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Useabsoluteorrelativereferencing,orgivecellrangestheirownnames.
enteringthecoordinatesoftheupperleftcellofthearea,thenacolonfollowedbythe
coordinatesofthelowerrightcell.Forexample,thesquareformedbythefirstfourcellsin
makingarelativereferencetoA1:B2.Relativeheremeansthatthereferencetothisareawill
eachletterandnumberinanabsolutereference,e.g.,\$A\$1:\$B\$2.
Calccanconvertthecurrentreference,inwhichthecursorispositionedintheinputline,
fromrelativetoabsoluteandviceversabypressingShift+F4.Whenstartingwitha
columnaresettoabsolutereferences(\$A\$1).Thesecondtime,onlytherow(A\$1),andthe
thirdtime,onlythecolumn(\$A1).Pressingthekeycombinationoncemore,bothcolumn
androwreferencesareswitchedbacktorelative(A1)
Calcshowsthereferencestoaformula.If,forexampletheformula
=SUM(A1:C5;D15:D 24)isclickedinacell,thetworeferencedareasinthesheetwillbe
highlightedincolour.Forexample,theformulacomponentA1:C5maybeinblueandthe
D15:D24canbemarkedinredinthesameway.
WhentoUseRelativeandAbsoluteReferences
Firstexaminewhathappenswithoutarelativereference.AssumeacalculationincellE1that
sumsthecellsinrangeA1:B2.TheformulatoenterintoE1wouldbe:=SUM(A1:B2).If,
B1:C2andtheformulawouldbeinF1,notinE1.Afterinsertingthenewcolumn,all
formulaewouldthereforehavetobecheckedandcorrectedinthecurrentsheet,andpossibly
inothersheets.
Fortunately,Calcdoesthisworkautomatically.AfterinsertinganewcolumnA,theformula
wheneverthereferencedareaismoved.Butbecarefulwhencopyingaformulasinceinthat
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Absolutereferencesareusedwhenacalculationreferstoonespecificcellinthesheet.For
example,ifaformulathatreferstoexactlythiscelliscopiedrelativelytoacellbelowthe
originalcell,thereferencewillalsobemoveddownifthecellcoordinatesarenotdefinedas
absolute.Asidefromwhennewrowsandcolumnsareinserted,referencescanalsochange
whenanexistingformulareferringtoparticularcellsiscopiedtoanotherareaofthesheet.
Assume,forexample,theformula=SUM(A1:A9)isenteredinrow10butthecalculated
=SUM(B1:B9).
Therearemanymethodstocopyaformula,oneofwhichis:
1. Selectthecellcontainingtheformula.
2. ChooseEdit>Copy,orpressCtrl+Ctocopyit.
3. Selectthecellintowhichtheformulaistobecopied.
4. ChooseEdit>Paste,orpressCtrl+V.Theformulawillbepositionedinthenewcell,
andallnon­absolutereferenceswillbeupdated.
cellareasisasfollows:
1. Selectthecellcontainingtheformula.
2. Positionthemouseonthebottomrightofthehighlightedborderofthecell,andcontinue
holdingdownthemousebuttonuntilthepointerchangestoacross­hairsymbol.
3. Withthemousebuttonpressed,dragitdownortotherightoverallthecellsintowhich
theformulawillbecopied.
4. Uponreleasingthemousebutton,theformulawillbecopiedintothecellsand
E1thatsumsthecellsinrangeA1:B2.TheformulatoenterintoE1wouldbe:
=SUM(A1:B2).If,later,anewcolumnmustbeinfrontofcolumnA,theelementstobe
thenewcolumn,allformulaewouldthereforehavetobecheckedandcorrectedinthecurrent
sheet,andpossiblyinothersheets.
Fortunately,Calcdoesthisworkautomatically.AfterinsertinganewcolumnA,theformula
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Aneatwayofmakingthereferencestocellsandcellrangesinformulaelegibleistogivethe
rangesnames.Forexample,nametherangeA1:B2asStartthenintheformulasimplyenter
=SUM(Start).FollowingtheinsertionordeletionofrowsandcolumnsOpenOffice.org
alsocorrectlyassignstherangesidentifiedbyname.Remember,rangenamescannotcontain
anyspaces.
cellB2asTax_rate.
Inordertospecifyrangenames,followsthesesteps:
1. Firsthighlighttheareatobenamed.
2. SelectInsert>Names>Define,orusetheCtrl+F3keycombination.
3. Enterthenameforthefirstarea.
Othercellrangescanalsobenamedinthisdialoguebyenteringthedesirednameinthe
fieldandthenselectingtherespectivecells.UsetheDefineNamesdialoguetodefine
namesforformulaeorpartsofformulaeneededmoreoften.
5. ClosethedialoguewithOK.
OpenOffice.orgcancorrelatenameswithareasforthemostpartautomatically,aslongasthe
rowandcolumncoordinatesareentered.Refertothefollowinggraphic.
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Theautomaticformularecognitionallowsentering,forexample,theformula=SUM(Ju ly)
incellB8.Thisformulacanthenbecopiedtotheright.CellC8automaticallyshowsthe
formula=SUM(August),cellD8=SUM(September),andsoon.Thisfeaturealsoworks
forhorizontalcalculations.Tryitoutbyenteringtheformula=SUM(London)incellE4.
TheNewYorkentrymustbetreatedasaspecialcasebecausethisnamecontainsaspace.
Thus,itmustbeenclosedinsinglequotationmarks:=SUM('NewYork').
Automaticrecognitiondoesnotworkwithformulae.Onecannotentertheformula
formulawillalsobeinsertedautomaticallyifthecursorisplacedincellE8andtheSumicon
intheFormulabarisclicked.
Document>CalculateandunchecktheboxinfrontofAutomaticallyfindcolumnand
rowlabels.
UseInsert>Names>Labels....todefineanynamesrequiredasshownintheprevious
section.
Note:Tohavenamesautomaticallyrecognized,namesmustconsistofalphanumericcharactersandthefirst
charactermustbealetter.Tousenonalphanumericcharacters(includingspaces),enclosethenamesinsingle
quotationmarks
(')
.Whereasinglequotationmarkappearsinaname,e.g.,Jan'97,enterabackslashinfrontof
thequotationmark(Jan\'97).ThistypeofreferencingisnotcompatiblewithearlierversionsofOpenOffice.org.
Calcautomaticallyrecognizesanarea,calledarange,ofcellsthatbelongtogether.To
determinewhichcellsmakeupaparticularrange,placethecellcursorinthedesiredrange
Ctrl+Shift+8(theasteriskoverthe8)doesnotwork.Therangewillbehighlighted.
OnlyCopyVisibleCells
Assumetheuserhashiddenareafewrowsorcolumnsinacellrangeandnowonlythe
visiblecellsaretobecopied.
Calcbehavesdifferentlydependingonthemethodusedtohidetheinvisiblecellsandwhatis
theintendedactiontobeperformeduponthem.
Method
Result
CellswerefilteredoutbywayofAutoFilters,default
filtersorspecialfilters.
Onlythevisiblecellsarecopied.
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Method
Result
Copythevisiblecells,forexample,withcopyand
pasteviatheclipboard,withthemiddlemousebutton
ordraganddropwhilepressingtheCtrlkey.
CellswerefilteredoutbywayofAutoFilters,default
filtersorspecialfilters.
Movethevisiblecells,forexample,bywayofcut
andpasteviatheclipboardordraganddropwithout
Allcells,includingthehiddenones,are
moved.
CellswerehiddenmanuallybywayoftheHide
Copyormovethevisiblecells.
Allcells,includingthehiddenones,are
copiedormoved.
ReferencingaCellinAnotherDocument
1. Forthefollowingexample,thesourcedocumentisnamed'C:\test\test.sxc';and
itcontainsasheetnamedSheet1.
3. PlacethecursorincellA1andenterthefollowingformula:
='C:\test\test.sxc'#Sheet 1.A1
4. Alternatively,enterthefilenameasaURLdesignation:
='file:///C/test/test.sxc'#Sheet 1.A1.Similarlyaccessafileonthe
Internetbyusing:='http://ww w.sun.com/test/test.sxc'#Sheet 1.A1.
5. Dragtheboxinthelowerrightcorneroftheactivecelltoselectarangeofcells.
Asaresult,thesheetnameisprecededwitha"\$"signtodesignateitasanabsolute
reference.
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UsingReferencesinformulae
Sofarusershavebeenintroducedtoformulaecontainingabsolutevalues,absoluteand
relativereferencesandreferencestonamedranges.Occasionallywehavealsomentionedthe
Wizard:Functions.Hereisanexampleofreferencesusedinformulae,withthehelpofthe
Wizard:Functions.
Considertheexamplefromtheprevioustopic.Now,usethefunctionsWizardtocalculatethe
averageofmonthlysalesforeachlocation.
1. PositionthecursorincellB8,wheretheaveragewillbedisplayed.ActivatetheWizard:
Functionsbyclickingitsiconontheformulabar.
2. SelecttheAVERAGEfunction.Wherethecategorythatcontainsthisfunctionisunknown,
simplyleavethedefaultsettoallcategoriesandrepeatedlypresstheletterAuntilthe
AVERAGEfunctionisselected.
3. ClickNextintheWizard:Functions.OntherighthalfoftheWizard,anotherinputarea
willappearwhereonecanentertheargumentsofthefunction.
4. Clickintheinputfieldintowhichvaluesaretobeentered,inthiscasestartingwithfield
number1.EntereitherB3:B6orJanuaryorusethemousetoselectthatrangeinthe
sheet.Todoso,simplyclickonthefirstcell,B3,holddownthemousebuttonanddragto
B6.
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Whiledraggingthemousetohighlightthedesiredrange,theWizarddialoguewillbe
automaticallyminimizedsothatonlytheactiveinputfieldisvisible.Thefieldindicates
theareabeingselectedwiththemouse.Thedialoguecanbereducedorenlargedmanually
byclickingtheShrink/Maximizebuttontotherightoftheinputfield.
5. Finally,clickOKtoclosetheWizard.
Theformulaiscalculatedaccordingtothegivenarguments,andthefinalresultappearsin
cellB8.
ReferencestoOtherSheets
Inanysheetcell,userscanshowareferencetoacellinanothersheet.
2. Forexample,enterincellA1ofSheet1thefollowingformulaandcompletetheinput
withtheEnterkey:
=Sheet2.A1
3. NowclickthesheettablabelledSheet2onthebottomwindowbordertogotoSheet2
ofthecurrentdocument.SetthecursorincellA1thereandentertextoranumber.
4. UponswitchingbacktoSheet1,seethesamecontentincellA1aswasenteredon
Sheet2.IfthecontentsofSheet2.A1change,thenthecontentsofSheet1.A1also
change.
doesnotworkunlessadocumenthaspreviouslybeensaved).
1. Ifthesamplesfromhttp://
www.pathtech.org
/
OpenOffice.org/templates
/
areinstalled,
enteranequalssigntobeginaformula.
referencetotheformula.Bywayofexample,thefollowingwillnowbelocatedthere:
In*
NIX
:
InWindows®:
='file:///C:/
5. Confirmtheformulabyclickingthegreencheckmark.
Thereferencetoacellofanotherdocumentthuscontainsthenameoftheotherdocumentin
singleinvertedcommas,thenahash#,thenthenameofthesheetintheotherdocument
followedbyapointandthenameofthecellthereC3.
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Examinethenameoftheotherdocumentinthisformulaandnoticethatitiswrittenasa
URL.ThismeansthataURLfromtheInternetcanbeenteredtoo.Forexample,supposing
1. InaCalcdocument,positionthecursorinthecellinwhichtostartinsertingtheexternal
data.
2. SelectInsert>ExternalData.TheExternalDatadialogueappears.
3. Inthedialogue,entertheURLofthedocumentorWebpage.WritetheURLinthe
followingway:(fictionalexample)http://www.my­broker.com/table.html.Enterafile
namefromthelocalornetworkfilesystemintheusualway,i.e.,viatheFile>Open
dialogue.
InthelargelistboxoftheExternalDatadialoguearethenamesofallthesheetsorareas
fromwhichtochoose.
4. Selectoneormoresheetsorareas,optionallyactivatetheautomaticupdatefunctionto
everynminutesandclickOK.
6. UnderTools>Options>OpenOffice.orgCalc>General,choosetohavetheupdate,on
opening,executealways,uponrequestornever.Theupdatecanbestartedmanuallyinthe
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UsingCharts
anddiagramssuitedforillustratingthestructureofthedatacanbeselectedandcreatedfrom
3.
Long­clicktheInsertObjecticonfoundintheMaintoolbartodisplaythefloating
toolbar.ThenclicktheInsertCharticonandthecursorwillchangetoacross­hair
symbolwithasmallchartsymbol.
thechart.Bothcanbemodifiedsubsequently.
5. Assoonasthemousebuttonisreleased,adialogueappearsthatmakesfurtherentries
possible.SimplyclickingtheCreatebuttoncreatesachartwiththedefaultsettings.
Thisexample,usingMovie1.sxcfromthesamplearchivementionedabove,showsthe
numberoftimespeopleofdifferentagegroupsinvariouscitiesgotothemovietheatre
annually.
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Iftheagegroups,ratherthanthetowns,shouldappearonthehorizontalaxis,tiltthechart.
Aslongasthechartremainsselected,themaintoolbarcontainsaDatainColumnsicon.
Clickandrotateitwiththemouse.
Otherchangestotheindividualelementsofthechartarealsopossible.Eitherdouble­clickon
theindividualpartsofthechartor,withthechartselected,choosetheindividualfunctions
automaticallyreformatsallrelevantdatapoints.Ontheotherhand,clickingonthe
backgroundintheboxofthelegend,formatsthebackgroundtothelegend.
chartbecomeshighlighted.
selectedforfurtherediting.OpentheShowDrawFunctionsfloatingtoolbar
andselectthefirsttool,theSelectarrow.Thisallowsthecharttobeselected
byclicking.
InaCalcchart,adataseriescanbeforwardsorbackwards.Aseriescanbearrangedinsuch
awaythatthelowest3Drepresentationsareasfarforwardaspossibleandthehigherones
furtherback.Tochangethearrangementinthechart,usetheappropriatecommandfromthe
Note:WhenachartisinsertedinapresentationordrawingdocumentwiththeInsert>InsertChartfloating