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CalculatingWithformulae
Allformulaebeginwithanequalssign.formulaemaycontainnumbersortext,andother
dataisalsopossiblesuchasformatdetails,thatspecifyhowthenumbersaretobeformatted.
Naturallytheformulaewillalsocontainarithmeticoperators,logicoperatorsorfunction
starts.
Whenusingthebasicarithmeticsigns(
+,­,*,/
)informulae,rememberthatusingtheMultiplicationand
=SUM(A1:B1)
it'sbettertowrite
=A1+B1
.
Parenthesesarealsousefulforgrouping.Forexample,theresultoftheformula
=1+2*3
meanssomethingdifferent
than
=(1+2)*3
.
HerearesometypicalCalcformulae:
=A1+ 10
DisplaysthecontentsofcellA1plus10 .
=A1* 16%
Displays16%ofthecontentsofA1.
=A1*A2
DisplaystheresultofthemultiplicationofA1andA2.
=ROUND(A1;1)
RoundsthecontentsincellA1toonedecimalplace.
=EFFECTIVE(5%;12)
Calculatestheeffectiveinterestat5%annuallywith12
payments.
=B8­SUM(B 10:B 14)
CalculatesthesumofthecellsB10toB 14minusthevalueof
B8.
=SUM(B8;SUM(B10:B 14))
B8.
Itisalsopossibletonestfunctionsinformulae,asshownintheexample.Functionsmayalso
roundasinefunctionusing=ROUND(SIN(A1);2).UsetheFunctionWizardtohelpform
nestedfunctions.
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CalculatingWithDatesandTimes
instance,tofindoutexactlyone'sageinsecondsorhours,followthesesteps:
2. EnteradateincellA1.e.g.abirthday,suchas.,1/3/48.
3. EnterthefollowingformulaincellA3:=NOW()­A1
4. PressEnterorclicktheAccepticonontheformulabar( ).Theresultappearsin
dateformat.
differencebetweentwodatesasanumberofdays,theformatofcellA3shouldbesetasa
number.
6. SelectFormatCells....
7. TheCellAttributesdialogueappears.
1. OntheNumberstab,theNumbercategorywillappearhighlighted.Theformatisset
toGeneralwhichcauses,amongotherthings,theresultofcalculationscontaining
dateentriestoalsobedisplayedasadate.
2. Setthenumberformatto­1,234,forexample.
3. PressOKtoclosethedialogue.
8. CellA3willnowcontainthenumberofdaysbetweentoday'sdateandthespecifieddate.
1. inA4enter=A3*24tocalculatethehours.
2. inA5enter=A4*60fortheminutes.
3. inA6enter=A5*60forseconds.
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4. PresstheEnterkeyaftereachformula.
Thetimesincethebirthdaywillbecalculatedanddisplayedinthevariousunits.Thevalues
arecalculatedasoftheexactmomentwhenthelastformulawasenteredandconfirmedby
pressingtheEnterkey.Thisvalueisnotautomaticallyupdated,althoughNOWcontinuously
normallyactive;however,automaticcalculationdoesnotapplytothefunctionNOW.Consider
that,ifitwere,thecomputerwoulduseallitsresourcesupdatingthesheet.
maybemodifiedbeforeviewingthecalculationresults,itmaybeprudenttocancelor
disabletheautomaticcalculationfunction.Calculationtimenaturallybecomeslongerasthe
InsertingandEditingNotes
AnotemaybeassignedtoeachcellbychoosingInsert>Note.Allnotesareindicatedbya
pointerisoverthecell,providedHelp>TipsorExtendedTipsisactive.
Toeditapermanentlyvisiblenote,justclickinit.Whentheentiretextofthenoteis
deleted,thenthenoteitselfisdeleted.
AnotherwaytodeleteanoteisbychoosingEdit>DeleteContents,orcallingthesame
dialoguewiththeDeletekey.
SelectTools>Options>OpenOffice.orgCalc­Viewtoshoworhidethenoteindicator
bycheckingoruncheckingtheNoteindicatorbox.
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HandlingMultipleSheets
Eachsheethasitsownuniquenamedisplayedonthesheettabatthebottomofthewindow.
DisplayingMultipleSheets
sheets.Clickthebuttononthefarrightofthisgrouptomovetothethelast
sheettabtoseeitsname.Todisplaythesheetitself,clickonthename.
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Whenthereisinsufficientspacetodisplaythesheettabsonthelowerwindowborder,
increaseitbymovingtheseparatorbarbetweenthetabbarandthehorizontalscrollingbar
withthemousebutton.Keepthemousebuttonpressedanddragtotheright.Rememberthis
sharestheavailablespacebetweenthesheettabsandhorizontalscrollbar.
WorkingWithMultipleSheets
document.Howeverthesamedatacanbeincorporatedintoseveralsheets.Forexample,the
samedatashouldbeinsertedatthesamelocationinthefirstthreesheets.Todoso,selectall
threesheetstogetherandenterthedatainonlyoneofthesheets.
Selectingseveralsheetstogether,issimplyamatterofclickingthesheettabsofthesheetsin
questionwhilepressingtheCtrlkey.Allselectedsheetswillnowhavewhitesheettabs,
itssheettabagainwhilstpressingtheCtrlkey.Clickingthesheettabofthecurrentsheet
whilepressingtheShiftkey,ensuresthatonlythisoneisselected.
Calcincludesthenameofthesheetinthereferencewhenassigningsheetreferences.Thus,
referencingeasyandstraightforwardasshownintheexamplesbelow:.
2.A1.Inthisrangetherearetwocells(aslongasnomorecellsareincludedbetween
Sheet1andSheet2).Thesimpleformula(nota3Dformula)wouldonlylisttwo
ToincludeanysubsequentlyinsertedsheetsfoundbetweenSheet1andSheet2,the
formulawouldthenbe=SUM(Sheet 1.A1:Sheet2.B2).
document.So,initsfullform,thereferencetocellA1inSheet1ofthedocument
under*
UNIX
wherethefileisstored.UnderWindows®,thespecificationissimilarandcouldbe
='file:///c:/name.sxc'#\$sheet 1.A1wherethedriveis“C:”.
Note:thesinglequotessurroundingthefilename,andthe#characterthatdescribesthelocationwithinthefile,in
accordancewithURLconvention.
C
lickingthePrintFileDirectlyiconintheStandardtoolbarsendsallthesheetsinthedocumenttothe
printer.However,ifthere'saprintrangeselected,thenonlyselectionisprinted.Tosettheprintrange,selectthe
cellstobeprinted,thenusetheFormat>PrintRanges>Definecommand.Thereisfurtherinformationonthis
topicintheOpenOffice.orgHelp.
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SelectionoptionandclickOK.If,however,thereisselectedacertainrangeofcells,only
thosecellsareprintedandinthecolumnwidthasshowninthesheet.
Ifvarioussheetsaretoprintsimultaneously,forexample,Sheet1andSheet2,select
thembeforehand(holddowntheCtrlkeyandclickthesheettabs).Thewhitetabsarethe
selectedones.Next,gotothePrintdialogue,enabletheSelectionoptionandonlythe
selectedsheetswillbeprinted.Afterhavingprintedthedesiredsheets,remembertoclickthe
sheetthatisbeingworkedonwhileholdingdowntheShiftkeysothatonlythatsheetis
selected.Failuretodothiswillresultinallmodificationsbeingappliedonallsheets.
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numbers,aregivencertainformats,andthecellsthemselvesareformattedwithdifferent
colours,bordersandotherattributes.
Eithercreatethenumbersformatoruseoneofthemanypredefinedformats.Forcells,awide
selectionofcellStylesisprovidedandpersonalcellStylescanbedefinedinthesamewayas
onedoestextStyles.
toshowallthevaluesabovetheaverageingreenandallthosebelowtheaverageinred.This
chapter.)
FormatingNumbers
Enteranumberintothesheet,forexample,1234.5678.Thisnumberwillbedisplayedin
thedefaultnumberformat,withtwodecimalplaces.Onewillsee1234. 57whenthethe
entryisconfirmed.Onlythedisplayinthedocumentwillberoundedoff;internally,the
numberretainsallfourdecimalplacesafterthedecimalpoint.
1. SetthecursoratthenumberandchooseFormat>CellstostarttheCellAttributes
dialogue.
2. OntheNumberstabthereisaselectionofpredefinednumberformats.Apreviewbox,n
thebottomrightofthedialogue,showshowthecurrentnumberwillappearwitha
particularformat.
applytotheselectedcellsorcellcontents.Forexample,font,size,andcolourcanbe
definedontheFonttabpage.
Modifyingthenumberofthedecimalplacesdisplayedinacellissometimes
NumberFormat:DeleteDecimalPlaceiconsontheobjectbar.
Dates
1. Likewise,fromthelistofoptions,thedateandtimecanbeformattedasdesired.
Theyearinthedatedetailsisoftenstatedastwodigits.Internallytheyearismanagedby
OpenOffice.orgasfourdigits,sothatinthecalculationofdifferencefrom1/1/99to
1/1/01theresultwillcorrectlybetwoyears.
Tools>Options>OpenOffice.org>Generaldefinesuptowhichyearatwo­digityear
“xx”shouldbedisplayedas“20xx”.
Thismeansthatifadateof1/1/30orhigherisentered,itwillbetreatedinternallyas
1/1/1930orhigher.Allloweryearsapplytothenextcentury.So,forexample,1/1/20is
convertedinto1/1/2020.
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FormattingCellsandSheets
ThedistinctionbetweendirectandStyleformattingholdstrueforcellsaswellasfortext
documents,e.g.Achoicebetweenapplyingaparticularfontsizedirectlyasdirectformatting
toacellordefiningaStyletoapplythedesiredfontsize.Stylesmakeparticularsensefor
documentsthatareusedextensivelyoraretobetemplates.Itdoesnotmakesensetouse
UsingAutoFormatforTables
AquickwaytoformatatableoracellrangeisofferedbytheFormat­AutoFormat
ThepreviewshowsanexampleofhoweachselectedformatintheFormatpanelwilllook.
Note:Ifthereisnochangeincolourofthecellcontents,thenunderTools>Options>OpenOffice.orgCalc>
used.
Auser­formatcanalsobesetasanAutoFormat:
2. Selectthewholesheet,e.g.byclickingtheemptybuttoninthetopleftcorner(abovethe
givethenewformataname.
choosinganappropriatebackgroundcolourandapatternforthecellsinthesheet,an
OpenOffice.orgUserGuidefor2.x
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thatisthendisplayed,selectwhichpropertiesofthechosenformataretobeexcludedfrom
theautomaticformatting.Forexample,removingthecheckmarkinfrontofFont,thefont
willnotbetakenintoaccountbytheAutoFormat.