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Introduction
DirectoryServerisbasedonanopen-systemsserverprotocolcalledtheLightweightDirectory
AccessProtocol(LDAP).TheDirectoryServerisarobust,scalableserverdesignedtomanage
largescaledirectoriestosupportanenterprise-widedirectoryofusersandresources,extranets,
ande-commerceapplicationsovertheInternet.TheDirectoryServerrunsasthe
ns-slapd
processorserviceonthemachine.Theservermanagesthedirectorydatabasesandresponds
toclientrequests.
ThisreferencedealswiththeothermethodsofmanagingtheDirectoryServerbyalteringthe
serverconfigurationattributesusingthecommandlineandusingcommand-lineutilitiesand
scripts.
1.DirectoryServerConfiguration
TheformatandmethodforstoringconfigurationinformationforDirectoryServerandalistingfor
allserverattributesarefoundintwochapters,Chapter2,CoreServerConfigurationReference
andChapter3,Plug-inImplementedServerFunctionalityReference.
2.DirectoryServerInstanceFileReference
Chapter4,ServerInstanceFileReferencehasanoverviewofthefilesandconfiguration
informationstoredineachinstanceofDirectoryServer.Thisisusefulreferencetohelps
administratorsunderstandthechangesorabsenceofchangesinthecourseofdirectory
activity.Fromasecuritystandpoint,thisalsohelpsusersdetecterrorsandintrusionby
highlightingnormalchangesandabnormalbehavior.
3.UsingDirectoryServerCommand-LineUtilities
DirectoryServercomeswithasetofconfigurablecommand-lineutilitiesthatcansearchand
modifyentriesinthedirectoryandadministertheserver.Chapter6,Command-LineUtilities
describesthesecommand-lineutilitiesandcontainsinformationonwheretheutilitiesarestored
andhowtoaccessthem.Inadditiontothesecommand-lineutilities,DirectoryServeralso
provides
ns-slapd
command-lineutilitiesforperformingdirectoryoperations,asdescribedin
AppendixA,Usingthens-slapdCommand-LineUtilities.
4.UsingDirectoryServerCommand-LineScripts
Inadditiontocommand-lineutilities,severalnon-configurablescriptsareprovidedwiththe
DirectoryServerthatmakeitquickandeasytoperformroutineserveradministrationtasksfrom
thecommand-line.Chapter7,Command-LineScriptsliststhemostfrequentlyusedscriptsand
containsinformationonwherethescriptsarestoredandhowtoaccessthem.
Chapter1.
1
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CoreServerConfigurationReference
TheconfigurationinformationforRedHatDirectoryServerisstoredasLDAPentrieswithinthe
directoryitself.Therefore,changestotheserverconfigurationmustbeimplementedthroughthe
useoftheserveritselfratherthanbysimplyeditingconfigurationfiles.Theprincipaladvantage
ofthismethodofconfigurationstorageisthatitallowsadirectoryadministratortoreconfigure
theserverusingLDAPwhileitisstillrunning,thusavoidingtheneedtoshuttheserverdownfor
mostconfigurationchanges.
Thischaptergivesdetailsonhowtheconfigurationisorganizedandhowtoalterit.Thechapter
alsoprovidesanalphabeticalreferenceforallattributes.
1.ServerConfiguration-Overview
WhentheDirectoryServerissetup,itsdefaultconfigurationisstoredasaseriesofLDAP
entrieswithinthedirectory,underthesubtree
cn=config
.Whentheserverisstarted,the
contentsofthe
cn=config
subtreearereadfromafile(
dse.ldif
)inLDIFformat.This
dse.ldif
filecontainsalloftheserverconfigurationinformation.Thelatestversionofthisfileis
called
dse.ldif
,theversionpriortothelastmodificationiscalled
dse.ldif.bak
,andthelatest
filewithwhichtheserversuccessfullystartediscalled
dse.ldif.startOK
.
ManyofthefeaturesoftheDirectoryServeraredesignedasdiscretemodulesthatplugintothe
coreserver.Thedetailsoftheinternalconfigurationforeachplug-inarecontainedinseparate
entriesunder
cn=plugins,cn=config
.Forexample,theconfigurationoftheTelephoneSyntax
Plug-iniscontainedinthisentry:
cn=Telephone Syntax,cn=plugins,cn=config
Similarly,database-specificconfigurationisstoredunder
cn=ldbm
database,cn=plugins,cn=config
forlocaldatabasesand
cn=chaining
database,cn=plugins,cn=config
fordatabaselinks.
Thefollowingdiagramillustrateshowtheconfigurationdatafitswithinthe
cn=config
directory
informationtree.
Chapter2.
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Figure2.1.DirectoryInformationTreeShowingConfigurationData
1.1.LDIFandSchemaConfigurationFiles
TheDirectoryServerconfigurationdataisautomaticallyoutputtofilesinLDIFformatthatare
locatedinthe
/var/lib/dirsrv/slapd-instance_name/ldif
directoryonRedHatEnterprise
LinuxandSolarisand
/var/opt/dirsrv/slapd-
serverID
/ldif
onHP-UX.Thus,ifaserver
identifieris
phonebook
,thenforaDirectoryServeronRedHatEnterpriseLinux5,the
configurationLDIFfilesareallstoredunder
/var/lib/dirsrv/slapd-phonebook/ldif
.
Thisdirectoryalsocontainsotherserverinstance-specificconfigurationfiles.
SchemaconfigurationisalsostoredinLDIFformat,andthesefilesarelocatedin
/etc/dirsrv/slapd-instance_name/schema
.
ThefollowingtablelistsalloftheconfigurationfilesthataresuppliedwiththeDirectoryServer,
includingthosefortheschemaofothercompatibleservers.Eachfileisprecededbyanumber
whichindicatestheorderinwhichtheyshouldbeloaded(inascendingnumericalandthen
alphabeticalorder).
ConfigurationFilename
Purpose
dse.ldif
Containsfront-endDirectorySpecificEntries
createdbythedirectoryatserverstartup.
TheseincludetheRootDSE(
""
)andthe
contentsof
cn=config
and
cn=monitor
(acis
only).
00core.ldif
Containsonlythoseschemadefinitions
necessaryforstartingtheserverwiththebare
minimumfeatureset(nouserschema,no
schemaforanynon-corefeatures).Therest
oftheschemausedbyusers,features,and
applicationsisfoundin
01common.ldif
and
theotherschemafiles.Donotmodifythisfile.
Chapter2.CoreServerConfigurationReference
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ConfigurationFilename
Purpose
01common.ldif
ContainsLDAPv3standardoperational
schema,suchas
subschemaSubentry
,
LDAPv3standarduserandorganization
schemadefinedinRFC2256(basedon
X.520/X.521),
inetOrgPerson
andother
widely-usedattributes,andtheoperational
attributesusedbyDirectoryServer
configuration.Modifyingthisfilecauses
interoperabilityproblems.User-defined
attributesshouldbeaddedthroughthe
DirectoryServerConsole.
05rfc2247.ldif
SchemafromRFC2247andrelatedpilot
schema,from"UsingDomainsinLDAP/X500
DistinguishedNames."
05rfc2927.ldif
SchemafromRFC2927,"MIMEDirectory
ProfileforLDAPSchema."Containsthe
ldapSchemas
operationalattributerequiredfor
theattributetoshowupinthe
subschema
subentry.
10presence.ldif
Legacy.Schemaforinstantmessaging
presence(online)information;thefileliststhe
defaultobjectclasseswiththeallowed
attributesthatmustbeaddedtoauser'sentry
inorderforinstant-messagingpresence
informationtobeavailableforthatuser.
10rfc2307.ldif
SchemafromRFC2307,"AnApproachfor
UsingLDAPasaNetworkInformation
Service."Thismaybesupersededby
10rfc2307bis
,thenewversionof
rfc2307
,
whenthatschemabecomesavailable.
20subscriber.ldif
Containsnewschemaelementsandthe
Nortelsubscriberinteroperabilityspecification.
Alsocontainsthe
adminRole
and
memberOf
attributesand
inetAdmin
objectclass,
previouslystoredinthe
50ns-delegated-admin.ldif
file.
25java-object.ldif
SchemafromRFC2713,"Schemafor
RepresentingJava®ObjectsinanLDAP
Directory."
28pilot.ldif
ContainspilotdirectoryschemafromRFC
1274,whichisnolongerrecommendedfor
newdeployments.FutureRFCswhich
succeedRFC1274maydeprecatesomeor
LDIFandSchemaConfigurationFiles
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ConfigurationFilename
Purpose
allof
28pilot.ldif
attributetypesand
classes.
30ns-common.ldif
Schemathatcontainsobjectsclassesand
attributescommontotheDirectoryServer
Consoleframework.
50ns-admin.ldif
SchemausedbyRedHatAdministration
Server.
50ns-certificate.ldif
SchemaforRedHatCertificateManagement
System.
50ns-directory.ldif
Containsadditionalconfigurationschema
usedbyDirectoryServer4.12andearlier
versionsofthedirectory,whichisnolonger
applicabletocurrentreleasesofDirectory
Server.Thisschemaisrequiredforreplicating
betweenDirectoryServer4.12andcurrent
releases.
50ns-mail.ldif
SchemausedbyNetscapeMessagingServer
todefinemailusersandmailgroups.
50ns-value.ldif
Schemaforservers'valueitemattributes.
50ns-web.ldif
SchemaforNetscapeWebServer.
60pam-plugin.ldif
Reservedforfutureuse.
99user.ldif
User-definedschemamaintainedbyDirectory
Serverreplicationconsumerswhichcontains
theattributesandobjectclassesfromthe
suppliers.
Table2.1.DirectoryServerLDIFConfigurationFiles
1.2.HowtheServerConfigurationIsOrganized
The
dse.ldif
filecontainsallconfigurationinformationincludingdirectory-specificentries
createdbythedirectoryatserverstartup,suchasentriesrelatedtothedatabase.Thefile
includestherootDirectoryServerentry(orDSE,namedby
""
)andthecontentsof
cn=config
and
cn=monitor
.
Whentheservergeneratesthe
dse.ldif
file,itliststheentriesinhierarchicalorderintheorder
thattheentriesappearinthedirectoryunder
cn=config
,whichisusuallythesameorderin
whichanLDAPsearchofsubtreescopeforbase
cn=config
returnstheentries.
dse.ldif
alsocontainsthe
cn=monitor
entry,whichismostlyread-only,butcanhaveACIsset
onit.
Chapter2.CoreServerConfigurationReference
6
NOTE
The
dse.ldif
filedoesnotcontaineveryattributein
cn=config
.Iftheattribute
hasnotbeensetbytheadministratorandhasadefaultvalue,theserverwillnot
writeitto
dse.ldif
.Toseeeveryattributein
cn=config
,use
ldapsearch
.
1.2.1.ConfigurationAttributes
Withinaconfigurationentry,eachattributeisrepresentedasanattributename.Thevalueofthe
attributecorrespondstotheattribute'sconfiguration.
Thefollowingcodesampleisanexampleofpartofthe
dse.ldif
fileforaDirectoryServer.The
exampleshows,amongotherthings,thatschemacheckinghasbeenenabled;thisis
representedbytheattribute
nsslapd-schemacheck
,whichtakesthevalue
on
.
dn: cn=config
objectclass: top
objectclass: extensibleObject
objectclass: nsslapdConfig
nsslapd-accesslog-logging-enabled: on
nsslapd-enquote-sup-oc: off
nsslapd-localhost: phonebook.example.com
nsslapd-schemacheck: on
nsslapd-port: 389
nsslapd-localuser: nobody
...
1.2.2.ConfigurationofPlug-inFunctionality
TheconfigurationforeachpartofDirectoryServerplug-infunctionalityhasitsownseparate
entryandsetofattributesunderthesubtree
cn=plugins,cn=config
.Thefollowingcode
sampleisanexampleoftheconfigurationentryforanexampleplug-in,theTelephoneSyntax
plug-in.
dn: cn=Telephone e Syntax,cn=plugins,cn=config
objectclass: top
objectclass: nsSlapdPlugin
objectclass: extensibleObject
cn: Telephone Syntax
nsslapd-pluginType: syntax
nsslapd-pluginEnabled: on
Someoftheseattributesarecommontoallplug-ins,andsomemaybeparticulartoaspecific
plug-in.Checkwhichattributesarecurrentlybeingusedbyagivenplug-inbyperformingan
HowtheServerConfigurationIsOrganized
7
ldapsearch
onthe
cn=config
subtree.
Foralistofplug-inssupportedbyDirectoryServer,generalplug-inconfigurationinformation,
theplug-inconfigurationattributereference,andalistofplug-insrequiringrestartfor
configurationchanges,seeChapter3,Plug-inImplementedServerFunctionalityReference.
1.2.3.ConfigurationofDatabases
The
cn=NetscapeRoot
and
cn=UserRoot
subtreesunderthedatabaseplug-inentrycontain
configurationdataforthedatabasescontainingthe
o=NetscapeRoot
suffixandthedefaultsuffix
createdduringsetup,suchas
dc=example,dc=com
.
Theseentriesandtheirchildrenhavemanyattributesusedtoconfiguredifferentdatabase
settings,likethecachesizes,thepathstotheindexfilesandtransactionlogs,entriesand
attributesformonitoringandstatistics;anddatabaseindexes.
1.2.4.ConfigurationofIndexes
ConfigurationinformationforindexingisstoredasentriesintheDirectoryServerunderthe
followinginformation-treenodes:
cn=index,cn=NetscapeRoot,cn=ldbm database,cn=plugins,cn=config
cn=index,cn=UserRoot,cn=ldbm database,cn=plugins,cn=config
cn=default indexes,cn=config,cn=ldbm database,cn=plugins,cn=config
Formoreinformationaboutindexesingeneral,seetheDirectoryServerAdministrationGuide.
Forinformationabouttheindexconfigurationattributes,seeSection4.1,“DatabaseAttributes
undercn=config,cn=ldbmdatabase,cn=plugins,cn=config”.
2.AccessingandModifyingServerConfiguration
Thissectiondiscussesaccesscontrolforconfigurationentriesanddescribesthevariousways
inwhichtheserverconfigurationcanbeviewedandmodified.Italsocoversrestrictionstothe
kindsofmodificationthatcanbemadeanddiscussesattributesthatrequiretheservertobe
restartedforchangestotakeeffect.
2.1.AccessControlforConfigurationEntries
WhentheDirectoryServerisinstalled,adefaultsetofaccesscontrolinstructions(ACIs)is
implementedforallentriesunder
cn=config
.Thefollowingcodesampleisanexampleofthese
defaultACIs.
aci: (targetattr r = = "*")(version n 3.0; acl "Configuration Administrators
Group"; allow (all)
groupdn = "ldap:///cn=Configuration n Administrators,u=Groups,
ou=TopologyManagement, o=NetscapeRoot";)
Chapter2.CoreServerConfigurationReference
8
aci: (targetattr r = = "*")(version n 3.0; acl "Configuration Administrator";
allow (all)
userdn = = "ldap:///uid=admin, ou=Administrators, ou=TopologyManagement,
o=NetscapeRoot";)
aci: (targetattr r = = "*")(version n 3.0; acl "Local l Directory Administrators
Group"; allow (all)
groupdn = "ldap:///ou=Directory y Administrators, , dc=example,dc=com";)
aci: (targetattr r = = "*")(version n 3.0; acl "SIE Group"; ; allow(all)
groupdn = "ldap:///cn=slapd-phonebook, cn=Red d Hat t Directory Server,
cn=Server Group, , cn=phonebook.example.com, , dc=example,dc=com,
o=NetscapeRoot";)
ThesedefaultACIsallowallLDAPoperationstobecarriedoutonallconfigurationattributesby
thefollowingusers:
• MembersoftheConfigurationAdministratorsgroup.
• Theuseractingastheadministrator,the
admin
accountthatwasconfiguredatsetup.By
default,thisisthesameuseraccountwhichisloggedintotheConsole.
• MembersoflocalDirectoryAdministratorsgroup.
• TheSIE(ServerInstanceEntry)group,usuallyassignedusingthe SetAccessPermissions
processthemainconsole.
Formoreinformationonaccesscontrol,seetheDirectoryServerAdministrationGuide.
2.2.ChangingConfigurationAttributes
Serverattributescanbeviewedandchangedinoneofthreeways:throughtheDirectoryServer
Console,byperforming
ldapsearch
and
ldapmodify
commands,orbymanuallyeditingthe
dse.ldif
file.
NOTE
Beforeeditingthe
dse.ldif
file,theservermustbestopped;otherwise,the
changesarelost.Editingthe
dse.ldif
fileisrecommendedonlyforchangesto
attributeswhichcannotbealtereddynamically.SeeSection2.2.3,“Configuration
ChangesRequiringServerRestart” forfurtherinformation.
ThefollowingsectionsdescribehowtomodifyentriesusingLDAP(bothbyusingDirectory
ServerConsoleandbyusingthecommandline),therestrictionsthatapplytomodifyingentries,
therestrictionsthatapplytomodifyingattributes,andtheconfigurationchangesrequiring
restart.
ChangingConfigurationAttributes
9
2.2.1.ModifyingConfigurationEntriesUsingLDAP
TheconfigurationentriesinthedirectorycanbesearchedandmodifiedusingLDAPeithervia
theDirectoryServerConsoleorbyperforming
ldapsearch
and
ldapmodify
operationsinthe
samewayasotherdirectoryentries.TheadvantageofusingLDAPtomodifyentriesischanges
canbemadewhiletheserverisrunning.
Forfurtherinformation,seethe"CreatingDirectoryEntries"chapterintheDirectoryServer
AdministrationGuide.However,certainchangesdorequiretheservertoberestartedbefore
theyaretakenintoaccount.SeeSection2.2.3,“ConfigurationChangesRequiringServer
Restart” forfurtherinformation.
NOTE
Aswithanysetofconfigurationfiles,careshouldbetakenwhenchangingor
deletingnodesinthe
cn=config
subtreeasthisrisksaffectingDirectoryServer
functionality.
Theentireconfiguration,includingattributesthatalwaystakedefaultvalues,canbeviewedby
performingan
ldapsearch
operationonthe
cn=config
subtree:
ldapsearch -b b cn=config -D bindDN -w password
• bindDNistheDNchosenfortheDirectoryManagerwhentheserverwasinstalled
(
cn=Directory Manager
bydefault).
• passwordisthepasswordchosenfortheDirectoryManager.
Formoreinformationonusing
ldapsearch
,seeSection4,“ldapsearch” .
Todisableaplug-in,use
ldapmodify
toeditthe
nsslapd-pluginEnabled
attribute:
ldapmodify -D D cn="directory manager" " -w w password
dn: cn=Telephone e Syntax,cn=plugins,cn=config
changetype: modify
replace: nsslapd-pluginEnabled
nsslapd-pluginEnabled: off
2.2.2.RestrictionstoModifyingConfigurationEntriesandAttributes
Certainrestrictionsapplywhenmodifyingserverentriesandattributes:
Chapter2.CoreServerConfigurationReference
10
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