Chapter3:ManagingTextDocumentsWithWriter
TheStyleConceptinOpenOffice.org
Stylesforcharacters,paragraphs,frames,numberedlistsandpages(orcellsintables)are
alwayssavedwiththedocument.Ifwanted,onecancopytheStylesofonedocumentto
anotherdocumentandchoosewhetherorenottooverwrite(replace)Stylesofthesame
name.
OnenicefeatureofOpenOffice.orgisthatonecanturnanydocument,includingthe
Character,Paragraph,Frame,NumberingandPageStylesitcontains,intoatemplate.When
anewdocumentbasedonthistemplateisopened,allthoseStylesareavailabletotheuser.
OpenOffice.orgcomewithpredefinedStylesforalldocumenttypes.Thus,whenanewtext
documentisopenedusingFile>New>TextDocument,anew,blankdocumentisopened
withthesefixedsettings.Onemayaddormodifythestylesusedwithadocumentaswork
progressesand,ifdesired,thisdocumentcanbeturnedintoadefaulttemplate“bysavingit
viaFile“>Templates>Save.AnyStylesthatarecustomdefinedandarecontainedinthe
defaulttemplatewillthenapplytoallnewdocumentscreatedwiththistemplate.
TheStylesintheStylesandFormattingWindow
OpentheStylesandFormattingwindowbyselectingFormat>StylesandFormattingor
bypressingF11orbyclickingtheStylesandFormattingiconontheFormattingtoolbar.
AlltheStylesandFormattingwindowfunctionsareexplainedinOpenOffice.orgHelp.
AtthetopoftheStylesandFormattingwindowareiconsforselectingtheStyletypeto
display.Theseare,fromlefttoright:Paragraph,Character,Frame,Page,NumberingStyles,
FillFormatMode,NewStylefromSelectionandUpdateStyle.
ThescrollingframeoftheStylesandFormattingwindowliststhoseavailablestylesinthe
activeStylecategorythatisspecifiedinthelistboxatthebottomoftheStylesand
Formattingwindow.
Forexample,inthegraphicbelow,theword“Automatic”isselectedinthelistbox.Writer
offerstheStylesthatmakesenseinthatcontext.ToseealltheStylesofaStyletype,select
“AllSt yles”fromthelistbox.
ParagraphStyles
SelectParagraphStyles,ifitisnotalreadyselected,byclickingtheParagraphStylesiconin
theStylesandFormattingwindow.ThelistofParagraphStylesappears.
OpenOffice.orgUserGuidefor2.x
77
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Chapter3:ManagingTextDocumentsWithWriter
Double­clickanentryinthelistofParagraphStyles.Theparagraphinwhichthecursoris
positionedwillnowbeformattedwiththatParagraphStyle.Double­clickintheStylesand
FormattingwindowonanotherParagraphStyle,andtheformattingofthecurrentparagraph
changesaccordingly.
Toformataparagraphasaheading,followthisprocedure:
1. TypethelinetobeformattedasaheadingandpresstheEnterkey.
2. Setthecursorinthatline.
3. OpentheStylesandFormattingwindow.Forexample,bypressingtheF11key.
4. Double­clicktheParagraphStyle“Heading1”.
Thisoneparagraphnowhastheparagraphformat“Heading1”.Ifonewantstoknow
whichattributesareincludedinthisparagraphformat,click“Heading1”intheStylesand
Formattingwindow,thenright­clicktoopenthecontextmenu.ThenchooseModifytoopen
theParagraphStyle:Heading1dialogue,whichtellseverythingaboutthepropertiesofthis
ParagraphStyle.
WhenonedecidesnottomodifythisParagraphStyle,simplyclosethedialoguebyclicking
theCancelbutton.But,thisParagraphStyleshoulddefinethecorrespondingmodifications
thenclosethedialoguewiththeOKbutton.Thesemodifiedsettingswillnowapplytoall
paragraphs(oldandnew)havingthe“Heading1”
ParagraphStyle.
ChangescanalsobeappliedthetoallParagraphStylesthatarederivedfromtheParagraph
Style“Heading1”.TheParagraphStyles“Heading1”to“Heading10 ”areall
hierarchicallyderivedfromtheParagraphStyle“Heading”.Byselecting
“Hierarchical”fromthelistboxatthebottom,onecanimmediatelyseewherea
selectedStylefitsinthehierarchyofstyles.Simplyput,thestyleimmediatelyhigherupis
theonefromwhichthestyleisderivedandthefollowingone,whichisderivedfromthe
customstyle.
OpenOffice.orgUserGuidefor2.x
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Chapter3:ManagingTextDocumentsWithWriter
Bywayofexample,ifonechangestheleftindentto2.54cm(1inch)intheParagraphStyle
“Heading”,forexample,thatthiswillchangetheleftindentforallParagraphStyles
“Heading1”to”Heading10”to2.54cm.Changesthatusersmakedirectlyinoneof
theStyledialogueshavepriorityovertheproperties“inherited”fromhigher­rankingStyles.
RightclickonastyleandopenitwithModifytogettheParagraphStylesdialogue“and
thenchoosetheOrganizetab.IftheLinkedwithlistboxischecked,onewillseefrom
whichStyletheselectedStyleisderived.
OpenOffice.orgUserGuidefor2.x
79
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Chapter3:ManagingTextDocumentsWithWriter
CharacterStyles
Inthefollowingillustration,theStylesandFormattingwindowdisplaysalistofavailable
CharacterStyles.TheseStylesdonotmodifythewholeparagraph,butonlythesingleword
inwhichthecursoriscurrentlypositionedoraselectedtextrange.
UseormodifythesuppliedStyles,ordefinecustomStylesandusethose.Thebestwayisto
startbyselectingaStylefromtheStylesandFormattingwindow(withasingleclick),which
maythenbeusedasthestartingpointforcreatingacustomStyle.One,then,merelyhasto
enterthepropertiesthataredifferentfromtheselectedStylesincetheotherpropertiesare
“inherited”fromtheparentStyle.
ThefollowingtabledescribesthebaseStylesandthevariousattributesavailable.
StyleType
AttributeSelection
Paragraph
StylesIndentsandSpacing,Alignment,Hyphenation,
Tabs,Font,Language,Initials
CharacterStyles
Font,FontSize,Language
FrameStyles
Position,Anchoring,Borders
PageStyles
Header,Footer,Margins,Columns
NumberingStyles
NumberingType,Outline,Bullets,AssigningNumbering
Styles
HierarchicalStyles
Stylescanbehierarchicallylinkedtoeachother.Thus,onedefinedStylecanbederivedfrom
anotherwiththeresultthatthenewStylecontainsonlythedifferencesfromthe“basic”
Style.Thisisconvenient,iflateronechangesthe“basic”Style,tohavealltextwiththe
derivedStylealsoupdatedaccordingly.
OpenOffice.orgUserGuidefor2.x
80
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Chapter3:ManagingTextDocumentsWithWriter
Forexample,startwiththeParagraphStyle“default”.Itusesthefont“TimesNew
Roman”in“12”pointtocreateaStylecalled“indentedtext”wheretheonlyaddition
isaaleftindentwithnootherchanges.Later,theuserdecidestochangethefontin“text
body”andthenthefontisautomaticallychangedinthe“indentedtext”Styleaswell.
Stickingwiththisexample,ifoneredefinedtheleftindentationinthe“default”,itwould
havenoeffectontheparagraphsformattedwith“indentedtext”because,inthe
hierarchy,themorecloselyassociatedformatalwayshaspriority.
NumberingStyles
SimplebulletingandnumberinginadocumentcanbeeasilysetusingtheiconsontheWriter
objectbar.Likewise,theiconsforbold,italicetcetera.canbeusedtoassigndirect
formattingthatisnotalreadypartoftheStyle.TheStylesandFormattingwindow,too,offers
variousNumberingStylesthatmaybeappliedbydouble­clickingthenameoftheStyle.
Formorecontrolofnumberinginadocument,useFormat>BulletsandNumberingwhich
offersseveralotheroptionsthatmaybemoresuitableandwhichcanbeusedtocreate
customstyles.
CreatingNewCharacterStylesorParagraphStyles
CreatinganewStyleonthebasisofanexistingStyleisastraightforwardprocess.The
followingisastep­by­stepprocedurewithwhichtostart:
a) Firstofall,applynew,directformattingtoanycharactersoranyparagraph,whichwill
becometheStyle.Todothis,eitherusethetextobjectbaroropentheFormatmenuand
chooseCharacterorParagraph.
b) Selectthetextorparagraphcontainingthenewformatting.Forwordsorparagraphs,
simplypositionthecursorintherespectivewordorparagraph.
c) AtthetopoftheStylesandFormattingwindow,clicktheParagraphStylesicontocreate
anewParagraphStyle.Likewise,clicktheCharacterStylesicontocreateanew
CharacterStyle.
d) AtthetopoftheStylesandFormattingwindow,clickNewStylefromSelection.This
openstheCreateStyledialogue.
e) EnteranameforthenewStyleandclickOK.
AscanbeseenintheStylesandFormattingwindow,anewStylehasbeencreatedinthe
“CustomSt yles”groupmakingitavailableforuseforindirectformattingindocuments.
AusermayalsocreateanewStylewithoutusinganexistingStyleasthestartingpoint.Here
isamethodbywhichtocreateanewparagraphstyle.
a) IntheStylesandFormattingwindow,chooseParagraphStylebyclickingitsicon.(the
onefarthesttotheleftintheStylesandFormattingwindowstoolbar.)
b) CallthecontextmenuoftheStylesandFormattingwindow(clickrightmousebutton).
c) ChooseNew...
d) EnterthedataforthedesiredStyle
OpenOffice.orgUserGuidefor2.x
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Chapter3:ManagingTextDocumentsWithWriter
e) closethedialoguewithOK.
YetanotherexampleshowshowtodefineaParagraphStyleforasubtitleandassumesthere
areseveralsubtitlesinthetextthatarecandidatesforformattingwithacustomParagraph
Style.
1. PositionthecursorinaparagraphinthetextthattoformatwiththenewParagraphStyle.
2. ApplyaParagraphStyletotheparagraphasaninitialformat.Thiswayonedoesnotneed
todefinealloftheattributesoneself.Forexample,double­clickonthe“Heading1”
ParagraphStyleintheStylesandFormattingwindow.
3. Theparagraphisnowformattedas“Heading1. ”
4. Highlighttheentireparagraph.Itwillappearhighlighted.
5. ModifythetypeofcharactersbyselectinganitalicfontintheCharacterdialogue
(ChooseFormat>Character>Font)orbyclickingtheItalicsicononthetextobject
bar.
6. IntheStylesandFormattingwindow,clickontheNewStylebyExampleiconandenter
anameforthenewStyleinthedialoguebox,forexample,“Head1”
7. ClickOK.
8. Nowapplythenew“Head1”ParagraphStylebyplacingthecursorintheparagraphand
double­clickingthe“Head1”StylenameintheStylesandFormattingwindow.
WherethedesiredStylealreadyexistsinadocument,selectandapplyitfromtheApply
Stylepull­downlistontheobjectbar.
CreatingDocumentTemplates
Foranyuser­definedParagraphorCharacterStylestobeavailableinotherdocuments,first
createatemplate.Itisbestifoneusesacurrentdocumentsothatthetemplatewillcontainall
theStyleswantedandneeded.Thefollowingstepswillhelpcreateanewtemplate:
1. Havethedocumentsopen.Ifdesired,deletealltextfromthecurrentdocument,leaving
onlytheStyles.
2. CallthemenucommandFile>Templates>Save.
3. InthedialogueDocumentTemplates,selectthecategoryintowhichtosavethetemplate.
IntheNewTemplatetextfield,enterthenameforthetemplate.
4. clickOKtocompletetheprocessofcreatingatemplate.
Withthetemplatesaved,thenexttimewhenFile>New>TemplatesandDocumentsis
usedtoselectatemplateforcreatingadocument,thistemplatewillselectablefromthose
available.Alltheuser­definedTextandParagraphStyleswillthenbeavailableforthenew
document.
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TheAdvantagesoftheStylesandFormattingWindow
FromtheprecedinginstructionsusersshouldnowknowhowtoapplythestylesintheStyles
andFormattingwindowtotext,howtoapplycustomStylesandhowtocreateatemplatethat
usesthesecustomstyles.ThisgivesanadvantageinthatStylesdonothavetoberedefined
everytime.PlusonecanapplyStylesfromonetextdocumenttoanothertextdocumentby
eitherselecting“Format>StylesandFormattingorbyopeningtheStyleandFormatting
windowandusingLoadStylesfromtheNewStylefrom
Selectiondropdown
menu.Inthisway,thedesiredformattingcanbeappliedtothe
documentquicklyand
easily.ButtheStylesandFormattingwindowoffersstillmorepossibilities.
FormattingMultipleParagraphs
Intheworkdescribedabove,thesameParagraphStyle“Heading1”wasappliedtoeach
ofseveralparagraphs.TheStylesandFormattingwindowcansavealotoftimeonthistask:
1.IntheStylesandFormattingwindow,selecttheStylethatshouldbeappliedonmultiple
paragraphsbyclickingtheStyleonce.
2.AtthetopoftheStylesandFormattingwindow,clickonthe
FillFormatMode
icon.Themousepointerchangestoasymbolindicatingthismodeassoonasitmovesback
intothedocument.
3.ClickonceoneveryparagraphinthetexttowhichtoapplytheselectedStyle.
4.Finally,toswitchoffthismode,clicktheFillFormatModeiconagainorpressthe
Escapekey.
ChangingaStyletheEasyWay
Thesectionprovidesascenarioformakingastylechangequickandeasy.Tostartonehas
usedthecustomStylemadeintheprevioussectionstoformatadocumentwiththenew
“Head1”Style.However,later,theusermaydecidethatitwouldlookbetteriftheheadings
werespacedwithslightlywidergapsbetweentheletters.Thefollowinggivesthestepsto
makingthischange:
1. Locatethelongestheadingformattedwiththe“Head1”Style“inthedocumentandclick
threetimesinthatheadingtoselecttheentireline.
2. Makethedesiredchanges.Tolockthecharacterspacing,usethismethod:
a) chooseFormat>Character,orchooseCharacterfromthecontextmenufor
theselectedline.
b) IntheCharacterdialogue,clickthePositiontabandintheSpacinglistbox
select“Expanded”.Inthespinbutton,increasethespacingtomaketheheading
wider.
c) ClosethedialoguewithOK.
3. NowadditionaldirectformattinghasbeenononeoftheheadingsformattedwiththeStyle
“Head1”.AlldirectandStyleformattingshouldnowbeaddedtothe“Head1”Paragraph
Style.ThisstyleisstillselectedintheStylesandFormattingwindow.
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4. AtthetopoftheStylesandFormattingwindow,click
theUpdateStyleicon.All
headingsformattedwith“Head1”willbe
automaticallyreformattedwith
themodifiedStyle.
Stylescanalsobeconfiguredtoadapttoanychangesautomatically.Intheproperties
dialoguefortheStyle,clicktheOrganizertabandmarkAuto­Update.Thisallowsusersto
changetheformattingof,say,aparagraphformattedwiththisStyle“andhavetheformatting
ofallotherparagraphswiththesameStyle“beautomaticallychangedaswell.
PageStylesandPageNumbers
Oftentextdocumentsarecreatedwithoutapagenumberonthetitlepagebutwithlowercase
oruppercaseromannumeralsonthepagesoftheTableofContents(onedoesnotknowhow
manyyet),andtostartnumberingtherestofthepageswithArabicnumerals.
Note:DifferentPageStylesaretheOpenOffice.orgWriterequivalentof“sectionchanges”inothertextprograms.
Pagenumbersarebetterlocatedinfootersorheadersratherthanintherunningtext,
to“ensurethattheydonotchangetheirpositionwhentextisinsertedordeleted.Thesteps
belowshowhowtodothis:
1. CreateanewPageStyle
2. ApplythenewPageStyle
3. EditthePageStyle
4. UsethefooterParagraphStyletoformatpagenumbers.
Note:DonotusetheOffsetboxunderInsert>Fields>Other>Documenttabtochangethepagenumberofa
page.Theoffsetisonlyused,forexample,attheendofapagetodisplaythenumberofthenextpage,i.e.tooffset
thedisplay;itdoesnotchangethepagenumberitself.
Themanuallyenteredpagenumber(incontrasttotheautomaticallynumberedpagenumbers)isanattributeofthat
particularpage.Thispropertyissetasdirectformattinginthefirstparagraphofthatpage.
CreatePageStyles
1. Openthedocumentinwhichtoenterorchangethepagenumbersorbeginwithanewtext
document,althoughuserswillneedtofirstentersometextandpagebreakstobeableto
followthestepsdescribedhere.
2. OpentheStyles
andFormattingwindow.
3. SelectthePageStylesviewintheStylesandFormattingwindow.
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4. CallupthecontextmenuofoneofthePageStylesandselecttheNew...command.
OnewillnowseethePageStyledialoguewiththeOrganizertabpage.Thecursorwillbe
blinkingintheNametextboxinwhichtoenterthenameofthefirstnewPageStyle.
5. EnterTitlePageandpresstheEnterkey.ThepropertiesofthenewPageStylescanbe
changedlater.
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6. InthecontextmenuoftheStylesandFormattingwindowclicktheNew...commandagain
anddefinethePageStylewiththename“Tableofcontents”.
7. RepeatthewholeprocedureagainforthenewMaintextPageStyle.Ofcourse,thenames
usedhereareonlymeantasexamples.Inarealsituation,onewouldnaturallyenterthe
namesofchoice.
Withthecompletionoftheabovesteps,thereshouldnowbethreenewStylesthathavebeen
created.
1. Placethecursoronthefirstpageofthedocument.Double­clicktheTitlepageentryin
theStylesandFormattingwindow.
So,nowthefirstpageisassignedthisPageStyle.Toconfirmthis,onewillseethename
TitlepageinthePageStylefieldonthestatusbarbelow.Bytheway,userscanalsoedit
(double­click)andassignexistingPageStylesviathecontextmenuofthePageStylefield
onthestatusbar.
If,however,onenowscrollsthroughthepagesofthedocument,itmaybenoticedthatthe
TitlepagePageStylehasbeenappliedtoeverypage.Ifallthepageshadbeendefinedby
theStandardPageStyle,theyarenowalldefinedbythenewStyle.PageStylesalways
applytoallprecedingaswellasfollowingpages,unlessapagebreakoccurswitha
changeofPageStyle.
OntheOrganizertabpage,ifaNextStyleforaPageStyleisentered,thismeansthat
afterapagebreak(whetheritisenteredmanuallyoroccursautomatically)theNextStyle
willbetakenasthePageStyle.Intheexampledescribedhere,forthePageStyleTitle
pageonecanselecttheNextStyleTableofContents.TheTableofContentsPageStyle
isthenalwaysappliedtothenextpageafterthetitlepage.Thissavesauserfromhaving
togothroughtheproceduredescribedbelowinvolvingtheManualBreakdialogue.
Note:AlwayschoosetheTableofContentsPageStyleastheNextStyletofollowtheTableofContents,since
noonecanbesurethenumberofpagesthattheTableofContentswillrequire.
2. NowplacethecursoratthebeginningofthepagewheretheTableofContentsshould
begin.GoaheadandenteramanualpagebreakwithachangeofPageStyles.
3. SelectInsert>ManualBreak.TheInsertBreakdialogueappears.
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