Learning Objects, Learning Object Repositories, and Learning Theory
limited only by the imagination (and good planning).
Downes (2005) and Leslie (2005), along with other writers have focused on the need to create
objects of sufficient granularity to assure effective implementation across multiple courses. In the
UCB Wiki, Leslie (2005) described the contexts of sharing of learning objects, and categorized
them as sharing, multi-purposing, and repurposing. Siemens (2003) focused on the importance of
developing taxonomies and systems for organizing and retrieving content in the form of learning
By housing interchangeable objects on a server and allowing multiple and simultaneous access
via the Internet, instructional designers and instructors can access the objects simultaneously and
incorporate them into their programs.
Ironically, this is not always the case in actual practice, even when SCORM compliancy is re-
quired. The learning management system, which functions as a relational database, integrating
instructional material along with administrative, may actually block the use of sharable content
objects, depending on what they are, and what information they contain.
The other exception to this is the increasing adoption of blogs and podcasts as e-learning objects.
These can be as granular as their RSS feeds, which is to say that they're not very granular at all,
because they must be used in conjunction with the codes and third-party services that syndicate,
distribute, classify, and house them.
Location of Learning Objects for Use in E-Learning
In the mid-1990s, relatively simple learning objects were made available informally, as instruc-
tors shared syllabi, lesson plans, and learning activities. Later, more complex and/or topic-
specific repositories came into existence as museums, journals and magazines, educational televi-
sion, and other organizations placed content on the web and encouraged it to be used for educa-
tional purposes. Many even developed learning activities around the objects, (thus creating a lar-
ger, “second-order” learning object) and made them available via download from their websites.
Later, sites dedicated themselves to making learning objects from all disciplines. Instead of hous-
ing the objects on their own servers, they often linked to the original sites where the objects were
made available. Large repositories of learning objects are now available from MERLOT,
CAREO, and Wisconline, among others. Although this tactic offers greater access and availabil-
ity, they are not always easily navigated, nor is there a uniform system for classifying them, al-
though several projects are underway.
Examples of repositories of learning objects for use in specialized training include the aviation
industry and its AICC (Aviation Industry Computer-based Training Committee), that helps set
standards. Other industry and military issues are dealt with by such initiatives as the NMC Learn-
ing Object Initiative (http://www.nmc.org/projects/lo/gtso.shtml
). NMC, the New Media Consor-
tium, is an international 501(c)3 not-for-profit consortium of approximately 200 colleges, univer-
sities, museums, corporations, and other learning-and education based organizations that use new
media and new technologies.
Wikis: The term used to describe a shared media repository, wiki, derives from the Hawaiian
word, “wiki-wiki” for “quick” or “informal.” (http://www.wikipedia.org
) In a broad sense of the
word, the entries could be considered learning objects. In practice, wiki entries do serve educa-
tional functions, and many online courses link to wiki entries to provide definitions and perspec-
tives on the subject being studied.
Serious Games: Video game-based simulations or “serious games” have been incorporated into
both online and hybrid courses. These are rarely hosted on the educational institution’s server;
instead, the individual learner downloads the program and runs it in accordance with the instruc-
tions given in the course. Some allow collaboration and role-playing in a manner that involves a
large number of players or users. Social Impact Games (http://www.socialimpactgames.com/
identified and classified more than 500 “serious games,” many of which are available for free
download and play. Their goal is to identify video game-based simulation and serious games that
have connections with current global and local social issues.
Weblogs: Weblogs, or "blogs," constitute informal repositories of learning objects in two ways.
First, the "blog roll," or list of related or recommended blogs helps one become acquainted with
other blogs. The blogs in the blogroll can, in fact, be considered learning objects when utilized for
an educational purpose. Aggregators of blogs that bring together excerpts of posts from blogs by
means of syndication (RSS) also could be considered informal repositories of learning objects.
Podcasts: Podcasts, are mp3 files that are managed and distributed in much the same way as
blogs, so they may also be considered informal learning object repositories. Instead of being text-
based, these files are audio files, and they are downloaded through the Internet and played on
mp3 players. The originating host usually maintains an inventory of the mp3 files which can be
accessed through syndication and other audio feed services.
Proposed Best Practices for Using
Learning Object Repositories
Learning object repositories, or "LORs," can be difficult to navigate, and the object difficult to
integrate into one's online course. Although LORs are new, researchers such as Jochems, Van
Merrienboer, Koper, & Van Merrienboer (2003) and McLaren (2004) have written on how to best
how and use learning objects that are stored in digital repositories.
A few of the larger learning object repositories that encourage downloading and sharing of re-
sources include the following:
• Campus Alberta Repository of Educational Objects (CAREO). Comprised of 5,000
multidisciplinary teaching materials, the database is searchable, and the collection is web-
based. This Canadian project has been recognized as a leader in the LOR initiative.
• Federal Government Resources for Educational Excellence (FREE). This contains
numerous educational resources, which include teaching ideas, instructional activities,
photographs, maps, audio files, digitized paintings, lesson plans. http://www.ed.gov/free
• FreeFoto.com This is one of several repositories that contain high-quality photographs
for educational as well as commercial use. http://www.freefoto.com
• Maricopa Learning Exchange. This is a digital repository that contains more than 700
learning "packages" which include plans, ideas, samples, and resources.
• Merlot. Supported by a consortium of colleges, universities, and state systems, the digital
resources are free and open to any users. Designed for higher education, the database in-
cludes links to more than 10,000 online learning materials, many with peer reviews, as-
signments, and ratings. http://www.merlot.org
• Wisconsin Online Resource Center. This digital repository contains more than 1,000
learning objects which are categorized for uses within certain higher education curricula.
The image categories include business, general education, English as a Second Language,
health, professional development, adult basic education, technical courseware.
VB.NET PDF: Basic SDK Concept of XDoc.PDF
You may add PDF document protection functionality into your VB.NET program. Hyperlink Edit. XDoc.PDF for .NET allows VB.NET developers to edit hyperlink of PDF convert a word document to pdf with hyperlinks; add links pdf document
Learning Objects, Learning Object Repositories, and Learning Theory
Problems in Implementation
Faculty and instructional designers encounter problems when they try to adapt learning objects
for delivery in their general education college-level distance courses that are intended for a mili-
tary audience. One result is disappointment and frustration in those who believed in the promise
of learning objects to save time, to provide robust solutions with depth, high quality, and to per-
When searching for "learning objects," one is likely to encounter a vast array of terms and ways
to describe them. Terms include knowledge objects, educational objects, knowledge chunks, digi-
tal objects, digital educational computer programs, and Flash-exercises.
Once one has untangled the nomenclature problem, one can go to the various repositories. Re-
positories can look like directories, with large databases that link out to the actual location of the
object. Other repositories have a search function that allows one to go out and retrieve objects
from archives they maintain on their own servers.
Initiatives at Stanford University (CA) have revolved around finding ways to share software that
allows collaborative classification, hosting, and access of content. One approach involves creating
a system that allows universities to download open-source software that enables them to collect,
store, preserve, archive, and deliver content. Although the content that is envisioned consists
largely of electronic journals, it could be extended to include all kinds of digital content used in
The program, dubbed LOCKSS, which is an acronym for "Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe," at-
tempts to avoid the problem of centralization (Villano, 2005) by creating an automated process by
which copies are created and downloaded into decentralized servers of participating institutions.
Problem 1 - Not really interchangeable: Because the objects are not of consistent size, nor are
they written in consistent languages, they are not really interchangeable in the way that you'd
think they'd be. Some are interactive, and others simply consist of text. They can be in html,
flash, java, and java-script. Others can be in audio, media, synched PowerPoint, movies, requiring
players or internal "jukebox" players.
If one is developing a course for online delivery, sometimes the easiest way to incorporate the
object is to link to it. However, there are many problems associated with that strategy - links go
down, students may not have the right drivers, plug-ins, etc. Worse, the object itself might "al-
most" fit one's need, but may not.
Many objects are culturally-inflected, which is to say that they may not be appropriate at all for
diverse learners in remote settings, which definitely characterizes military learners.
Problem 2 - Can't find them (lack of consistent classification schemes): Many initiatives have
focused on the need to develop a classification scheme, and to catalogue the objects so that indi-
viduals can retrieve them, and organizations can archive them. The other issues - learning level
(K-12 through graduate) are not resolved in a consistent way. Nor are the points of authorship,
copyright, language of the object, etc.
Problem 3 - Quality is highly variable, despite the attempts of some to institute peer review, or
quality criteria: MERLOT, CAREO, and others repositories have put together an extensive peer-
review approach. Commercial developers have developed systems of quality assurance. However,
these are not consistently applied in the production, classification, and/or guide to use of the ob-
Quality and usability issues can often be resolved if designers, technologists, faculty, and subject
matter experts are trained in modifying learning objects. This is an excellent solution, but a
How to C#: Basic SDK Concept of XDoc.PDF for .NET
You may add PDF document protection functionality into your C# program. Hyperlink Edit. XDoc.PDF for .NET allows C# developers to edit hyperlink of PDF document adding a link to a pdf in preview; add hyperlink to pdf in preview
source of deep frustration, due to the fact that the process is time-consuming and there is no guar-
antee of successful incorporation of the object into the course or learning application.
Suggested Best Practices
1. Classify by suggested use. It can be difficult to determine how to use them.
2. Classify using as many tags as possible. Because learning objects can be used in "off
label" manners, it is good to use as many tags as possible. Otherwise it will be difficult to
find the "object" you need.
3. Maintain access to the learning objects. If possible, house them on your own server. If
they are a link to an object on someone's website, the link could be dead. If you're using it
in CD-ROM or for PDA-delivery, they can be useless.
4. Cross-reference other repositories. Because the repositories are not centrally housed,
nor are they maintained by the same groups, there may be gaps. The repositories do not
refer to each other and do not cross-catalogue. There is redundancy, inconsistency, and
they are often out of date. One way to avoid this would be to standardize meta-tags or
classification schemes, and to find a way to search several repositories at the same time.
5. Start small. Instead of trying to classify all learning objects everywhere, it is often best
to identify niche users and to build repositories centered around similar objects and users.
6. Standardize as much as possible. This also involves being open to new suggestions, and
to maintain a willingness to explore new types of classification schemes and informal in-
dices, such as furls.
7. Maintain open communications and communicate frequently. It is also important to
designate a "point person" for questions, clarification, and discussion of alternative clas-
sification schemes. For example, folksonomies have emerged as a way to allow individu-
als to classify, collaborate on, refer to, and house objects. A”folksonomy”can be defined
as collaborative classification, which allows individuals to add key words, and to search
by key words (rather than hierarchies), has become popular. McClellan (2004) reported
on developments in classification, suggesting that folksonomies are powerful because
they are "social bookmarks" where the owners of a repository of objects classify them in
accordance to their own ideas. Users are not compelled to follow the original owner's
schemata, but can assign their own labels according to would be most effective for future
retrieval. Developing a “folksonomy” is a kind of tagging, which incorporates notions
from anthropology about how individuals informally create systems of classification and
meaning. Within the Worldwide Web, “folksonomy” providers include deli.cio.us
) and furl (http://www.furl.net
), and Flickr (http://www.flickr.com
) , a
digital photo organizing and sharing service. Others do not agree with the folksonomy
approach and take other route. Projects such as Stacy Zemke’s Living Taxonomy Project
) have the goal of not only developing a standard no-
menclature and classification system for learning objects, but also for the learning envi-
8. Participate in collaborative digital library systems that use industry-standard open-
source software. There are many ways to classify digital objects usable in online learn-
ing, and while the collaborative approaches of folksonomies can be very effective in
identifying key words, they may not be complete and may leave gaps. Further, it can be
useful to participate in the open-source initiatives to participate in the process.
9. Resolve intellectual property issues beforehand, and provide clear revenue-sharing
or royalty distribution models. While there is still a great deal of material that is free,
there is an increasing amount that requires a fee for use, or a licensing arrangement. It is
Learning Objects, Learning Object Repositories, and Learning Theory
important for all parties to be in agreement at the outset, rather than trying to retrofit an
arrangement after the fact. Many individuals are availing themselves of Creative Com-
mons licensing to protect their rights, and to encourage limited sharing.
Factors Determining Usability of Learning Objects
Relevance: For a digital object to be effective in an online course, it must be relevant to the
course content, and must materially contribute to the achievement of outcomes.
Usability: The digital object should be usable in the platform or delivery system in use, and it
must be accessible by the users.
Cultural appropriateness: The digital object should be appropriate culturally, and the meanings
that it communicates within a cultural context should reinforce learning objectives.
Infrastructure support: Objects, whether large or small, simple or complex, should be housed
and delivered on a system that is sufficiently robust to handle surges in traffic, bandwidth usage,
and storage of large files. It is often necessary to look at solutions such as "edge" computing,
which means housing the material on multiple servers.
Redundancy of access: It is important to make digital objects accessible through more than one
means of delivery. For example an mp3 audio object could be delivered via Podcast, RSS, or di-
rect download via link.
Size of object: Large objects are sometimes unusable if the users are distributed in remote loca-
tion where access is poor and/or slow. Optimizing the size of the object, particularly images and
audio files is important. For example, using mp3 files instead of wav files can help save space
and lead to a more cost-effective solution.
Relation to the infrastructure / delivery: If the object is easily integrated into the learning man-
agement system, it is treated differently than a large, complex object (a game, for example), that
might be run in conjunction with the learning management system. It may be necessary to modify
the delivery system and/or rationale.
Selection of Learning Object Influenced by
Course Delivery Method
1. Online: If the course is delivered using a learning management system such as De-
sire2Learn, Blackboard, WebCT, etc., it is often important that the learning object have a
small size (under 100k) and that it resides in a sharable content file in order to keep from
having to replicate it multiple times.
2. CD-ROM or DVDs: Large and complex learning objects, such as video game-based
simulations, movies, interactive voice recording (language acquisition) may be best de-
livered in a CD-ROM or DVD format, particularly if connections are slow and it is not
necessary to have simultaneous multi user access.
3. PDA: Interactive (BlackBerry, Palm Pilot) or noninteractive (handheld computer, such as
Dell Axim): Large or complex objects requiring Flash, shockwave, java applets, or other
plug-ins will not work in most PDA environments. Thus, learning objects must be devel-
oped so that they can be translated into the software program used by most mobile com-
puter / handheld environments. This could include MS-Word and MS-Powerpoint for
palms or mobile computing.
4. Hybrid / Blended: Because of the flexibility of the blended solution, it is often possible to
utilize many different types of learning objects, ranging from small digital images to rich
multimedia and video game-based simulations.
Learning Objective Effectiveness
Learning object effectiveness is a function of the flexibility of the instructional designer, the in-
tended use, and how central the object is to achieving learning objectives. Some learning objects
are really very useful and easy to use. These include interactive grammar reviews for written lan-
guage acquisition, writing skills development.
Others are very important for achieving learner self-efficacy and self-regulation, as well as im-
proving motivation - for example, interactive maps (of geographical features, the body, animals,
etc.) can be engaging, informative, and easy to use. Other examples include interactive dictionar-
ies, and virtual museums that connect the images, background, descriptions, and sources for re-
Learning Objects and Motivation Theories:
A Segue to Best Practices
Learning objects, when incorporated into an online course in an outcome-focused and learner-
centered manner, can enhance learner motivation.
Cognitive Evaluation: Deci (1975) and Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan (1991) conducted
research that led them to conclude that cognitive evaluation plays an important role in an individ-
ual’s belief about whether or not he or she can succeed in a task. Before engaging in a task, indi-
viduals analyze it in order to determine whether or not they have a high probability of success. If
they predict success, they are likely to embark on the task, and are likely to be motivated to com-
plete the task (high persistence probability).
Learning objects should be developed with the abilities and levels of the users in mind. Mastering
the tasks builds confidence and increases self-concept. If not, the users / learners will be frus-
trated and demotivated.
A good example of how learning objects can be effectively aligned with user grade or skill levels
can be found in The ChemCollective’s (http://www.chemcollective.org/
) virtual chemistry lab
activities. All activities are rated on a scale of 1-5 for difficulty, which should help instructors
determine which are useful for introductory chemistry courses, and how they might correlate with
readings. Although the virtual chemistry has won many awards and has been recognized by
MERLOT with an “Editor’s Choice” commendation, it is still difficult to replicate the excitement
of working with chemicals and seeing the reactions “in vivo.” The ChemCollective is a part of the
National Science Digital Library (http://nsdl.org/
) and has been funded by Carnegie Mellon.
Consistency Theory: Festinger (1957) explored how individuals become demotivated when
there is a lack of consistency of behavior, values, and belief, and that such a condition can result
in cognitive dissonance. Inconsistency in online learning occurs when instructor behavior does
not align itself with expectations, or when the learning objects do not function in a predictable,
practical way. For example, the form and function of interactive quizzes can differ from unit to
unit, which results in frustration and failure to persist.
Making certain that the learning object uses terminology and instructional strategies that are con-
sistent with those of the online course, and that they are congruent with the texts used is very im-
portant. An example is the “Negative Reinforcement University”
) which was developed by Scottsdale
Learning Objects, Learning Object Repositories, and Learning Theory
students and psychology instructor Bernie Combs, working in conjunction
with the Studio 1151
project. The online version was authored by Alan Levine of Maricopa
Community Colleges. An extended virtual experience in behaviorism and operant conditioning,
the learning object is careful to ground itself in commonly accepted terms, approaches, and ter-
minology, as well as providing a theoretical base that is likely to reinforce what is being read in
the course text.
Alan Levine’s blog (http://jade.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/cdb
) contains links to other types of activi-
ties that can lead to collaborative learning objects, such as wikis.
Goal-Setting Theory: Tetlock and Kim (1987) investigated how individuals are motivated by
goals, and the achievement of goals. The key to achieving a goal is to set one that has the follow-
ing attributes: attainable and accessible. In order to direct ourselves we set ourselves goals that
are: Clear (not vague) and understandable; Challenging, to assure stimulation and avoid bore-
dom; and, Achievable, to minimize the chance of failure. Learning objects should be selected so
that they can be incorporated in the learner’s goal-setting system. For example, required work
should be designed so that a student perceives it as achievable. Learning object-driven instruc-
tional activities should be clear and easy to conceptualize, but also challenging enough to main-
tain intellectual engagement.
Goal-setting that integrates a learner’s personal financial goals as well as helping attain his or her
academic goals can lead to multi-pronged motivation. For example, a personal goal may involve
home ownership and personal financial security. A student who is taking an economics or finance
class may be very interested in making connections from abstract concepts or case studies to his
or her own life. The relevance can be motivating.
In addition, a two-pronged approach to goal-setting could make the online learning object doubly
effective. First, the instructional activity may involve goal-setting in terms of time on task, tasks
accomplished, along with learning objective and outcome goals. Second, the learning object
could provide the learner tools to help decision-making in his or her own life. The National
Council on Economic Learning has created a robust array of learning objects which can be woven
into an online course. For example, the EconEdLink series of lessons provides a unit entitled
“Buying vs. Renting”
). Part of its “Mil-
lionaire Minute” series, the unit helps learners acquire the analytical skills they need to both pass
tests and to make sound financial decisions in their own lives.
Affiliation Needs: McClelland (1975) and McClelland and Burnham (1976) discussed how
power, affiliation, and achievement are basic motivators. In an online environment, affiliation
needs are often satisfied by means of an interactive discussion board or chat area. Instant messag-
ing also often satisfies that need. Any learning object that helps improve collaboration and inter-
activity among learners is likely to help a learner or user achieve affiliation needs. Further, any
learning object that encourages learners to want to identify with the identity of the institution, and
to improve self-concept through affiliation is also likely to increase an individual’s sense of
power and achievement.
List-serves, if not abused, can be an excellent way to share and disseminate learning objects.
Communities of practice can form around the use of learning objects, and individuals can share
methods of implementing them and incorporating them in courses. For example, the Getty Mu-
seum’s education site (http://www.getty.edu/education/
) offers a robust education program on
their website, which includes lesson plans and art objects. In addition, the education staff could
host a list-serve for sharing information, providing new insights into effective instructional strate-
gies, and the use of new technologies.
Stephen Downes (2005) discusses the way that instructional designers are reconceptualizing how
to incorporate learning objects. He discusses collaborative approaches, which also reinforce af-
filiation needs as they develop communities of practice. In addition, he asks the reader to recon-
sider how we relate instructional strategies to what we now are coming to understand about the
intersections of cognition, linguistics, behaviorism, and other theories.
Self-Actualization: Maslow (1943) created his highly influential hierarchy of needs (Maslow’s
hierarchy), with basic food and shelter needs at the bottom, and self-actualization at the top. Al-
derfer (1972) expanded and streamlined Maslow's Hierarchy
into the following: Existence, Relat-
edness and Growth (hence 'ERG'). Instead of a hierarchy of needs, Alderfer maintained that they
were a continuum of needs. All needs in Alderfer’s equation hinge upon the notion of self-
concept, and the basic core idea that anything that helps an individual develop a better sense of
self will be motivating.
An example of a learning object that helps a student imagine herself as a concert pianist, and in
control of a repertoire of baroque music can be found in the gorgeous resource, “The Well-
Tempered Clavier: Johann Sebastian Bach: Thirty-Seven Fugues and Select Preludes” by T.
Smith and D. Korevaar (2002).
Role-playing can also be used to foster an improved self-concept and to make progress toward
self-actualization. In this case, a video game-based simulation could be considered a complex
learning object. Nash (2005) writes that “video game-based simulation can be extremely effective
in courses that involve "social impact" types of courses, particularly when learning objectives
involve equipping the students to be able to practice decision-making skills, problem analysis,
and cause-and-effect relationships. For example, courses in economic development, globalization
and its local impacts, or community development could incorporate the following "serious
games." They could be implemented as individual player games, or as multiplayer games -- even
massively multiplayer games (MMORGs)” (Nash, 2005).
For learning objects, it is important to utilize them to reinforce notions that a learner might hold
about himself or herself, such as, “I am a successful student,” or, “I accomplish tasks in a timely
manner, and I do it effectively.”
Learning objects can help the learner self-actualize with respect to the subject matter and skills
included in the learning activities of the distance-delivered course. At the same time, they can
help self-actualization in terms of technology by helping gain a sense of mastery in multiple
modes: via personal computer-based online programs, mobile learning (handhelds, both interac-
tive and non-interactive), video game-based learning programs, audio (mobile mp3 players such
as iPods), and video.
Distributed Self-Actualization - Blogs and Podcasts: Courses that encourage creative self-
expression and collaborations lend themselves nicely to learning objects distributed by means of
blogs and, in the case of audio files, by means of podcasts. In these cases, students are often mo-
tivated by the possibility of self-actualization. Because the activity occurs in a distance environ-
ment, and the collaboration teams are separated by time and space, the self-actualization process
is distributed. For example, a course in writing memoirs or autobiography could post their work
in text form, along with appropriate graphics, then add a podcast. Suggestions, collaborations, and
revisions could be done collaboratively, either in segments, or with the full item.
Best Practices for Instructional Design
using Learning Objects
Before using a learning object, learning objectives, desired learner outcomes (performative and
measurable), range of content and learner level, and instructional strategies must be in place.
Learning Objects, Learning Object Repositories, and Learning Theory
1. Keep motivation theories in mind when selecting objects. If learning objects are se-
lected without keeping in mind certain theories about how humans are motivated, or de-
motivated, the courses that incorporate them are likely to be ineffective.
2. Align outcomes with instructional activities that incorporate learning objects. Learn-
ing Management Systems and learning objects. It is important to review how the object is
intended to be used, how it is used in actual practice. In addition to assessing the learners
to gain an appreciation of their values, needs, and interests, it is also important to articu-
late how the learning objects are intended to be used, and how their use will affect out-
comes. Then, after the course is deployed, it is important to conduct a post-course review
to see how the objects were actually used, and what kinds of outcomes were achieved.
3. Resolve potential technological issues: In addition, all the technological issues must be
worked out. What platform will be used? Will a learning management system be used?
Will this be a live web-based course? What kinds of access will the students have? Will it
be offered in CD-ROM format? Will you use PDAs or hand-held computers? These have
to be considered because it is very difficult to retrofit an object once it is incorporated
into a learning module.
4. Maintain multiple delivery modes: Online, blended, mobile, video game-based simu-
lation. Because of the increasing need to deliver courses across multiple modes, it is im-
portant to design objects so that can be reused or easily repurposed for the modes the
learner will be using, and for the actual conditions of delivery. A needs assessment is
important for this.
5. Remember real user capabilities and needs. Learning objects vary in size, use, and
complexity. Some, such as virtual chemistry labs, require an extensive repertoire of skills,
and the ability to work within a number of plug-ins. Others, such as maps or simple im-
ages, are static and very easy to use. Although these are easy to use and download, they
may not be appropriate if the learner is using a small screen hand-held computer.
6. Sociological Factors. Understanding the cultural beliefs and values is critical in develop-
ing an instructional strategy that uses learning objects. It is important to understand the
values and how one might unintentionally offend a learner. It is also important to under-
stand cultural values in order to use objects in a way to reinforce self concept and to mo-
7. Psychological Factors. Motivation, self-concept, self-efficacy, and basic beliefs about
how the mind makes meaning are very important. It is also to understand how learning
objects can make connections between the learner’s experience and the concepts pre-
sented in the course in order to achieve learning goals. Learning objects can (if utilized
properly) be effective ways to enhance learner self-efficacy and self-concept, as well as
to improve learner self-regulation in the quest for effective, flexible, and adaptable learn-
8. ADA compliancy. This is very critical for implementing learning objects, particularly for
users with low vision, low hearing, or cognitive needs.
Learning Objects and Constructivist Epistemologies
Radical constructivism is what psychologist Ernst von Glaserfeld has characterized as a radical
“theory of knowledge in which knowledge does not reflect an objective, ontological reality but
exclusively an ordering and organization of a world constituted by our experience" (von Glasers-
feld, 1984, p.24). However, the question that instructional designers often face is that of limited
experience or experience that is unshared by the diverse group of learners in a course. Further, in
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested