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21.2 Typography:combiningcharactersforoptimalreadability
font programscancontainseveralthousand characters, accessed bymulti-byte codes. eyare
mostlyusefulfornon-Romanscripts,suchasKanjicharacters,whichcanalsohaveseveralwriting
directions.efontprogramcancontainseveralsetsofmetrics, and akeyinthefontdictionary
selectsthesetofmetricsusedtoshowastring.
Type1 Afontthatdefinesglyphshapesbyusingaspecialencodedformat.Anextensionisthe
multiple-masterfontformat,whichallowsthegenerationofawidevarietyoftypefacestylesfrom
asinglefont.Bothofthesewillbebrieflydiscussedinthefollowing.
Type2 ACompactFontFormat(CFF)font.TogetherwiththeType14(Chameleon)fontformatit
providesacompactrepresentationthatenablesmultiplefontstobestoredasaunitcalleda“font
set”.SinceCFFisbasedontheType1technologyitretainsfullfidelitytotheoriginalfonts,while
achievingsignificantspacereductionduetoacompactbinaryrepresentationandsharingofdata
thatiscommontomultiplefonts.
Type3 AfontformatthatdefinesglyphswithordinaryPostScriptprocedures.Itisbrieflydescribed
later.
Types9,10,11,32 esefonttypesareusedwithCID-keyedfonts.CID-keyedfontsprovideaconve-
nientandefficientmethodfordefiningmultiple-bytecharacterencodings,basefontswithalarge
numberof glyphs,andcompositefontsthat usethesebasefonts and characterencodings. Addi-
tionally,theyprovidestraightforwardmethodsforcreatingarearrangedfont,whichselectsglyphs
fromoneormoreexistingfontsbymeansofarevisedencoding.esecapabilitiesprovidegreat
flexibilityfor representingtextinwritingsystemsforlanguageswithlargecharactersets,such as
Chinese,Japanese,andKorean.
Type14 eChameleonfontformat.Itimplementsa“shapelibrary”,whichallowsacompactrep-
resentations ofLatin-text fonts. It consists of amaster font andits font descriptor database: the
masterfontistailoredtoaddresstheneedsofaparticularproduct, whilethefontdescriptorsde-
fine how toextractfontsof interest from themaster. Typically, thereisone font set forallCFF
fontsandoneeachforaChameleonmasterfontanditsdescriptordatabase.
Type42 AfontwrapperfortheTrueTypefontformat.
We now brieflydescribe the Type 1, Type 3, and Multiple Master formats, which are the more
relevantforusewithT
E
X.
21.2.6.1 Type1fonts
eType 1font format (seealsoSections21.1.1and21.1.2)provides acompact wayofdescribinga
font outlineusingasubset of thePostScript language optimizedforefficiencyat runtime.Since each
characterisdescribedasanoutlineformatitsrenderinghasunlimitedresolution.APostScriptType1
font isorganized as acollectionofnamedprocedures describingcharacter shapes. Whenacharacter
codeisrequested,theType1rendererfirstusesthecharactercodeasanentryinanencodingarrayin
thefontdictionarytoobtainthenameofthecharactertobeconstructed.
AType 1 font is characterized by its font name(
FullName
)and
Encoding
,which usually is
Adobe’s“
StandardEncoding
”,butsomefonts(suchasexpertvariants)mayhavespecificencodings.
Type1fontsaretypicallysuppliedbyavendorinaformsuitableforaMacintosh,MicrosoWin-
dows orUnixsystem. Inparticular, theFont Binaryform (
.pfb
)is used onUnix. Onecanconvert
Type1filesfromoneformatintoanotherwiththehelpofthe
t1utils
programs.¹
¹Acollectionoftype1fontmanipulationprograms(http://www.lcdf.org/type/#t1utils),originallywrittenby
LeeHetheringtonandrevisedbyEddieKohler.
t1ascii
changes.pfb(binary)fontsinto.pfa(ASCII)format;
t1binary
does
thereverse.
t1disasm
translatesthe.pfbor.pfaformatintoahuman-readableandeditableform,while
t1asm
does the
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21
POSTSCRIPTFONTSANDBEYOND
21.2.6.2 Type3fonts
ePostScript Type 3font format haslongbeena favouritetechnologyformanypeoplebecause of
theflexibilityit offers,since theentirePostScript languagecanbeusedto describecharactershapes.
ismeansthatType3fontscanhavemoreelaboratedesignsthanType1fonts:theglyphscancontain
shadesofgray,graduated fills or variablestroke widths.Moreover,itiseasiertocreateaType 3font
thantousethePostScriptType1technology.
Ontheotherhand,itis impossibletousehints, and character renderingislessefficient(slower)
than for Type 1fonts. Historically, PostScript
dvi
drivers oen used the Type 3format to include
output from MetaFont, which generates bitmapped fonts from outlinesourcedescriptions. e
dvi
driverextractsbitmapsfromthepackedfontimages(
.pk
files)forallT
E
XfontsusedinaT
E
Xjob,and
transforms them into Type 3PostScript fonts for inclusionintheoutput. However, thesefonts only
lookwellattheresolutionforwhichtheywereoriginallygenerated,andathighresolutionssuch
.pk
filesbecomehugeinsize.erefore,atpresentType1renderingsoftheT
E
Xfontsshouldbepreferred.
21.2.6.3 MultipleMasterfonts
ePostScript Type1multiple master (MM)format isanextensionof theAdobePostScriptType 1
fontformat.Essentially,itallowstwo(ormore)designvariationstobeencodedonagivendesignaxis.
Aerwards, anyin-betweenstate (instance) maybegenerated bythe user as required. For instance,
aMM font featuringaweightaxis could have an ultra-light master and an extra-black master, thus
allowinganyconceivablevariationinbetween.Multipleaxesarealsopossible,witheachadditionalaxis
doublingthenumberofmasterfontsrequired,sinceeachpossibleextrememustbedesignedseparately.
Figure21.10showsthedesignspaceofathree-axisMMfont inwhichtheaxesareweight,width,and
opticalsize,characterizedbythethreemasterdesignsspecifiedatitscorners.
Figure21.11shows somecustom-madefont instances generated with thetwo-axisMyriad MM
font,whileFigure21.12showssimilarfontinstancesgeneratedwiththethree-axisMinionMMfont.
Since 2000 Adobe started phasingout its multiple master fonts since most applications cannot
handlethemproperlyand,fromaneconomicandmarketingstandpoint,itmakemoresensetorelease
fontsetswithmultipleseparateOpenTypefonts.Infact,theMinionProOpenTypefontthatwedescribe
inSection21.6.3,ispartofoneofthefourfontsetsthatreplace(andextend)theMinionMMvariant.
21.2.7 Makingallthosefilesworktogether
Oneofthecommonestsourcesofconfusionforwould-bePostScriptfontusersisknowingwhichfiles
theyhavetoinstallandwhattheyhavetochangeintheirdriversetup.Herewedescribeinmoredetail
whatfilesareinvolvedinthe
PSNFSS
setup,inparticularwhenusingthe
dvips
driver.¹
e
PSNFSS
packagesareimplementedusingvirtualfonts(seeSection21.2.2);thismeansthatfor
everyfont thatisused,therearethreefont filesandanentryinafontdescriptionfile.Letusconsider
thecommoncaseofTimesBold.Withthe
PSNFSS
setupthepackagefile
times.sty
lookssomething
likethis:
\ProvidesPackage{times}[2004/09/15 PSNFSS-v9.2(SPQR)]
\renewcommand{\sfdefault}{phv}
\renewcommand{\rmdefault}{ptm}
\renewcommand{\ttdefault}{pcr}
WhenLAT
E
XtypesetssomethinginRoman,itlooksforafont-encodingle thatisnamedbycombining
theencodingnameandthefamilynamedefinedby
\rmdefault
.edefaultencodingis
T1
andthe
reverse,
t1unmac
translatesaMacintoshType1fontintoeither.pfbor.pfaformat,
t1mac
doesthereverse.
¹Otherdvidriversfollowasimilarapproach,pleaseconsulttheirdocumentation.
32
ch-psextra1.tex,v:2.24
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21.2 Typography:combiningcharactersforoptimalreadability
Black
Expanded
Large
1,1,1
Black
Condensed
Large
1,0,1
Light
Expanded
Large
0,1,1
Black
Condensed
Small
1,0,0
Black
Expanded
Small
1,1,0
Light
Expanded
Small
0,1,0
Light
Condensed
Small
0,0,0
Light
Condensed
Large
0,0,1
design axis 1: weight
design axis 3: size
design axis 2: width
Figure21.10:MultipleMastertypefacedesignspace.
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp HxkpHxkp
Figure21.11:etwo-axisMultipleMasterMyriad sansseriffont. Weightsincreasefromletoright
andwidthsfromtoptobottom.
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp
Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp Hxkp
Figure21.12:ethree-axisMultipleMasterMinionseriffont.etoplineshowsvariousopticalsizes
(6pt, 8pt, 11pt,18pt, 40pt, and72pt)normalized to 20pt. ebottom matrixshowsvarious weights
(increasingfromletoright)andwidths(increasingfromtoptobottom).
ch-psextra1.tex,v:2.24
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21
POSTSCRIPTFONTSANDBEYOND
packagedefines
\rmdefault
tobe
ptm
,soLAT
E
Xopens
t1ptm.fd
,¹whichlookslikethis:
\ProvidesFile{t1ptm.fd}[2001/06/04 font definitions for T1/ptm.]
\DeclareFontFamily{T1}{ptm}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{m}{n}{<-> ptmr8t}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{m}{sc}{<-> ptmrc8t}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{m}{sl}{<-> ptmro8t}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{m}{it}{<-> ptmri8t}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{b}{n}{<-> ptmb8t}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{b}{sc}{<-> ptmbc8t}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{b}{sl}{<-> ptmbo8t}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{b}{it}{<-> ptmbi8t}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{bx}{n}{<->ssub * ptm/b/n}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{bx}{sc}{<->ssub * ptm/b/sc}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{bx}{sl}{<->ssub * ptm/b/sl}{}
\DeclareFontShape{T1}{ptm}{bx}{it}{<->ssub * ptm/b/it}{}
isfileprovidesafont namefor each allowed combinationofencoding, family,series, and shape. If
wearesettingtextinbold,thedefaultseriesusedbye.g.,
\textbf
is
bx
;assumingwewantthenormal
shape,LAT
E
Xcanextractalinefromtheabovetomatchencoding
T1
,family
ptm
,series
bx
andshape
n
.isyields
<->ssub * ptm/b/n
,whichmeansthatordinaryboldissilentlysubstitutedfor“bold
extended”.Asecondsearchfor
T1
+
ptm
+
b
+
n
givesus
<-> ptmb8t
.e
<->
meansthatweusethe
samefontforallsizes,appropriatelyscaled, andthefontnameis
ptmb8t
.us thebasicT
E
Xengine
nowloads
ptmb8t.tfm
(ifitcanfindit)andthejobproceeds.
T
E
X’sjobisnowdone,andweturntothe
.dvi
file,whichcontainsarequestforfont
ptmb8t
.e
devicedrivertriestosatisfythisdemandbyattemptingthefollowingsequenceofactions:
1. loadavirtualfontoftherightnamethatgivesfurtherinstructions;
2. checkwhetherthefontisbuiltintotheprinter,andthusdoesnotneedtobefound;
3. checkwhetherthefontcanbeuseddirectlyintheprinterbutneedstobedownloaded;
4. findabitmap
.pk
fontfile.
evirtualfont
ptmb8t
consists of asetofinstructions foreach character;most of thesesimplytell
thedriver tofetch theappropriatecharacterfromanother,“raw,”font
ptmb8r
(seeSection21.2.3for
moreonthemechanicsofvirtualfonts).usthedriverstartslookingfor
ptmb8r
;intheorythiscould
goonthroughseveralcycles of virtualfonts,butinpracticethedriverlocates this nameinitslist of
built-infonts.Howthisisdonedependsonthedriver; Section22.2.5discussesTom Rokicki’s
dvips
,
whichuses
.map
filestospecifythebuilt-infonts,butotherdrivershaveasimilarconcept.e
.map
filescannotbeuseddirectlywithdriversotherthan
dvips
buttheycontaintheinformationneededto
integratethefont.Forexample,theline
ptmb8r Times-Bold ”TeXBase1Encoding ReEncodeFont” <8r.enc
means that the T
E
Xfont name
ptmb8r
corresponds to the PostScript font
Times-Bold
aer re-
encodingitusingthe
TeXBase1Encoding
(whichisstoredinthefile
8r.enc
thatneedstobedown-
loadedtotheprinter).Fordetailsoninterpretingthe
.map
filesfor
dvips
,seeSection22.2.5.
To summarize(Figure21.13), for
PSNFSS
for everyfont familythe followingresources must be
installed:
¹eencodingnameistranslatedtolower-casebeforethefileislookedfor.
34
ch-psextra1.tex,v:2.24
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21.3 PSNFSS:usingfreelyavailablePostScriptType1fonts
package
(e.g.,times.sty)
fdle
(e.g.,t1ptm.fd)
fontmetricle
(e.g.,ptmb8t.tfm)
virtualfont
(e.g.,ptmb8t.vf)
rawfont
(e.g.,ptmb8r.tfm)
maple
(e.g.,psfonts.map)
encodingvector
(e.g.,TeXBase1)
re-encode
(e.g.,ReEncodeFont)
renderfont
(e.g.,Times-Bold)
L
A
T
E
X
dvidriver
PostScript
Figure21.13:FilesandprocessesusedbyLAT
E
X,a
dvi
-to-PostScriptdriverandPostScript.
1. fontdescription
.fd
filesforeachsupportedencodingforthefontfamily(e.g.,
ot1ptm.fd
and
t1ptm.fd
);
2. font metric
.tfm
files for each font in the family in each encoding (e.g.,
ptmr7t.tfm
,
ptmr8t.tfm
,
ptmb7t.tfm
,
ptmb8t.tfm
,etc.);
3. virtual font
.vf
files for each metric file (e.g.,
ptmr7t.vf
,
ptmr8t.vf
,
ptmb7t.vf
,
ptmb8t.vf
,etc.);
4. font metric
.tfm
filesfor eachofthefinalfont namesthatemergefromthevirtualfontprocess
(e.g.,
ptmr8r.tfm
,
ptmb8r.tfm
,etc.)—notethat
ptmr7t
and
ptmr8t
resolveintoreferences
toasingle
.tfm
file,
ptmr8r
;
5. entries in a driver map file definingthe correspondence between the T
E
Xfont names (such as
ptmr8r
),thePostScriptfonts,andpossiblyre-encodingsofsuchfonts;
6. filescontainingthePostScriptencodingvectorsreferredtointhemapfile(e.g.,
8r.enc
);
7. and(possibly)thefontsthemselvestobedownloaded.
Bybuildingonthe virtualfont mechanism
PSNFSS
offers vastlymoreflexibilitythansimplere-
encodingand provides acleanlayerof functionalitybetweenT
E
Xand PostScript. Moreover,
PSNFSS
doesnotusethenativefontname,Times-Roman,inT
E
Xbecausefontnamesarenotstandardizedanda
rationalnamingscheme(seeSection21.7)helpsagreatdealinmanagingthelargequantityofavailable
fonts.
21.3
PSNFSS
:usingfreelyavailablePostScriptType1 fonts
IfyouwanttousePostScriptfonts,threesituationsarepossible:
1. You are content to usethestandard setup distributedwith theLAT
E
X
PSNFSS
package, discussed
below(Section21.3.1).
2. emetrics and descriptionfileshave alreadybeencreatedforthefont familyyou want, soyou
onlyhavetoinstalltheseLAT
E
Xsupportfiles,andgetandinstalltheactualfonts;thisisdiscussed
inSections21.3.3and21.4.
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21
POSTSCRIPTFONTSANDBEYOND
Package
RomanFont
SansSerifFont TypewriterFont
Formulas
(none)
CMRoman
CMSansSerif CMTypewriter
CMMath
mathptmx
Times
Times+Symbol
mathpazo
Palatino
Palatino+Pazo
charter
Charter**
utopia
*
Utopia**
chancery
ZapfChancery
helvet
Helvetica
avant
AvantGarde
courier
Courier
bookman
Bookman
AvantGarde
Courier
newcent
NewCenturySchoolbook AvantGarde
Courier
ObsoletePackages
times
Times
Helvetica
Courier
palatino
Palatino
Helvetica
Courier
mathptm
Times
Times+Symbol+CM
mathpple
Palatino
Palatino+Symbol+Euler
*Analternativepackagethatincludesmathsupportisfourier(CTAN:fourier,seealso[15,Section7.7.7]).
**esefontsmighthavetobedownloadedseparately,seeSection21.3.3.
Table21.1:Fontsusedby
PSNFSS
packages
3. YouhaveonlytheAdobeFontMetricfilesandneedtocreateallthemetricfilesetc.thatT
E
Xneeds;
thisisrathermorecomplicatedandisnotdescribedhere.¹
21.3.1 estandardPSNFSSsystem
e
PSNFSS
bundle,originallydeveloped bySebastianRahtz, offersacompleteworkingset-up ofthe
LAT
E
XfontselectionschemeforusewithcommonPostScriptfonts,coveringthe“Base35”fonts(which
arebuiltintoanyLevel2PostScriptprintingdeviceandthe
ghostscript
interpreter)andthefreeCharter
andUtopiafonts.²ecurrentimplementationof
PSNFSS
ismaintainedbyWalterSchmidtandispart
oftherequiredsetofsupportfilesforLAT
E
XthatshouldbeavailablewitheveryLAT
E
Xinstallation.
For normaluse you will probablyhave to include onlyone (or more) of thepackages listed in
Table21.1tochangethedefaultRoman,sansserif,and/ortypewritertypefaces.
MostpeoplesimplywanttoinstallsupportforthefontsavailableinalmostallPostScriptprinters.
esearefourseriffamilies(Times,Palatino,Bookman,andNewCenturySchoolbook),twosansserif
families(HelveticaandAvantGarde),onemonospacedtypewriterfamily(Courier),asymbolfont,and
thecursiveZapfChancery;thesewerethefontsAppleprovidedwiththefirstLaserWriterPlusin1986.
Togetherthesefamilies,intheirvariousshapes,makeup35fonts,andyouoenseereferencesto“the
35fonts”(see Table21.2for asample). If you stick tothese fonts,youcanbesurethateveryonecan
printyourdocuments.
¹An excellentstep-by-step guide is Philipp Lehman’sFont installationguide, availableatCTAN:info/Type1fonts/
fontinstallationguide/fontinstallationguide.pdf. Youshouldalso have agood d knowledge e ofLAT
E
X’s font-
selectionscheme,asdocumentedin Chapter7of[15];acondensedexplanationcanbefoundinthefilefntguide.tex,
whichispartoftheLAT
E
Xdistribution.
²IfthesefontsaremissingfromyourT
E
XinstallationreadSection21.3.3.
36
ch-psextra1.tex,v:2.24
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POSTSCRIPTFONTSANDBEYOND
finercontrolispossible—
scaled=0.92
wouldloadthefontsat92%oftheirnominalsize.
However, if you do not wantto changethe LAT
E
X’s default math font set-up, itmight anywaybe
usefultoloadthe
times
package.Inthatcaseyoucanloadthe
helvet
packageaerwardstoapplyscaling.
e
PSNFSS
collectioncontainsonlytwopackagesthatmodifythemathset-up:
mathptmx
selects
math fonts that blend with Times Roman and
mathpazo
selects math fonts designed to work with
Palatino(theyaredescribedinSections7.6.2and7.6.3ofĸ eL
A
T
E
XCompanion,2ed[15].Severalnon-
PSNFSS
packagesareavailablefortypesettingmath, some based onfree math fonts while othersuse
commercialfonts.¹
Bydefault, L
A
T
E
Xselects a Roman typefaceas the document font. Packages like
helvet
or
avant
Sansserifasdocument
typeface
changethedefaultsansseriftypeface(bychanging
\sfdefault
)butdonotchangethedefaultdocu-
mentfontfamily.Ifsuchatypefaceshouldbeused asthedocumentfontthefollowinglineshouldbe
added.tothepreambleofyourdocument:
\renewcommand\familydefault{\sfdefault}
e
PSNFSS
collectionnotonlyprovidessupportforthecommonPostScripttextfonts,butitalso
containsthe
pifont
package,whichisdescribednext.
21.3.2
pifont
—AccessingPiandSymbolfonts
Fontscontainingcollectionsofspecialsymbols,whicharenormallynotfoundinatextfont,arecalled
“Pifonts.”Onesuch font,thePostScript fontZapf Dingbats,isavailableifyou usethe
pifont
package,
originallywrittenbySebastianRahtz,andnowpartof
PSNFSS
.
edirectlyaccessiblecharactersofthePostScriptZapfDingbatsfontareshowninTable21.3on
Accessingglyphsfrom
ZapfDingbats thefacingpage.Agivencharactercanbechosenviathe
\ding
command.eparameterforthe
\ding
commandisaninteger that specifiesthecharacter tobetypesetaccordingtothetable. For example,
\ding{38}
gives.
e
dinglist
environmentisavariationofthe
itemize
list.eargumentspecifiesthenumber
ofthecharactertobeusedatthebeginningofeachitem.
ý Therstlistitem.
ý Thesecondlistitem.
ý Thethirdlistitem.
\usepackage{pifont}
\begin{dinglist}{253}
\item The first list item.
\item The second
list item.
\item The third list item.
\end{dinglist}
Exa.
21-3-2
eenvironment
dingautolist
allowsyoutobuildanenumeratedlistfromasequenceofZapf
Dingbats characters. eargumentof theenvironmentspecifies thenumberof thefirst character of
thesequence. Subsequent items willbenumbered byincrementingthis numberbyone. is makes
somestartingpositionslike
172
,
182
,
192
,and
202
inTable21.3onthenextpageveryattractive,as
¹See,forinstance,[15,Section8.8.3],[7,Chapter10],orStephenG.Hartke’sarticleAsurveyofFreeMathFontsforT
E
X
andL
A
T
E
X,availableathttp://tug.org/pracjourn/2006-1/hartke/hartke.pdf.
38
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21.3 PSNFSS:usingfreelyavailablePostScriptType1fonts
32  
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 
100 
101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
Table21.3:echaractersinthePostScriptfontZapfDingbats
32  
33 !
34 
35 #
36 
37 %
38 &
39 
40 (
41 )
42 
43 +
44 ,
45 
46 .
47 /
48 0
49 1
50 2
51 3
52 4
53 5
54 6
55 7
56 8
57 9
58 :
59 ;
60 <
61 =
62 >
63 ?
64 
65 Α
66 Β
67 Χ
68 
69 Ε
70 Φ
71 Γ
72 Η
73 Ι
74 ϑ
75 Κ
76 Λ
77 Μ
78 Ν
79 Ο
80 Π
81 Θ
82 Ρ
83 Σ
84 Τ
85 Υ
86 ς
87 
88 Ξ
89 Ψ
90 Ζ
91 [
92 
93 ]
94 
95 _
96 
97 α
98 β
99 χ
100 δ
101 ε
102 ϕ
103 γ
104 η
105 ι
106 φ
107 κ
108 λ
109 µ
110 ν
111 ο
112 π
113 θ
114 ρ
115 σ
116 τ
117 υ
118 ϖ
119 ω
120 ξ
121 ψ
122 ζ
123 {
124 |
125 }
126 
161 ϒ
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 ƒ
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 °
177 ±
178 
179 
180 ×
181 
182 
183 
184 ÷
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 ¬
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
Table21.4:GlyphsinthePostScriptfontSymbol
ch-psextra1.tex,v:2.24
2007/08/14
39
21
POSTSCRIPTFONTSANDBEYOND
differentlydesignedcirclednumbersequences(1–10)startthere.
˚ Therstiteminthelist.
¸ Theseconditeminthelist.
Ì Thethirditeminthelist.
Referencesto listitemswork asexpected: ˚,
¸,Ì
\usepackage{pifont}
\begin{dingautolist}{202}
\item The first item in the list.\label{lst:a}
\item The second item in the list.\label{lst:b}
\item The third item in the list.\label{lst:c}
\end{dingautolist}
References to list items work as expected:
\ref{lst:a}, \ref{lst:b}, \ref{lst:c}
Exa.
21-3-3
ecommand
\dingline
fills a completeline (leaving0.5inch spaceat leand right) with a
givencharacterspecifiedasitsargument.Forfillingpartsof aline,usethecommand
\dingfill
.It
actslikeLAT
E
X’s
\dotfill
command,butusesthespecifiedglyphinsteadofdots.
" " " " " " " " " "
ؠؠØ
texttext
º º
texttext ì ì ì
\usepackage{pifont}
\dingline{34}
\par\medskip
\noindent\dingfill{233} text text
\dingfill{235} text text \dingfill{236}
Exa.
21-3-4
BesidesprovidingdirectsupportfortheZapfDingbatsfont,the
pifont
packageincludesageneral
mechanismforcopingwithanyPifontthatconformstothe
NFSS
classification
U/family/m/n
—for
example,theSymbolfontwiththefamilyname
psy
,ortheMinionProfont(seeTable21.7onpage65).
Toaccessindividualglyphsfrom suchaPifont,usethe
\Pisymbol
command, whichtakesthe
Accessingindividual
glyphsfromaPifont
family
nameas its first argument andthe glyph positioninthefont asits secondargument. Using
this command onecanreadilyaccess thecharactersintheSymbolfont, showninTable21.4 onthe
previouspage.Forexample,
\Pisymbol{psy}{210}
gives.Infact,
\ding
(discussedpreviously)
issimplyanabbreviationfor
\Pisymbol
withthefirstargumentsetto
pzd
.
Youcanalsomakeitemizedlistsusing
Pilist
orenumeratedlistsusingthe
Piautolist
envi-
ronmentsasfollows(wetakecharactersfromboththeZapfDingbatsaswellastheSYmbolfont):
¶ level1item1
a level2item1
b level2item2
8 level3item1
9 level3item2
c level2item3
• level1item2
Areferencetolevel3item18.
\usepackage{pifont}
\begin{Piautolist}{pzd}{182}
\item
level 1 item 1
\begin{Piautolist}{psy}{97}
\item level 2 item 1 \item level 2 item 2
\begin{Piautolist}{pzd}{56}
\item level 3 item 1 \label{pilabel}
\item level 3 item 2
\end{Piautolist}
\item level 2 item 3
\end{Piautolist}
\item level 1 item 2
\end{Piautolist}
A reference to level 3 item 1\ref{pilabel}.
Exa.
21-3-5
Similarly, the
\dingline
and
\dingfill
commands are abbreviations for the more general
commands
\Piline
and
\Pifill
,as shown below. eexample reveals curious gaps inthe last
line. eyare dueto
\Piline
and
\Pifill
typesettingtheir symbols onaninvisible grid sothat
40
ch-psextra1.tex,v:2.24
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