CAN AFRICA C LAIM TH E 21
Ayogu, Melvin. 1999. “Addressing Infrastructure
Constraints.” Background paper prepared for Africa in
the 21st Century Project. World Bank, Washington,
Barwell, Ian. 1996. Transport and the Village: Findings
from African Village-level Travel and Transport Surveys
and Related Studies. World Bank Discussion Paper 344.
Besley, Timothy. 1994. “Savings, Credit and Insurance.”
In Hollis Chenery and T.N. Srinivasan, eds.,
Handbook of Development Economics. Amsterdam:
Bloom, David E., and Jeffrey D. Sachs. 1998.
“Geography, Demography and Economic Growth in
Africa.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2.
Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
DBSA (Development Bank of Southern Africa). 1998.
Infrastructure: A Foundation for Development—
Development Report 1998. Midrand, South Africa.
Easterly, William, and Ross Levine. 1997. “Africa’s
Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions.”
Quarterly Journal of Economics112: 1203–50.
Gwilliam, Ken, and Zmarak Shalizi. 1999. “Road Funds,
User Charges, and Taxes.” The World Bank Research
Observer14 (2): 159–85.
Hanmer, Lucia, Graham Pyatt, Howard White, and
Nicky Pouw. 1997. “Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa:
What Can We Learn from the World Bank’s Poverty
Assessments?” Institute of Social Studies, The Hague.
Jensen, Michael. 1999. “Policy Strategies for African
Information and Communications Infrastructure.”
Paper presented at African Development Forum 1999.
Lee, K.S., and A. Anas. 1992. “Costs of Deficient
Infrastructure: The Case of Nigerian Manufacturing.”
Urban Studies 29 (7): 1071–92.
Limão, Nuno, and Anthony Venables. 1999.
“Infrastructure, Geographical Disadvantage and
Transport Costs.” Policy Research Working Paper
2257. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Mariki, Wilberforce A. 1999. “African Competitiveness:
Comparative Analysis of African Infrastructure.”
World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Mody, Ashoka, and Kamil Yilmaz. 1994. “Is There
Persistence in the Growth of Manufactured Exports?
Evidence from Newly Industrializing Countries.”
Policy Research Paper 1276. World Bank,
Nissanke, Machiko, and Ernest Aryeetey 1998. Financial
Integration and Development: Liberalization and Reform
in Sub-Saharan Africa. London and New York:
Okigbo, Charles. 1999. Communication and Poverty: The
Challenge of Social Change in Africa. Proceedings of the
international conference on Connecting Knowledge in
Communications, 14–17 April, Montreal, Canada.
Oshikoya, T.W., A. Jerome, M.N. Hussain, and K.
Mlambo. 1999. “Closing the Infrastructure Deficit.”
Background paper prepared for Africa in the 21st
Century Project. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Popiel, P.A. 1994. Financial Systems in Sub-Saharan
Africa: A Comparative Study. World Bank Discussion
Paper 260. Washington, D.C.
Robinson, Marguerite S. Forthcoming. The Microfinance
Revolution: Sustainable Finance for the Poor. World
Senbet, L.W. 1997. “The Development of Capital
Markets in Africa: Challenges and Prospects.” Paper
presented at the sixth session of the Conference of
African Ministers of Finance and the Meeting of
Intergovernmental Group of Experts, 31 March–2
April, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.