REEDOM ON THE
the northwest of France.
Most at-home users have access to broadband connections, while the
remaining households are connected either through dial-up or satellite services, usually due to their
Nonetheless, some 9.5 million people did not use the internet in 2012, either due
to obstacles to access, or simply out of personal choice.
As French statisticians do not record
information related to race, there is no government data relating to internet use according to
On a positive note, there is little or no gender gap when it comes to internet access.
The average monthly cost of broadband internet access in France is approximately €33 ($45), for
and fiber-optic connections.
Considering the average monthly income is €2,410
this makes internet access fairly affordable for a large percentage of the population.
Companies such as Free Telecom also offer cheap internet access and mobile contracts through
There were 70.9 million mobile contracts in use in France as of March 2013, representing a
penetration rate of 108.2 percent.
Over 23 million people use their mobile devices to access the
mostly in addition to a household connection.
The internet backbone consists of
several interconnected networks run by ISPs and shared through peering or transit agreements. As
such, there is no central internet backbone and internet service providers (ISPs) are not required to
lease bandwidth from a monopoly holder.
There are no significant hurdles to prevent diverse business entities from providing access to digital
technologies in France. The main ISPs are Orange, Free, SFR, Bouygues Telecom, and
Numericable, with around 40 smaller private and non-profit ISPs. Apart from Numericable, these
Frantz Grenier, “Internet in the Different Regions of France” (translated), March 21, 2013, accessed April 19 2013,
Ariase, “ADSL and Broadband Access in France” (translated), accessed April 19, 2013, http://www.ariase.com/fr/haut‐
Nil Sanyas, “the unplugged” (translated), September 12 2012, Accessed April 14 2013,
Patrick Simon, “The Choice of Ignorance: The Debate on Ethnic and Racial Statistics in France,” French Politics, Culture &
Society, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 2008, accessed April 23, 2013,
“France,” New Media Trend Watch, accessed April 23, 2013, http://www.newmediatrendwatch.com/markets‐by‐country/10‐
Ariase, “Comparatifs (Comparatives)”, accessed April 23, 2013, http://www.ariase.com/fr/comparatifs/adsl.html.
Ariase, “Comparatifs (Comparatives)”, accessed April 23, 2013, http://www.ariase.com/fr/comparatifs/fibre‐optique.html.
Le Parisien, “Medium monthly income reaches 2410 euros” (translated), March 13 2013, Accessed April 13 2013,
Similarly, the median monthly salary is €1,675.
ARCEP, “Mobile contracts in France in 2012,” February 7, 2013, http://www.arcep.fr/index.php?id=35, accessed April 19,
Mediametrie, “Internet everywhere” (translated), February 27 2013, Accessed April 19,
plus‐pres‐de‐l‐internaute.php?id=818#.UXvC8MV8NNE, and Alexandra Bellamy, “French people loves their smartphones and
tablets” (translated), LesNumeriques.fr, December 11 2012, Accessed April 19 2013, http://www.lesnumeriques.com/france‐
Ipsos MediaCT, “PCs, smartphones, tablets: cumulative and complementary use” (translated), September 22, 2011, accessed
April 23, 2013, http://www.ipsos.fr/ipsos‐mediact/actualites/2011‐09‐22‐pc‐smartphones‐tablettes‐usages‐se‐cumulent‐et‐se‐