"). . These e principles or guidelines s are e the social
contentofsuchidentitiesandareoftenthesubjectsofpoliticaldispute.
Kreps’ main argument t was s that the principles (in my terms, content) constituting
corporateandotheridentitiesmightbeexplainedasinstrumentallyusefultotheirbearers,
onthegroundsthatidentityprinciplescanallowapersonorrmtodevelopandmaintaina
reputation,whichcanbeavaluableasset. Thereareotherreasonsthatprinciplesofaction
enteringintothe content ofanidentity mightbe instrumentallyusefultothebearer. . For
example,theymightsimplyreduceconfusionandfacilitatetheachievementofvariousends
indiversecircumstances,bycoordinatingpeoples’expectationsabouthowtoactandwhat
todoinvariousencounters. Schelling(1960,92)observedthat
The concept of role in sociology, , which explicitly y involves s the e expectation that
othershaveaboutone’sbehavior,aswellasone’sexpectationsabouthowothers
will behave e toward him, , can in part t be e interpreted d in terms of the stability of
\convergentexpectations,"ofthesametypethatareinvolvedin[a]coordination
game. Oneistrappedinaparticularrole,orbyanother’srole,becauseitisthe
onlyrolethatinthecircumstancescanbeidentiedbyaprocessoftacitconsent.
Schelling’s suggestionisthatroleidentities (atleast)might beusefully seenas analogous
to focalequilibria incoordinationproblems,that is, , as s socialconventions like driving on
therightsideoftheroad,orlanguage,wherewegenerallydonotcarewhichsetofsounds
correspondstoanobjectorideaaslongasweallcoordinateonthesamesounds.
Anumber ofresearchtraditionshavestressedtheargumentthatidentitiescanhave
acoerciveorconstrainingaspect,whichisusuallyexplainedintermsoftheindividualpsy-
chologicaleectsofsocialcategorization.
24
Thinkingaboutsystemsofsocialcategoriesas
coordination equilibria a might t shed a dierent t sort t of light on the coercive side e of f social
24
TwoexamplesfromverydierenttraditionsaredeBeauvoir(1980)andTurner(1987).
19
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identity. Animportantfeatureofcoordinationproblemsisthatindividualscanbetrapped
inabadequilibrium. Itmaymakenosenseforanindividualtodeviatefromtheconven-
tion(here,toactagainsttheidentity)giventhatothersarefollowingtheconvention,even
thoughtheindividualmightprefer adierentconvention (here,adierent formulationof
socialcategoriesandtheircontent). Noonecanunilaterallychangethecontentorrulesof
membershipforasocialcategory;this canonlybeaccomplishedthroughcollectiveaction
that recoordinates beliefs s and d expectations.
25
Ireturn brie y to this point below w inthe
discussionofhowidentities-as-social-categoriesexplainactions.
6 PersonalIdentity
Asked toexplainthemeaning of \identity"inthesenseofpersonalidentity, oneisagain
tempted to o begin n with h a a formulation n like e \how a a person denes s who o he or she e is; ; self-
denitionorself-understanding."Onceagain,however,it isapparentthattherearemany
dierentwaysthatapersonmightdenewhoheorsheis.Whichonecorrespondstopersonal
identity? And\self-understanding"isreallytoobroadandvaguetoberight. Manythings
mightreasonablybeincludedin\self-understanding"thatwewouldnotsayaremattersof
identity.
26
Whenwesaythatmyidentity is \who Iam,"we mean\whoIreallyam,"insome
sortofessentialorfundamentalway.Wearetalkingaboutanaspectofourselvesthatisin
somewayimportanttous. Itwouldgoagainstusageandourunderstandingoftheconcept
tosay thatsomeaspect ofone’s(personal)identity was amatter ofcompleteindierence
{thatonecouldtakeitorleaveitwithtotalequanimity. Theproblemofexplainingwhat
personalidentityis(aswetalkaboutit)istheproblemofstatingwhataspectsofaperson
itreferstoandpreciselyinwhatsensetheseareimportantor\essential."
InSourcesofthe Self: : TheMaking g ofthe Modern Identity,CharlesTaylorseems to
takethisapproach. Hesays: \...thequestionofidentity... isoftenspontaneouslyphrased
25
SeeLaitin(1998)andMackie(1996)fordevelopedexamplesofthisapproach.
26
ThisiswhyIamskepticalofBrubakerandCooper(1999)suggestionthat\self-understanding"ismore
precisethan\identity"incertaincontexts.
20
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bypeopleintheform:WhoamI?...What[answers]thisquestionforusisanunderstanding
ofwhatisofcrucialimportancetous"(p.27).Thiscan’tberightasstated,sinceoxygen,
theCleanAir Act,andlots of other things may be important to mebutnot be part of
my identity. . Taylorproceeds s byputtingrestrictions onthethingsidentity consistsofand
thesense inwhichthey are important: : \My y identity is denedby thecommitments and
identicationswhichprovidetheframeorhorizonwithinwhichIcantrytodeterminefrom
case to case what is good, , or r valuable, , or r what ought to be done, , or r what Iendorse or
oppose" (p. 27). . Thus, , in n Taylor’s interpretation, personal identity y is a personal l moral
codeorcompass,asetofmoralprinciples,ends,orgoalsthatapersonusesasanormative
frameworkandaguidetoaction.
Taylorisofcoursefreetostipulate\identity"ashepleasesforhisparticularanalytical
ends,butIdonotthinkthatthisstatementdoesagoodjobofmakingsenseoftheconcept
asitis presently understood. . Without t adoubt,whatpeoplespeak ofastheir (personal)
identitiesoftenincludespersonalmoralcodesandnormativeframeworksseenasimportant.
Butotherthingscanbesensiblyincludedinastatementofpersonalidentity thatarenot
understoodtobeaboutmoralorientationandcommitment.
Forexample,considerapersonwhoadoptsanidiosyncratic(orjustpersonal)styleof
dress{say,hewearsabrightlycoloredbowtiealmosteveryday.Aftermanyyearsofpurple-
bow-tie-wearing,thepersonmightwellsay thatthis waspartofhisidentity,eventhough
neitherhenoranyoneelseviewsthisaspectofhisidentityasamatterofmoralorientationor
evaluativeframework. Andthisisnotabizarreorexceptionalcounterexample. Especiallyin
populardiscourse,the\questionofidentity"isfrequentlyinterpretedtobeaquestionabout
personalstyle {theway apersondistinguishes himselforherselfbymeans ofconsciously
chosenmannersofdress,speech,culturallikesanddislikes,andsoon.Whileitisoftentrue
thatchoicesofpersonalstyleinvokeorexpressmoralframeworksbyindicatingmembership
inasocialcategory(thatis,bysignalingasocialidentity),thisisnotnecessarilythecase,
asthebow-tieexampleshows. Indeed,quiteoftentheverynotionofpersonalstyleentails
distinguishingoneselfasanindividualandthusemphaticallynotasamemberofagroup.
Thesamecanbesaidaboutidentity. Inpopulardiscourse,wewillacceptstatements s ofa
21
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person’sidentity phrasedinterms ofmembershipinsocialcategories,butalsostatements
thatmakenoreferencetogroupmembership. Yourpersonalidentitymaybeexpressedas
thatwhichdistinguishesyouasanindividualfromotherindividuals.
27
So\personalidentity isfundamentalmoralorientation"istoonarrow. . Theexample
ofpersonalstylealso undermines severalother ways wemighttry tospecify the sense of
\whatisveryimportantoressentialtousbeingwhoweare."First,recognizingthataperson
mightanswerthequestion\Whoareyou?"bydeclaringmembershipinmanydierentsocial
categories,dependingonthecontext,wemighttryanapproachthatsayspersonalidentity
isthesocialcategorythatismostimportanttoaperson’swayoflife.
28
Thatis,mypersonal
identityisthesocialidentitywhosecontentIammostcommittedtoormotivatedby,theone
thattrumpsotherswhenIhavetomakechoiceswhichimplyviolatingthenormativecontent
ofone or anotherofmy socialidentities. . Without t doubt,itisoftenthe case that people
understand their personalidentityinterms ofmembershipinaparticularsocialcategory.
But,astheexampleofpersonalstyleshows,thisisnotnecessary. Personalidentitymaybe
conceivedintermsthatintentionallyeschewgroupaliations.
Second,asintimatedearlier,theexampleofpersonalstyleunderminesanattemptto
makesenseofourpresentconceptofidentityinthetermsofthephilosophers’long-standing
debateaboutidentity. Suchadenitionwouldsaythatpersonalidentityconsists s ofthose
propertiesofapersonthatcannotbealteredwithoutmakingthesubjectadierentperson.
Butifapersonchangesherpersonalstyle,wewouldnotsaythatsheisadierentperson,
exceptinametaphorical ourish,andthisisnotwhatphilosophershaveinmindwhenthey
aretalkingaboutthesortofpropertiesthatdene\personalidentity"intheirsense.
29
When
wesaythatone’sidentityconsistsofwhatis\essential"tobeingwhooneis,wedon’tmean
27
Inaddition,notallgroupaliationsthatmightenterintoaperson’sunderstandingoftheiridentityneed
entailself-consciousmoralframeworks(e.g.,abowlingclub).
28
In thesymbolicinteractionisttradition,thisideahasbeen calledthe \saliencehierarchy."SeeStryker
(1987).
29
SeePerry(1975)andRorty(1976). Thedebatein n analyticphilosophyproceedsmainlyfromcritiques
and defenses ofLocke’s argumentthat the identityof aperson consists in acontinuityofperception and
memoryofexperiences.
22
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\essential"inthephilosophicalsenseofconstitutive,butratherinamoreordinarysenseof
important.
Third, sometimes s peoplespeak oftheir personalidentity asconsisting ofaspects of
themselves that t they feel l powerless to o change, , or which in their r experience they y cannot
choose,suchassexualorientationormembershipinasocialcategory. Clearly,adenition
putinthesetermsalonewouldnotcapturethewholesenseoftheconcept,becausewewill
alsoadmitasaspectsofpersonalidentity thingsthatarethesubjectofdeliberatechoice,
likepersonalstyle.
Evidentlythethingswewillacceptasconstitutingpersonalidentityareavariedlot.It
isclearthatpersonalidentityconsistsofasetofaspectsorattributesofaperson.Thesemay
bephysicalattributes(e.g.,beingtallorred-headedmightgureintoapersonalidentity),
membership insocialcategories,person-specic beliefs,goals,desires,moralprinciples,or
mattersofpersonalstyle. Second,theymustbeaspectsorattributesofthepersonthatthe
personisconsciousof,andwhichdistinguishthepersonfromatleastsomeothers. Having
anoddlyshapedgallbladdercannotbeacomponentofmyidentityifIdon’tknowaboutit.
Norwoulditmakesensetosay\Acrucialpartofmyidentityismystatusasavertebrate"
(orearthdweller,orevenhumanbeing).
Beyondthiscondition,Iamunabletodiscernany singlecriterion n thatpicksoutall
andonlythoseattributesthatwewillincludeasconstitutingpersonalidentity. ThebestI
candoisasetofthreethingsthatcoversallthecasesIcanthinkof.Therstonecaptures
whatismostcommonlymeantinordinarylanguageuseof\identity."
Veryfrequently, the e attributes or r aspects of f a person that t are e reported as s making
uppersonalidentity are e aspects s in n which the person takes s a a specialpride or theloss of
which would entail aloss of self-respect. My y unusual l height, my beautifulred hair, my
personalstyle,mytalentedchildren,myoccupation,myethnicorreligiousidentity,mymoral
or political l convictions, my y life-term goals, , the e specic localculture I belong to (sexual,
neighborhood,country club, , etc.) ) { { allof these are things that might be understood as
makingupone’spersonalidentity,andreportedasthingsthespeakerisproudofandwants
toannouncetoothersasmarksofdistinction.Thethingsthatweunderstandtodistinguish
23
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usasindividualsandwhichwetakeprideinareofcoursethingsthatareimportanttous,
becauseingeneralpeopledesiretothinkwellofthemselves. Quiteoften,weunderstandas
personalidentitythoseaspectsofourselvesthatformthebasisforourself-esteem.
This formulation n helps s explain n how we e understand identity to be e such h a powerful
motivatorofactionandhowmattersofidentitycanengagesuchdeepandpowerfulemotions.
Whyisitthatactionsthat\violateone’sidentity"mayberejectedalmostindependentof
theirmaterialconsequences? Quiteoften,theansweristhatsuchactionswouldundermine
aperson’s basis forthinkingwell l of himself or r herself. . Thus, , statements s such as \ethnic
con ictsareparticularlypronetoviolencebecausetheyinvolvemattersofidentity"might
beexplainedasfollows:Ethniccon ictsarepronetoviolencebecausemembershipinethnic
categoriesisoftenanimportantbasisforpeoples’senseofself-worthordignity,andthreatsto
thissenseareingenerallikelytoproducepowerfulemotionalreactions.
30
Thisformulation
also suggests s a a straightforwardexplanation for why nationalism, , particularly y in n its s more
\ethnic" articulations, , often seems s to appealmost strongly to people with relatively low
socio-economicstatus.
31
Ifoccupationandsocialrankarenotavailableassources ofself-
esteembecauseoneacceptstheprevailingvaluationofsuchsocialcategories,thennational
and ethnic categories (in which membership p is s automatic) may y be e invested with greater
signicance.
32
30
Horowitz(1985,chap. 3)developstheargumentthatethniccon ictingeneralresultsfromthepursuit
ofafeelingofcomparativeself-worth. SeealsoTajfel(1982)andsocialidentitytheoryinsocialpsychology
moregenerally. Calhoun(1991)isaexampleofthiskindofargumentinanonethnicsetting.
31
An often-citedinstanceisthesuccessofnationalismatmobilizingworkersforwarin1914,tothepuz-
zlementandconsternationofsocialistleadersatthetime. Seealsothebriefessayonthepsychologicalbasis
ofBalkannationalismbyDaniloKis,reprintedinThompson(1992,336). Hewrites\Thiskindofprole,
which ts all l nationalists, can n be freelyelaborated toits conclusion: : thenationlist t is,as arule,equally
piingas asocialbeingand as anindividual... . heis s anonentity."Margalitand Raz(1990)arguethat
nationalidentityisappealingasalocusforpoliticalrightspreciselybecauseitistypicallyamatterofbirth
ratherthan achievement,andthegoodofself-respectismorereliablyfoundedonsomethingthatcan’tbe
takenawayfromus.
32
As Laitin(1998)suggests,itmightbeinterestingtothinkofthisin Hirschman’s (1970) ) termsofexit
(tryingtoavoidthehumiliatingconsequencesofmembershipinonecategorybydeningoneselfintermsof
another,morehighlyvaluedcategory),voice(mobilizingtotrytochangethesocialvaluationofacategory
towhichoneisassigned),andloyalty(acceptingmembershipinapoorlyvaluedcategoryasone’sfateand
essence).
24
Onceagain,however,this statement ofthe concept’smeaning{personalidentity is
thoseaspectsofapersonthatformthebasisforhisorhersenseofself-worthanddistinction
{isopentonon-trivialcounterexamples. Considerthefollowingtwo.First,anelderlyman
orwomanwhohaslivedinthesameneighborhoodformanyyearsandhasaveryestablished
dailyroutineandpersonalstyle.Itisperfectlypossiblethatthepersontakesnospecialpride
inmanyaspectsofthisroutineandstyle.Itisjustalong-establishedhabitualwayofliving.
Consider the question\Why don’tyoubuy thatpair ofshoes,or that car,or why don’t
youtakeayogaclass?"Althoughtheanswermightnotbephrasedintermsof\identity,"
wewould recognize(orlabel)areply y like\Ijust couldneverdothat"or \Ijustcouldn’t
imaginemyselfdoingthat"asbeingastatementofpersonalidentity.Tosay\themancould
notdothisbecauseitwasinconsistentwithhisidentity"wouldbeaperfectly respectable
usageoftheterm. Andthismightbethecaseevenifthemanwasnotsaying(ineect)\I
can’tdothisbecauseitisinconsistentwiththeprinciplesofactionofthesocialcategoryI
amamember of"or\Ican’tdothisbecauseitwouldgoagainstsomeaspectofmyselfin
whichItakeaspecialpride."
Forthe secondcounterexample, , consider r amanwhotries foryearsto livea typical
heterosexuallife,buteventuallydecides\Ican’tkeepdoingthis.TryasImighttodenyit,
IhavetoacceptthefactthatIamgay. Thisisjustafactaboutmyidentity,orwhoIam."
Thisisagainaperfectlyrespectableusageoftheword,butinthisexamplethepersontakes
nospecialprideinwhatheconcludestobeacrucialcomponentofhis(personalandsocial)
identity.Rather,itmayevenbesomethingheisashamedof.
Idon’tknowhowtotreatthesecounterexamplesexceptalittlearbitrarily. Hencethe
denition:
Personalidentityisasetofattributes,beliefs,desires,orprinciplesofactionthat
apersonthinks distinguishherinsociallyrelevantways andthat(a)theperson
takes a specialpridein; ; (b) ) the persontakes nospecial l pride e in, , but t whichso
orientherbehaviorthatshewouldbeatalossabouthowtoactandwhattodo
withoutthem;or(c)thepersonfeelsshecouldnotchangeevenifshewantedto.
Conditions(b)and(c)areintendedtodealwiththecounterexamples. (b)recognizes
thatwesometimes interpretpersonalidentityintermsofaset ofprinciples orrules that
25
fundamentally orient andstructure our behaviorbutwhichmay have littlemoralcontent
orsignicanceasbasesofself-esteem;theyarejustruleswithoutwhichwewouldn’tknow
howtoactorwhattodo.(c)recognizesthatwecanunderstandpersonalidentitytoinvolve
desiresthatweexperienceasbeyondourcontrol,ormembershipinasocialcategorythat
wecannotescapeevenifwewouldliketo,independentofhowsuchdesiresorsocialidentity
enterintoourself-esteem.
7 ExplainingActionswithIdentities
Above,Inotedthat ifweseethat oneside ofthemeaning of\identity" isessentially the
basisofone’sdignityorselfrespect,itbecomeslessmysterioushowthisambiguousconstruct
canpowerfully motivateactions. . InthissectionIusetheprecedinganalysis s oftheword’s
currentmeaningto developa broader account ofthedierent ways thatidentity may be
involvedintheexplanationofaction. Especially y insocialscience,scholars oftenwantthe
conceptofidentitytodothis kindofwork. . Indeed,someviewidentity y asinterestingand
importantpreciselybecauseitisthoughttoexplainactionsthatotherapproaches,suchas
rationalchoice,cannot.Alternatively,itisarguedthatstandardrationalistorintentionalist
explanationsofactionmustpresumeorrestonanaccountofidentitiestobeginwith.
33
A
clearaccountofthemeaningof\identity"wouldseemtobeapreconditionformakingsuch
argumentscoherent.
Followingtheanalysisabove,Iwouldarguethatidentitycangureintotheexplanation
of action in two main ways, which parallelthe two sides of the word’s present meaning.
Recallthat\identity"canmeaneitherasocialcategoryor,inthesenseofpersonalidentity,
distinguishingfeaturesofapersonthatformthebasisofhisorherdignityorself-respect.
Accordingly,\identity"canexplainactionseitherinthesensethatmembershipinasocial
categorycanexplainactions,orinthesensethatthedesiretogainordefendone’sdignity
orself-respectcanexplainactions.
33
Forexamplesofbothviewsininternationalrelations,seeWendt(1994)andRingmar(1996).
26
7.1 Actionsexplained d byreferencetosocialcategories
Someexamples:
1.Why didAgrababottle,pouradrink,handittoB,andtakesomemoney fromB?
BecauseAisabartender.
2.Luckily,therewasadoctorontheairplane,whowasabletoresuscitatetheheartattack
victimwithCPR.
3.Thoughshewasextremelytired,shemadepleasantsmalltalkbecauseshewasaguest
intheirhouse.
4.TheGermansintheroomchosenottoparticipateinthesingingoftheMarseillaise.
5.Whyishewearingaturban?BecauseheisaSikh.
Weconstantlyexplainactionsbyreferringtomembershipinsocialcategories(andthus
toidentitiesinthissense). Intheshortformillustratedbytheexamples,theseareoften
\explanationsketches"whichmaynotbenotverygoodexplanationsbythemselves. How,
then,doesagoodexplanation-by-reference-to-a-social-categorywork?
Unpacked, an explanation of f action n by reference e to o social l identity is s frequently y an
explanation interms s of f social norms, or r standards of f conduct that cantake the generic
form\Goodpeopledo(ordonotdo) XinsituationsA,B,C ..."
34
WhatIearlier called
thecontentofasocialcategoryis frequently madeupofnorms attachedtoorassociated
withmembershipinthecategory. Thisistrueforroleidentities,likebartender,professor,
orprimeminister;fortypeidentities,likenationality,ethnicity,sexuality,andgender;and
forsocialcategoriesthathavestrongelementsofbothroleandtype,likemotherorfather.
Thus,explaining aperson’s actionby referring toasocialidentity frequently amounts to
sayingthatthepersonwasfollowinganormassociatedwiththecategory,asineachofthe
examplesgivenabove.Theexamplescantakethegeneralform\MembersofcategoryXare
supposedtodo(oroughttodo)YinsituationsA,B,C..."
34
ThisslightlymodiesElster’s(1989,98)formulation{\Thesimplestsocialnormsareofthetype‘DoX’,
or‘Don’tdoX’"{whichIthinkmistakenlyincludesrulesofprudencesuchas\Alwayslockyourcar."We
typicallydonotconsideraruleofconducttobeasocialnormunlessasharedmoralassessmentisattached
toitsobservanceornon-observance. Elsterrecognizesthiswhenheaddstheconditionthat\Fornormsto
besocial,theymustbe(a)sharedbyotherpeopleand(b)partlysustainedbytheirapprovalordisapproval"
(1989,99,emphasisinoriginal).
27
Thereareotherwaysbesidesreferencetosocialnormsthatsocialidentitycanbeheld
toexplainchoices. Forinstance,themembersofasocialcategorymightbeunderstoodto
sharecertainbeliefs,desires (preferences),orhabitsthatmighthelpexplaintheiractions,
even thoughthe beliefs,desires,or habits have no normativeaspect. . Inotherwords,the
content ofasocialcategorymayincludeother things besidesnorms. . Forexample,\Why
is hetalking soloudly? ? BecauseheisanAmerican" " explainsanactionbyreferringto a
preferenceorhabitsaidtobecharacteristicofmembersofacategory,butitisnotthecase
thatAmericansaresupposedtotalkloudly.
Nonetheless,explanationbyreferencetosocialidentitymostoftenamountstoexplana-
tionbyreferencetosocialnormsassociatedwiththerelevantsocialcategory(orcategories).
Thenextnaturalquestion,then,ishowexactlydoesinvokingasocialnormexplainanac-
tion? WhileIcannotdojusticetothisproblemhereoranywhere,afewremarkssuceto
showthatsocialidentityasanexplanatoryconceptstandsinforexplanationinmorebasic
terms,andtosuggestthatweoftenwouldbebetterogoingtotheheartofthematter{
explanationintermsofnorms.
Afullexplanationofanactioninterms ofanormassociatedwithanidentityneeds
todoatleasttwothings. First,wewouldliketoknowwhatistheperson’smotivationor
reasonforactinginaccordwiththenorm,andthus,withthedictatesofthesocialidentity.
Second,wemaywantanaccountofwhythisparticularactionisanorm,ratherthanother
possibilities. Forinstance,whyareSikhmensupposedtowearturbans?
Bothquestions canhavemultipleanswers. . Ontherst,anysubsetofthefollowing
motivationsandreasonsmayexplainwhyoneabideswithanorminparticularcases:
1.Onemight believe that followingthenormistheright thingtodo,whetherbecause
ofearly socializationor one’s independentjudgement andexperience. . Relatedly,one
mightwanttofollowthenormbecause onewouldthink badly ofoneselfotherwise {
failingtofollowthenormwouldundermineone’spride,dignity,orself-respect. (This
isoftencalled\internalization.")
2.Onemightbemotivatedtofollowthenormbecauseonedesirestheapprovalofothers,
irrespectiveofanyactionstheymighttake.
3.One might want to follow a normbecause otherwise one will l be e sanctioned (or not
rewarded)bytheactionsofothers. Forinstance,abartendermayfollowthenormsof
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Documents you may be interested