abcpdf example c# : Delete metadata from pdf software Library dll windows asp.net azure web forms tlgc2extra9-part288

21.8 Fontencodingtables
Table21.15:Fontencodingtable,bynumber.
Decimal
Octal
Hexadecimal
ECGlyph
EC
TeXBase1
ISOLatin1
Standard
WindowsANSI MacRoman
PDF
0
0
0
`
grave
1
1 1
´
acute
dotaccent
2
2
2
ˆ
circumflex
3
3 3
˜
tilde
4
4
4
¨
dieresis
fraction
5
5 5
˝
hungarumlaut hungarumlaut
6
6
6
˚
ring
Lslash
7
7 7
ˇ
caron
lslash
8
10
8
˘
breve
ogonek
9 11 9
¯
macron
ring
10
12
a
˙
dotaccent
11 13 b
¸
cedilla
breve
12
14
c
˛
ogonek
minus
13 15 d
quotesinglbase
14
16
e
guilsinglle
Zcaron
15 17 f
guilsinglright
zcaron
16
20
10
quotedblle
caron
17 21 11
quotedblright dotlessi
18
22
12
quotedblbase
dotlessj
19 23 13
«
guillemotle
20
24
14
»
guillemotright
21 25 15
endash
22
26
16
emdash
23 27 17
compoundwordmark
24
30
18
perthousand
breve
breve
25 31 19
ı
dotlessi
caron
caron
26
32
1a
ȷ
dotlessj
circumflex
circumflex
27 33 1b
dotaccent
dotaccent
28
34
1c
hungarumlaut
hungarumlaut
29 35 1d
ogonek
ogonek
30
36
1e
grave
ring
ring
31 37 1f
quotesingle
tilde
tilde
32
40
20
visiblespace
space
space
space
space
space
space
33 41 21
!
exclam
exclam
exclam
exclam
exclam
exclam
exclam
34
42
22
"
quotedbl
quotedbl
quotedbl
quotedbl
quotedbl
quotedbl
quotedbl
35 43 23
#
numbersign
numbersign
numbersign
numbersign
numbersign
numbersign
numbersign
36
44
24
$
dollar
dollar
dollar
dollar
dollar
dollar
dollar
37 45 25
%
percent
percent
percent
percent
percent
percent
percent
38
46
26
&
ampersand
ampersand
ampersand
ampersand
ampersand
ampersand
ampersand
39 47 27
quoteright
quoteright
quoteright
quoteright
quotesingle
quotesingle
quotesingle
40
50
28
(
parenle
parenle
parenle
parenle
parenle
parenle
parenle
41 51 29
)
parenright
parenright
parenright
parenright
parenright
parenright
parenright
42
52
2a
*
asterisk
asterisk
asterisk
asterisk
asterisk
asterisk
asterisk
43 53 2b
+
plus
plus
plus
plus
plus
plus
plus
44
54
2c
,
comma
comma
comma
comma
comma
comma
comma
45 55 2d
-
hyphen
hyphen
minus
hyphen
hyphen
hyphen
hyphen
46
56
2e
.
period
period
period
period
period
period
period
47 57 2f
/
slash
slash
slash
slash
slash
slash
slash
48
60
30
0
zero
zero
zero
zero
zero
zero
zero
49 61 31
1
one
one
one
one
one
one
one
50
62
32
2
two
two
two
two
two
two
two
51 63 33
3
three
three
three
three
three
three
three
52
64
34
4
four
four
four
four
four
four
four
53 65 35
5
five
five
five
five
five
five
five
54
66
36
6
six
six
six
six
six
six
six
55 67 37
7
seven
seven
seven
seven
seven
seven
seven
56
70
38
8
eight
eight
eight
eight
eight
eight
eight
ch-psextra1.tex,v:2.24
2007/08/14
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21
POSTSCRIPTFONTSANDBEYOND
Decimal
Octal
Hexadecimal
ECGlyph
EC
TeXBase1
ISOLatin1
Standard
WindowsANSI MacRoman
PDF
57 71 39
9
nine
nine
nine
nine
nine
nine
nine
58
72
3a
:
colon
colon
colon
colon
colon
colon
colon
59 733b
;
semicolon
semicolon
semicolon
semicolon
semicolon
semicolon
semicolon
60
74
3c
<
less
less
less
less
less
less
less
61 753d
=
equal
equal
equal
equal
equal
equal
equal
62
76
3e
>
greater
greater
greater
greater
greater
greater
greater
63 77 3f
?
question
question
question
question
question
question
question
64
100
40
@
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
65101 41
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
66
102
42
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
67103 43
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
68
104
44
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
69105 45
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
70
106
46
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
71107 47
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
72
110
48
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
73111 49
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
74
112
4a
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
751134b
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
76
114
4c
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
771154d
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
78
116
4e
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
79117 4f
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
80
120
50
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
81121 51
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
82
122
52
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
83123 53
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
84
124
54
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
85125 55
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
86
126
56
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
87127 57
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
88
130
58
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
89131 59
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
90
132
5a
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
911335b
[
bracketle
bracketle
bracketle
bracketle
bracketle
bracketle
bracketle
92
134
5c
\
backslash
backslash
backslash
backslash
backslash
backslash
backslash
931355d
]
bracketright
bracketright
bracketright
bracketright
bracketright
bracketright
bracketright
94
136
5e
^
asciicircum
asciicircum
asciicircum
asciicircum
asciicircum
asciicircum
asciicircum
95137 5f
_
underscore
underscore
underscore
underscore
underscore
underscore
underscore
96
140
60
quotele
quotele
quotele
quotele
quotele
grave
grave
97141 61
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
98
142
62
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
99143 63
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
100
144
64
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
101145 65
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
102
146
66
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
103147 67
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
g
104
150
68
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
105151 69
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
106
152
6a
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
j
1071536b
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
108
154
6c
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
1091556d
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
110
156
6e
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
111157 6f
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
112
160
70
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
113161 71
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
q
114
162
72
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
115163 73
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
82
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21.8 Fontencodingtables
Decimal
Octal
Hexadecimal
ECGlyph
EC
TeXBase1
ISOLatin1
Standard
WindowsANSI MacRoman
PDF
116
164
74
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
117165 75
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
118
166
76
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
119167 77
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
w
120
170
78
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
121171 79
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
122
172
7a
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
123173 7b
{
bracele
bracele
bracele
bracele
bracele
bracele
bracele
124
174
7c
|
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
bar
125175 7d
}
braceright
braceright
braceright
braceright
braceright
braceright
braceright
126
176
7e
~
asciitilde
asciitilde
asciitilde
asciitilde
asciitilde
asciitilde
asciitilde
127177 7f
-
hyphen
128
200
80
Ă
Abreve
Adieresis
129201 81
Ą
Aogonek
Aring
dagger
130
202
82
Ć
Cacute
quotesinglbase
quotesinglbase
Ccedilla
daggerdbl
131203 83
Č
Ccaron
florin
florin
Eacute
ellipsis
132
204
84
Ď
Dcaron
quotedblbase
quotedblbase
Ntilde
emdash
133205 85
Ě
Ecaron
ellipsis
ellipsis
Odieresis
endash
134
206
86
Ę
Eogonek
dagger
dagger
Udieresis
florin
135207 87
Ğ
Gbreve
daggerdbl
daggerdbl
aacute
fraction
136
210
88
Ĺ
Lacute
circumflex
circumflex
agrave
guilsinglle
137211 89
Ľ
Lquoteright
perthousand
perthousand
acircumflex
guilsinglright
138
212
8a
Ł
Lslash
Scaron
Scaron
adieresis
minus
139213 8b
Ń
Nacute
guilsinglle
guilsinglle
atilde
perthousand
140
214
8c
Ň
Ncaron
OE
OE
aring
quotedblbase
141215 8d
Ŋ
Eng
ccedilla
quotedblle
142
216
8e
Ő
Ohungarumlaut
eacute
quotedblright
143217 8f
Ŕ
Racute
egrave
quotele
144
220
90
Ř
Rcaron
dotlessi
ecircumflex
quoteright
145221 91
Ś
Sacute
quotele
grave
quotele
edieresis
quotesinglbase
146
222
92
Š
Scaron
quoteright
acute
quoteright
iacute
trademark
147223 93
Ş
Scedilla
quotedblle
circumflex
quotedblle
igrave
148
224
94
Ť
Tcaron
quotedblright
tilde
quotedblright
icircumflex
149225 95
Ţ
Tcedilla
bullet
macron
idieresis
Lslash
150
226
96
Ű
Uhungarumlaut
endash
breve
endash
ntilde
Oe
151227 97
Ů
Uring
emdash
dotaccent
emdash
oacute
Scaron
152
230
98
Ÿ
Ydieresis
tilde
dieresis
tilde
ograve
Ydieresis
153231 99
Ź
Zacute
trademark
trademark
ocircumflex
Zcaron
154
232
9a
Ž
Zcaron
scaron
ring
scaron
odieresis
dotlessi
155233 9b
Ż
Zdotaccent
guilsinglright cedilla
guilsinglright otilde
lslash
156
234
9c
IJ
IJ
oe
oe
uacute
oe
157235 9d
İ
Idotaccent
hungarumlaut
ugrave
scaron
158
236
9e
đ
dbar
ogonek
ucircumflex
zcaron
159237 9f
§
section
Ydieresis
caron
Ydieresis
udieresis
160
240
a0
ă
abreve
nbspace
space
dagger
161241 a1
ą
aogonek
exclamdown
exclamdown
exclamdown
exclamdown
degree
exclamdown
162
242
a2
ć
cacute
cent
cent
cent
cent
cent
cent
163243 a3
č
ccaron
sterling
sterling
sterling
sterling
sterling
sterling
164
244
a4
ď
dquoteright
currency
currency
fraction
currency
section
currency
165245 a5
ě
ecaron
yen
yen
yen
yen
bullet
yen
166
246
a6
ę
eogonek
brokenbar
brokenbar
florin
brokenbar
paragraph
brokenbar
167247 a7
ğ
gbreve
section
section
section
section
germandbls
section
168
250
a8
ĺ
lacute
dieresis
dieresis
currency
dieresis
registered
dieresis
169251 a9
ľ
lquoteright
copyright
copyright
quotesingle
copyright
copyright
copyright
170
252
aa
ł
lslash
ordfeminine
ordfeminine
quotedblle
ordfeminine
trademark
ordfeminine
171253 ab
ń
nacute
guillemotle
guillemotle
guillemotle
guillemotle
acute
guillemotle
172
254
ac
ň
ncaron
logicalnot
logicalnot
guilsinglle
logicalnot
dieresis
logicalnot
173255 ad
ŋ
eng
hyphen
shyphen
guilsinglright hyphen
notequal
ch-psextra1.tex,v:2.24
2007/08/14
83
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21
POSTSCRIPTFONTSANDBEYOND
Decimal
Octal
Hexadecimal
ECGlyph
EC
TeXBase1
ISOLatin1
Standard
WindowsANSI MacRoman
PDF
174
256
ae
ő
ohungarumlaut
registered
registered
registered
AE
registered
175257 af
ŕ
racute
macron
macron
macron
Oslash
macron
176
260
b0
ř
rcaron
degree
degree
degree
infinity
degree
177261b1
ś
sacute
plusminus
plusminus
endash
plusminus
plusminus
plusminus
178
262
b2
š
scaron
twosuperior
twosuperior
dagger
twosuperior
lessequal
twosuperior
179263b3
ş
scedilla
threesuperior threesuperior daggerdbl
threesuperior greaterequal
threesuperior
180
264
b4
ť
tquoteright
acute
acute
periodcentered
acute
yen
acute
181265b5
ţ
tcedilla
mu
mu
mu
mu
mu
182
266
b6
ű
uhungarumlaut
paragraph
paragraph
paragraph
paragraph
partialdiff
paragraph
183267b7
ů
uring
periodcentered periodcenteredbullet
periodcentered summation
periodcentered
184
270
b8
ÿ
ydieresis
cedilla
cedilla
quotesinglbase
cedilla
product
cedilla
185271b9
ź
zacute
onesuperior
onesuperior
quotedblbase onesuperior
pi
onesuperior
186
272
ba
ž
zcaron
ordmasculine
ordmasculine
quotedblright
ordmasculine
integral
ordmasculine
187273bb
ż
zdotaccent
guillemotright guillemotright guillemotright guillemotright ordfeminine
guillemotright
188
274
bc
ij
ij
onequarter
onequarter
ellipsis
onequarter
ordmasculine
onequarter
189275bd
¡
exclamdown
onehalf
onehalf
perthousand
onehalf
Omega
onehalf
190
276
be
¿
questiondown
threequarters
threequarters
threequarters
ae
threequarters
191277 bf
£
sterling
questiondown questiondown questiondown questiondown oslash
questiondown
192
300
c0
À
Agrave
Agrave
Agrave
Agrave
questiondown
Agrave
193301 c1
Á
Aacute
Aacute
Aacute
grave
Aacute
exclamdown
Aacute
194
302
c2
Â
Acircumflex
Acircumflex
Acircumflex
acute
Acircumflex
logicalnot
Acircumflex
195303 c3
Ã
Atilde
Atilde
Atilde
circumflex
Atilde
radical
Atilde
196
304
c4
Ä
Adieresis
Adieresis
Adieresis
tilde
Adieresis
florin
Adieresis
197305 c5
Å
Aring
Aring
Aring
macron
Aring
approxequal
Aring
198
306
c6
Æ
AE
AE
AE
breve
AE
Delta
AE
199307 c7
Ç
Ccedilla
Ccedilla
Ccedilla
dotaccent
Ccedilla
guillemotle
Ccedilla
200
310
c8
È
Egrave
Egrave
Egrave
dieresis
Egrave
guillemotright
Egrave
201311 c9
É
Eacute
Eacute
Eacute
Eacute
ellipsis
Eacute
202
312
ca
Ê
Ecircumflex
Ecircumflex
Ecircumflex
ring
Ecircumflex
blank
Ecircumflex
203313 cb
Ë
Edieresis
Edieresis
Edieresis
cedilla
Edieresis
Agrave
Edieresis
204
314
cc
Ì
Igrave
Igrave
Igrave
Igrave
Atilde
Igrave
205315 cd
Í
Iacute
Iacute
Iacute
hungarumlaut Iacute
Otilde
Iacute
206
316
ce
Î
Icircumflex
Icircumflex
Icircumflex
ogonek
Icircumflex
OE
Icircumflex
207317 cf
Ï
Idieresis
Idieresis
Idieresis
caron
Idieresis
oe
Idieresis
208
320
d0
Ð
Eth
Eth
Eth
emdash
Eth
endash
Eth
209321d1
Ñ
Ntilde
Ntilde
Ntilde
Ntilde
emdash
Ntilde
210
322
d2
Ò
Ograve
Ograve
Ograve
Ograve
quotedblle
Ograve
211323d3
Ó
Oacute
Oacute
Oacute
Oacute
quotedblright Oacute
212
324
d4
Ô
Ocircumflex
Ocircumflex
Ocircumflex
Ocircumflex
quotele
Ocircumflex
213325d5
Õ
Otilde
Otilde
Otilde
Otilde
quoteright
Otilde
214
326
d6
Ö
Odieresis
Odieresis
Odieresis
Odieresis
divide
Odieresis
215327d7
Œ
OE
multiply
multiply
multiply
lozenge
multiply
216
330
d8
Ø
Oslash
Oslash
Oslash
Oslash
ydieresis
Oslash
217331d9
Ù
Ugrave
Ugrave
Ugrave
Ugrave
Ydieresis
Ugrave
218
332
da
Ú
Uacute
Uacute
Uacute
Uacute
fraction
Uacute
219333db
Û
Ucircumflex
Ucircumflex
Ucircumflex
Ucircumflex
currency
Ucircumflex
220
334
dc
Ü
Udieresis
Udieresis
Udieresis
Udieresis
guilsinglle
Udieresis
221335dd
Ý
Yacute
Yacute
Yacute
Yacute
guilsinglright Yacute
222
336
de
Þ
orn
orn
orn
orn
orn
223337 df
Germandbls
germandbls
germandbls
germandbls
germandbls
224
340
e0
à
agrave
agrave
agrave
agrave
daggerdbl
agrave
225341 e1
á
aacute
aacute
aacute
AE
aacute
periodcenteredaacute
226
342
e2
â
acircumflex
acircumflex
acircumflex
acircumflex
quotesinglbase
acircumflex
227343 e3
ã
atilde
atilde
atilde
ordfeminine
atilde
quotedblbase atilde
228
344
e4
ä
adieresis
adieresis
adieresis
adieresis
perthousand
adieresis
229345 e5
å
aring
aring
aring
aring
Acircumflex
aring
230
346
e6
æ
ae
ae
ae
ae
Ecircumflex
ae
231347 e7
ç
ccedilla
ccedilla
ccedilla
ccedilla
Aacute
ccedilla
84
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21.8 Fontencodingtables
Decimal
Octal
Hexadecimal
ECGlyph
EC
TeXBase1
ISOLatin1
Standard
WindowsANSI MacRoman
PDF
232
350
e8
è
egrave
egrave
egrave
Lslash
egrave
Edieresis
egrave
233351 e9
é
eacute
eacute
eacute
Oslash
eacute
Egrave
eacute
234
352
ea
ê
ecircumflex
ecircumflex
ecircumflex
OE
ecircumflex
Iacute
ecircumflex
235353 eb
ë
edieresis
edieresis
edieresis
ordmasculine edieresis
Icircumflex
edieresis
236
354
ec
ì
igrave
igrave
igrave
igrave
Idieresis
igrave
237355 ed
í
iacute
iacute
iacute
iacute
Igrave
iacute
238
356
ee
î
icircumflex
icircumflex
icircumflex
icircumflex
Oacute
icircumflex
239357 ef
ï
idieresis
idieresis
idieresis
idieresis
Ocircumflex
idieresis
240
360
f0
ð
eth
eth
eth
eth
apple
eth
241361 f1
ñ
ntilde
ntilde
ntilde
ae
ntilde
Ograve
ntilde
242
362
f2
ò
ograve
ograve
ograve
ograve
Uacute
ograve
243363 f3
ó
oacute
oacute
oacute
oacute
Ucircumflex
oacute
244
364
f4
ô
ocircumflex
ocircumflex
ocircumflex
ocircumflex
Ugrave
ocircumflex
245365 f5
õ
otilde
otilde
otilde
dotlessi
otilde
dotlessi
otilde
246
366
f6
ö
odieresis
odieresis
odieresis
odieresis
circumflex
odieresis
247367 f7
œ
oe
divide
divide
divide
tilde
divide
248
370
f8
ø
oslash
oslash
oslash
lslash
oslash
macron
oslash
249371 f9
ù
ugrave
ugrave
ugrave
oslash
ugrave
breve
ugrave
250
372
fa
ú
uacute
uacute
uacute
oe
uacute
dotaccent
uacute
251373 
û
ucircumflex
ucircumflex
ucircumflex
germandbls
ucircumflex
ring
ucircumflex
252
374
fc
ü
udieresis
udieresis
udieresis
udieresis
cedilla
udieresis
253375 fd
ý
yacute
yacute
yacute
yacute
hungarumlaut yacute
254
376
fe
þ
thorn
thorn
thorn
thorn
ogonek
thorn
255377 ff
ß
germandbls
ydieresis
ydieresis
ydieresis
caron
ydieresis
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CH A P T E R
22
PostScript and PDF tools
MuchofthisbookdealswithusingPostScript(orPDF)insomeway,whetherinsettingfonts,drawing
pictures,orcreatingcolor. Inthischapter welookatthehigher-levelrelationshipanddiscusshowto
generate,manipulate,viewandtransformPostScriptandPDFfiles.Amongtheenormousnumberof
packagesavailableforthesepurposes,weconcentrateprimarilyonopensourcetoolsthatarelikelyto
beavailabletomostLAT
E
Xusers.
echapter starts with acomparisonof thePostScript, PDF, andSVGlanguages(Section22.1).
Wethendescribe
dvips
,aDVI-to-PostScripttranslatoranditssyntax(Section22.2),
ghostscript
,aPost-
Scriptand PDF interpreterand itsassociatedviewers(Section22.3),andsomeinterestingPostScript
manipulationtools(Section22.4).Finally, wediscussseveralways togeneratePDFfrom LAT
E
X(Sec-
tion22.5)anddescribeafewinterestingPDFmanipulationtools(Section22.6).
22.1 Displaylanguages:PostScript,PDF,andSVG
Aer typesetting an electronic document, one usually would like to view the generated output
“page”—onpaperviaaprintingdevice,onaPCscreen,withadedicatedprogramorinsideabrowser,
or(whynot?)onyourpersonaldigitalassistant(PDA)oryourportablephone.
Several displaylanguages have been developed over the years. For printingdevices PostScript,
which is essentiallya language for describinga static output page, has become the most important
player. Intheearly1990s, Adobe developed a light-weight versionof PostScript, called the Portable
Document Format(PDF)[3].PDFimplementsasimilarimagingmodelasPostScriptbut introduces
amorestructuredformat toimproveperformanceforinteractiveviewingandforaddingannotations
incrementally.Italsoaddslinksandannotationsfornavigation.
eincreasingaffordabilityofthepersonalcomputerhasdrasticallyreducedtheproductioncost
ofelectronicdocuments.eWorldWideWebmakesdistributingthesedocumentsworldwidecheap,
easy, andfast. edevelopment of theXMLfamilyof standardshasmadeit possible toapplyauni-
fiedapproachtohandlethehugeamountofinformationstoredelectronicallyandtotransformitinto
variouscustomizablepresentationforms.
VarioustechniquesarenowavailabletotransformLAT
E
XdocumentsintoPDF,HTML(XHTML),
or XMLso that the informationcanbe made availableonthe web (several chapters ofLaTeXWeb
Companion[6]arededicatedtoexplainingsuchtechniques).Aparticularlyinterestingapproach,men-
22
POSTSCRIPTANDPDFTOOLS
tionedbelow,involvestransformingLAT
E
X-encodedinformationintoaScalableVectorGraphics(SVG)
format.
issectiongives ashortintroductionto thePostScript,PDF,andSVGlanguages.Wealsoshow
thetypesetresultofasmallLAT
E
Xdocumentexpressedinthesethreelanguages.
22.1.1 ePostScriptlanguage
22.1.1.1 Ashorthistory
ehistoryofPostScriptstartsatXeroxParc,theresearchinstituteofXerox,wheremanyofthecom-
putertechnologiesthatarenowwidespreadwereoriginallydeveloped.¹In1980collaboratorsofXerox
completedtheInterpresspagedescriptionlanguage.Itallowedworkstationstocommunicatewithmul-
tipleprinters.JohnWarnockandCharlesGeschke,twoengineersworkingintheInterpressteamtried
toconvinceXeroxtocommercializethelanguage,butaertwoyearsofnosuccesstheyleXeroxand
createdAdobe.
At first, Adobewanted to build their own powerful printer but aer some thought efforts were
redirectedtowardsthedevelopmentoftoolsthatwouldcontrolprintersmanufacturedbyothercom-
panies.eresultwasthePostScriptlanguage,whosefirstversionwasreleasedin1984.
1984:PostScriptlevel1
PostScriptisapowerfulstack-basedcomputerlanguage,thatneedsaquitepowerfulsystemtorunon.
Infact,duringthemiddle1980s PostScriptprinterswereoenmorepowerfullthanthe(Macintosh)
computerstheyserved.
emaindifferencesbetweenPostScriptanditscompetitorswereitsdeviceindependence(itruns
onanyPostScript device, from thelowest to thehighest resolution, andthus freesusersfrom being
tied to a givenprinter manufacturer). Fromthe beginning, Adobepublishedthe syntaxof thePost-
Scriptlanguage(henceeverybodycouldwrite sowareto interpretPostScriptcode)and licensed its
PostScript“RIP”²toanymanufacturerinterestedinit.
But the real killer was the combination of Apple’s LaserWriter printer, PostScript (the printer’s
controllinglanguage)that couldproducetypesetterqualityoutput,andAldus’
PageMaker
,apagelay-
outprogramthatallowed authorstotakefulladvantageoftheMacgraphicalinterface.eircoming
togethersignaledthestartofthedesktoppublishingera.
epotentialofPostScriptwasimmediatelyrecognizedbyothermanufacturersandPostScriptwas
soonimplemented inmost printingdevices, thus turningPostScript into theglobalcommonoutput
languageofgraphicsandprepressprograms.
1991:PostScriptlevel2
Adobereleased arather significant upgrade of PostScript (level2) around 1991. Its most important
features were improved speed and reliability(better memory management and optimization of the
¹Ashorthistoryisathttp://www.parc.xerox.com/about/history/default.html.Technolgiesfirstintroduced
atXeroxParcincludelaserprinters,thegraphicaluser interface(icons,pop-upwindows,WYSIWYGtechnology)leading
tothepersonalworkstation,Smalltalk,the firstobject-orientedprogramminglanguagewith an integrated userinterface,
overlappingwindows,integrateddocuments,acut&pasteeditor,andethernet,whichtodayhasbecometheglobalstandard
forinterconnectingcomputersonlocal-areanetworks.
²ARIP(RasterImageProcessor)isaprogramwhichtranslatesaPostScriptfileintoahigh-resolutionrasterimage,com-
posed ofindividual dots thattheimagingdevice(a printer,imagesetter,orcomputer screen) can output.RIPs comein
firmware,hardware,or sowareversions.AfirmwareRIPisbuiltintoadevice,e.g.,adesktopprinter.ehardwareRIP
isadedicatedpieceofhardwareconfiguredtoprocessdigitalfiles,e.g.,inanimagesetter.esowareRIPisanindependent
programthatworksonanysystemwhereitcanbecompiled,e.g.,thepubliclyavailable
Ghostscript
utilitydoesagoodjobat
interpretingPostScript.
88
ch-psextra2.tex,v:2.27
2007/08/13
22.1 Displaylanguages:PostScript,PDF,andSVG
interpreter code), on-RIPcolor separaration(for spead and portability), on-RIP imagecompression
(e.g.,JPEG),compositefonts(important forAsianlanguageswithlargecharactersets),bettersupport
foroutputdevices(largesetofprinterdescriptionfiles)andimprovedscreeningalgorithms.
1999:PostScriptlevel3
PostScript level3waspublisedinFebruary1999. emainadditionsare support for morethan256
graylevelspercolor,furtheradvancesinon-RIPcolorseparation(introductionofnewcolorspaces,in-
RIPtrapping),morehalones,smoothshading,andsupportforPDF(PostScript3RIPscaninterpret
PDFfilesnatively).
22.1.1.2 PostScript:anoverviewofitsfeature
PostScript[2](
www.adobe.com/products/postscript/pdfs/PLRM.pdf
)isapagedescription
language. Itprovides amethodforexpressingtheappearance ofa printed page,includingtext,lines,
andgraphics.
Adevice-and resolution-independent, general-purpose, programminglanguage, PostScript de-
scribes a complete“output page”. elanguage is stackorientedand uses “reversePolish”or postfix
notation.Itincludesloopingconstructs,procedures,andcomparisonoperators,anditsupportsmany
datatypes,includingreals,Booleans,arrays,strings,andcomplexobjectssuchasdictionaries.
PostScript programsaregenerallywrittenintheformof ASCIIsourcetext,which iseasytocre-
ate,edit,transmit,andmanipulate.BecausePostScriptisresolutionanddeviceindependent,thesame
ASCIIfilecanbeviewedonacomputerdisplaywithapreviewer,suchas
ghostview
,andprintedona
smalllaserprinterorahigh-resolutionphototypesetter.
InthePostScriptlanguagethefollowingfeaturescanbefreelycombined:
• Arbitraryshapes,whichcanbeconstructedfromlines,arcs,andcubiccurves.eshapesmay
self-intersectandcontaindisconnectedsectionsandholes.
• Paintingprimitives,whichpermitshapestobeoutlinedwithlinesofanythickness,filledwithany
color,orusedasaclippingpathtocropanyothergraphic.
• Textcharacters,whicharetreatedasgraphicalshapesthatmaybeoperatedonbyanyofthelan-
guage’sgraphicsoperators.isisfullytrueforPostScriptType3fonts,wherecharactershapesare
definedasordinaryPostScriptlanguageprocedures.Incontrast,Adobe’sPostScriptType1format
definesaspecialsmallerlanguagewherecharactershapesaredefinedbyusingspeciallyencoded
procedures¹
• Images(suchasphotographsorsyntheticallygeneratedimages),whichcanbesampledatanyres-
olutionandwithavarietyofdynamicranges.PostScriptprovidesfacilitiestocontroltherendering
ofimagesontheoutputdevice.
• Severalcolormodels(devicebased:RGB,HSB,CMYK;standardbased:CIE)andconversionfunc-
tionsfromonemodeltoanother.
• Ageneralcoordinatesystemfacility,whichsupportsallcombinationsoflineartransformations,
includingscaling,rotation,reflection, andskewing.esetransformationsapplyuniformlytoall
pageelements,includingtext,graphicalimages,andsampledimages.
• Dictionariesforcolorspaces,fonts,forms,images,half-tones,andpatterns.
• Compressionfilters,suchasJPEGandLZW.
¹Forcomplexlanguageswithmanythousandsofcharacters(e.g.,ChineseandJapanese),compositeType0fontscanbe
used.SeeSections21.1.1,21.1.4,and21.2.6formoreinformationonPostScriptfonttechnology.
ch-psextra2.tex,v:2.27
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89
22
POSTSCRIPTANDPDFTOOLS
22.1.2 PDF:thePortableDocumentFormat
Adobe’s Portable Document Format (PDF) [3]¹ is a direct descendant of the PostScript language.
WhereasPostScriptisa full-blownprogramminglanguage,PDF is asecond-generation,more light-
weightgraphics languageoptimizedforfasterdownloadanddisplay. Most oftheadvantagesofPost-
Scriptremain:PDFguaranteespagefidelity,downtothesmallestglyphorpieceofwhitespace,while
beingportableacrossdifferentcomputerplatforms.Forthesereasons,PDFisbeingusedevermorefre-
quentlyintheprofessionalprintingworldasa replacement for PostScript.Moreover,allpresent-day
browserswillembedordisplayPDFmaterial,alongsideHTML,usingplug-intechnology.
emaindifferencesbetweenPostScriptandPDFarethefollowing:
• PDFhasnobuilt-inprogramminglanguagefunctions,i.e.,ingeneralPDFcannotcalculatevalues.
• PDFguaranteesfullpageindependencebyclearlyseparatingresourcesfrompageobjects.
• PDFfilesarecompactandfullysearchable.
• InteractivehyperlinksmakePDFfileseasytonavigate.
• PDF’ssecurityfeaturesallowPDFdocumentstohavespecialaccessrightsanddigitalsignatures
applied.
• Fontoutlinesneednotbeincludedinthefile,becausePDFfilescarrysufficientfontinforma-
tioninformationtoallow PDF-enabled applications (e.g., Adobe’s
AcrobatReader
)tomimicthe
appearanceofafont.
• PDFhasadvancedcompressionfeaturestokeepthesizeofPDFfilessmallandPNGandJPEG
imagescanbeinserteddirectly.
• PDF1.4,releasedinNovember2001,andlaterversionssupportatransparentimagingmodel
(PostScript usesanopaque model)andfeaturemultimedia support. eyalsointroducetagged
PDF,astylizedformofPDFthatcontainsinformationoncontentandstructure.TaggedPDFlets
applicationsextractandreusepagedata(text,graphics,images).Forinstance,taggedPDFallows
texttoreflowfordisplayonhandhelddevices,suchasPalmOSorPocketPCsystems.
• PDF1.5,releasedinAugust2003,includesfeaturesforfurtheroptimizingmultimediadelivery.
• PDF1.6,releasedinNovember2004,addsenhancementsinthefieldofencryption,andhasfur-
therimprovedsupportintheareasof,amongstothers,colorspaces, embeddingOpenTypefonts,
markupannotations,anddigitalsignatures.
• PDF1.7,releasedinNovember2006,introducesnewfeaturestoincreasethecontrolthePDF
viewingapplicationhas over theappearanceand behaviorof 3Dartwork. Italso includesaddi-
tions to markup annotations to aid technical communicationand review, additions to Tagged-
PDFtoidentifytherolesofmoretypesofpagecontent,andadditionstodocumentnavigationto
simplifyspecifyingtheviewingandorganizationalcharacteristicsofportablecollections,thatare
usedto present,sort,and search collectionsofrelateddocuments, such as emailarchives,photo
collections,etc.PDF1.7alsoimprovesauthor’scontrolondigitalsignaturesandonrequirements
PDF consumer applications must satisfy. Finally, PDF 1.7 guarantees more cross-platform and
cross-applicationstability,byprovidingencodinginformationforstringsandfilenames.
• OnJanuary29,2007,AdobedecidedtosubmitthePDF1.7specificationtotheInternationalStan-
dardizationOrganization(ISO)asstandarddocumentISO32000.isdocumentcontainsisare-
formattedversionoftheAdobePDF1.7ReferenceGuide,whichalsoguaranteesthatthecontent
isvendorneutral,morepreciseandconformingtoISOconventions.
PDF can be viewed and printed on many different computer platforms by downloading and
¹evariousversionsofthePDFReferenceGuide,includingthelatest,areavailablefromAdobe’sPDFTechnologyCenter
websitehttp://www.adobe.com/devnet/pdf/pdf_reference.html.
90
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