(including vocational guidance and counselling);
financial support; physical
infrastructure; and coordination, cooperation and commitment (page 34).
4.2.2. Institutional keys to success: Inter-ministry collaboration
and social dialogue
248. An ILO Tripartite Meeting on Youth Employment (ILO, 2004b) called for closer
coordination between government institutions and agencies, both at national and local
levels. As a minimum, coordination is called for between ministries of education and
ministries of labour and, where they exist, ministries of youth. At the international level,
the Youth Employment Network (YEN) – a collaboration between the UN, the World
Bank and the ILO – has encouraged countries to draw up national action plans entailing
comprehensive efforts extending across ministries, social partners and civil society and
has sought international financial and technical support for their implementation.
249. One example of inter-ministerial and local/national collaboration is the Young
People’s Self-Support and Challenge Plan in Japan. It engages four Ministries:
Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; Health, Labour and Welfare;
Economy, Trade and Industry; and Economic and Fiscal Policy, ensuring that a holistic
approach is pursued in promoting youth employment (ILO, 2005e, p. 51). Canada’s
Youth Employment Strategy involves 13 government departments and agencies working
in partnership with employers’ and workers’ organizations.
250. Agency coordination at national and local levels and a high degree of
decentralization are equally important. This was illustrated by Chile Joven, a programme
widely cited in surveys of youth training and employment programmes. Beginning in the
1990s (and completed in 2000), the programme targeted unemployed, underemployed or
in other ways vulnerable young people. It was highly decentralized: some 1,000
recognized private and public training providers participated in competitive bidding for
programme contracts. It provided 400 hours of formal training, combined with two–three
months’ work experience in enterprises. It also trained young people for self-
employment. Altogether some 190,000 young people aged 16–24 participated in the
programme opening up new labour market opportunities for many participants. On the
basis of the success in Chile, the programme was replicated in Argentina, Colombia,
Peru and Uruguay.
251. The conclusions of the ILO Subregional Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Decent
Employment for Young People (ILO, 2007n, para. 5(a)) summarized the importance of
inter-ministerial collaboration and partnerships with trade unions and employers’
[Education and training policies] could be made more responsive to labour market
requirements by engaging employers’ and workers’ organizations that are the main actors in the
labour market. Vocational education and training should include work experience and be based
on broad occupationally related and employability skills … Workplace learning fosters
productivity, innovation, competitiveness and improves occupational health and safety ... Policy
coherence and more effective coordination across systems and institutions, including between
For a review of good practices in career guidance, see Hansen, 2006. On the basis of this research, career
guidance materials have been developed in ILO projects in Ethiopia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
The YEN was established in 2001. The priorities of national action plans are the “four Es”: employability,
equal opportunities for young men and young women, entrepreneurship and employment creation.
For information on Chile Joven and similar programmes in Latin America, see Bennell, 1999, p. 37; Brewer,
2004, pp. 29 and 86–88; Godfrey, 2003, p. 40; ILO, 1999, p. 181; ILO, 2000c, pp. 28–30; ILO, 2004b, p. 34; and
O’Higgins, 2001, p. 139.