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– WhenthefilenamehasbeensubmittedthexmmselectGUI(Figure5.2)GUIwillappear,alongwith
adialogboxofferingtodisplaytheselectionexpression. Theselectionexpressionwillincludethe
filteringdonetothispointontheeventfile,whichforthepipelineprocessingincludesforthemost
partCCDandGTIselections.
Figure5.2: The e xmmselectGUI.Thetopdialogareaisfor theselectionexpression. . Thecentralpart t ofthe
GUIprovidesalistoftheparametersavailableinthetable(notethescrollbarontherighthandside). Two-
dimensionaldataareselectedusingthesquareboxesonthelefthandside(inthiscaseX,Y,skycoordinates,
havebeenselected)whileone-dimensionaldataareselectedusingtheroundboxes(Timeinthisexample).
5.2.2 Create e andDisplayanImage
5a) CreateanimageinskycoordinatesbyusingthexmmselectGUI.
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Figure5.3: TheevselectGUI.Additionalparametersfortheselectedprocesscanbeaccessedthroughthetabs
atthetopoftheGUI.
– Tocreateanimageofthedatainskycoordinatescheckthesquareboxestotheleftofthe“X”and
“Y”entries.
– Click onthe“Image”buttonnearthebottom ofthe page. . This s brings uptheevselectGUI(Fig-
ure5.3).
– Thedefaultsettingsarereasonableforabasicimagesoclickonthe“Run”buttonatthelowerleft
corneroftheevselectGUI.Different binningsandotherselectionscanbeinvokedbyaccessingthe
“Image”tabatthetopoftheGUI.
– Theresultantimageiswrittentothefileimage.ds,andtheimageisautomaticallydisplayedusing
ds9,andisshowninFigure5.4.
5b) Usingthecommandline e interface, createanimageinskycoordinatesby usingthetaskevselect. . The
sameimageproducedin5a)canbecreatedusingthefollowingcommand.
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– evselect t table=/PIPE/mos1.fits:EVENTS S withimageset=yes imageset=image.fits
xcolumn=X ycolumn=Y Y imagebinning=imageSize ximagesize=600 yimagesize=600
> table–inputeventtable.
> withimageset–makeanimage.
> imageset–nameofoutputimage.
> xcolumn–eventcolumnforXaxis.
> ycolumn–eventcolumnforYaxis.
> imagebinning–formofbinning,forceentireimageintoagivensizeorbinbyaspecifiednumber
ofpixels.
> ximagesize–outputimagepixelsinX.
> ximagesize–outputimagepixelsinY.
Displaytheoutputfileimage.fitsusing,e.g.,ds9 image.fits s &.
Figure5.4:ds9windowshowingtheunfilteredimageoftheMOS1datafromtheLockmanHoleSV1observation,
displayedonasquarerootscalewithanuppercutvalueof40usingtheSLScolorlook-uptable.
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5.2.3 Create e andDisplayaLightCurve
6a) CreatealightcurveoftheobservationbyusingthexmmselectGUI(Figure5.2).
– Tocreatealightcurvechecktheroundboxtotheleftofthe“Time”entry.
– Clickonthe“OGIPRateCurve”buttonnearthebottomofthepage. . Thisbringsuptheevselect
GUI(Figure5.3).
– Thedefaultsettingisforaone-secondbinwhichis s abitfine,soaccessthe “Lightcurve”taband
changethe“timebinsize”to,e.g.,100(100s). Clickonthe“Run”buttonatthelowerleftcornerof
theevselectGUI.
– Theresultantlightcurveiswrittentothefilerates.ds,andis s displayedautomaticallyusingGrace
(Figure5.5).
6b) Usingthecommandline e interface, createa light curve of the observationusingthetaskevselectthen
displaywithdsplot.
– evselect t table=/PIPE/mos1.fits:EVENTS S withrateset=yes rateset=rate.fits
maketimecolumn=yes timecolumn=TIME timebinsize=100makeratecolumn=yes
> table–inputeventtable.
> withrateset–makeanlightcurve.
> rateset–nameofoutputlightcurvefile.
> maketimecolumn–controltocreateatimecolumn
> timecolumn–timecolumnlabel
> timebinsize–timebinning(seconds)
> makeratecolumn– control to create e acount rate column, otherwise a count columnwill be
created
– dsplot t table=rate.fits s x=TIME E y=RATE.ERROR R withoffsetx=yes &
> table–inputeventtable
> x–columnforplottingonXaxis
> y–columnforplottingonYaxis,thenomenclatureRATE.ERRORplotsthe e countratecolumn
(RATE)withthecount-rateerrorcolumn(ERROR)asuncertainties
> withoffsetx–createsanoffsettotheXaxis(-73194570.96472888sinFigure5.5)
5.2.4 FiltertheDataandCreateaNewEventFile
7) Nextapplysomefilteringtothedata.The“expressions”fortheMOSandPN,
(PATTERN <= = 12)&&(PI I in n [200:12000])&&#XMMEA
EMand
(PATTERN <= = 4)&&(PI I in n [200:15000])&&#XMMEA
EP,
willselect good d events s withPATTERN inthe 0to o 12range (single, double,triple, andquadruplepixel
events)andpulseheightintherangeof200to12000eVfortheMOSandgoodeventswithPATTERNin
the0to4range(single anddoublepixelevents) andpulseheightinthe rangeof 200to15000eVfor
thePN.Thisshouldcleanuptheimagesignificantlywithmostoftherestoftheobviouscontamination
duetolowpulse-heightevents. SettingthelowerPIchannellimitsomewhathigher(e.g.,to300eV)will
eliminatemuchof the rest. . The e selectiononthePATTERNvalueis similar theGRADEselectionfor
ASCAdata,andisrelatedtothenumberandpatternoftheCCDpixelstriggeredforagivenevent.The
PATTERNassignmentsare:singlepixelevents–PATTERN == 0,doublepixelevents–PATTERN N in n [1:4],
tripleandquadrupleevents–PATTERN in [5:12].The#XMMEA
EM(#XMMEA
EPforthePN)filterprovides
acannedscreeningsetofFLAGvaluesfortheevent. (TheFLAGvalueprovidesabitencodingofvarious
eventconditions,e.g.,nearhotpixelsoroutsideofthefieldofview. SettingFLAG G == = 0intheselection
expressionprovidesthe mostconservativescreeningcriteria. . Thedefinitions s of theFLAG valuescanbe
foundinthe FITSheaders of the EVENTSextensions of theevent files. . FITSheaders s caneasilybe
examinedusingfv.) Anoutputfilewillbecreatedforfurtherprocessing.
7a) FilterthedatausingthexmmselectGUI.
20
Figure5.5: GracewindowshowingtheunfilteredlightcurveoftheMOS1datafromtheLockmanHoleSV1
observation.Alsoshownisthetimeselectioninterval.
– SinceMOSdataarebeingused,intheselectionexpressionareaat t the topofthe xmmselectGUI
enter:
(PATTERN <= = 12)&&(PI in n [200:12000])&&#XMMEA
EM.
– Clickonthe“FilteredTable”boxatthelowerleftofthexmmselectGUI.
– Change e the e evselect t filteredset t parameter, , the output t file name, , to something useful, e.g.,
mos1-filt.fits.Click“Run”.
7b) Filterthedatausingevselectonthecommandline.
– evselect t table=mos1.fits:EVENTS S withfilteredset=yes
expression=’(PATTERN <= = 12)&&(PI in [200:12000])&&#XMMEA
EM’
filteredset=mos1-filt.fits filtertype=expression keepfilteroutput=yes
updateexposure=yes filterexposure=yes
> table–inputeventtable.
> filtertype–methodoffiltering
> expression–filteringexpression.
> withfilteredset–createafilteredset.
> filteredset–outputfilename.
> keepfilteroutput–savethefilteredoutput
> updateexposure–forusewithtemporalfiltering
> filterexposure–forusewithtemporalfiltering
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8) Ifnecessary(andfortheLockmanHoleSV1dataitmostdefinitelyis),addatemporalfilteringclauseto
theevselectselection“expression”.Thisismostoftenrequiredbecauseofsoftprotonflaringwhichcanbe
painfullyobviouswithcountratesof50–100countsasecond,ormore.Notethathowmuchflaringneeds
tobeexcludeddependsonthesciencegoalsoftheanalysis,awhoppingbrightpointsourcewillclearly
belessaffectedthanafaintextendedobject.AtemporalfiltercanbeeasilycreatedfromtheGracelight
curveplotwindow.
– Createalight-curveplotthroughthexmmselectGUI
– IntheGracewindow,pulldownthe“Edit”menu,select“Regions”,andselect“Define”
– Forthiscase,select“LeftofLine”forthe“Regiontype”
– Clickthe“Define”buttonandthenclickattwopointstocreateaverticallineattheupperendofthe
desiredrangeontheGraceplot. (Itispossibletodefineuptofiveregionsatonetimebychanging
the“Defineregion”counter.)
– BackonthexmmselectGUI,clickonthe“1Dregion”button. Thiswilltransfertheselectioncriteria
tothe“Selectionexpression”location.
Thesyntaxforthetimeselectionis(TIME <= 73227600). . Amorecomplicatedexpressionwhichwould
removeasmallflarewithinanotherwisegoodinterval(e.g.,thesoftprotonflaresobservedinthelight
curve plot t of Figure e 5.5) ) could be: : (TIME E <= = 73227600)&&!(TIME E IN N [73221920:73223800]). . The
syntax &&(TIME E < 73227600) ) includes only events withtimes s less s than n 73227600. . Use e &&!(TIME E in
[73221920:73223800])to exclude events s in n the e time interval73221920to 73223800,the“!” ” symbol
standsforthelogical“not”. Thefull“expression”wouldthenbe:
(PATTERN <= = 12)&&(PI I in n [200:12000])&&#XMMEA
EM &&(TIME <= = 73227600)
&&!(TIME in n [73221920:73223800])
Again,givethenewfileausefulname(mos1-filt-time.fits)andmakesurethattheupdateexposure
andfilterexposureboxesarecheckedontheevselectGUI.Timefilteringcanalsobedonedirectlyusing
thelightcurvebythecreationofasecondaryGTIfileusingtheroutinetabgtigentask.
– tabgtigen n table=rate.fits:RATE E expression=’RATE<5’
gtiset=gtisel.fits timecolumn=TIME
> table–inputcountratetableandextension(§5.2.3).
> expression–filteringexpression,inthiscaseincludethoseintervalswherethecountrateis<5
countss
−1
intheindividual100sintervals.
> gtiset–outputfilenameforselectedGTIintervals.
> timecolumn–timecolumn.
TheoutputGTItablecanthenbeusedinthefilteringexpressioninevselectwiththesyntax
&&GTI(gtisel.fits,TIME).Thefull“expression”wouldthenbe:
(PATTERN <= = 12)&&(PI I in n [200:15000])&&#XMMEA
EM&&GTI(gtisel.fits,TIME).
Figures5.6and5.7showtheimageandlightcurvegeneratedfromthefiltereddata.
5.3 EXTRACTANDFITASOURCESPECTRUM
5.3.1 ExtracttheSpectrum
Whileallofthedataextractioncanbedoneontheoriginalfilekeepingthefinalselection“expression”,itcan
savesignificanttimeandmemorytooperateonthefilteredeventfile.Forinstance,inthecaseoftheLockman
Holedata,theoriginalMOS1eventfileis48.4Mbwhilethefiltered(spatial,temporal,andspectral)listisonly
4.0Mb. Tochangetheeventfile,pulldownthe“file”menuonthe e xmmselectGUIandselect“NewTable”.
This willbringupthe fileselectionbrowserandjust followtheinstructions inItem 4of Section5.2.1. . The
extractionof region-specificdata(e.g.,sourcespectraandlightcurves)is simplifiedby usingtheGUIagain
becauseofthetreatmentofselectionregions.
1) Withxmmselectrunningonthefilteredfile,createanimagebyselectingthesmallboxestotheleftof
the XandYcolumns,clickingonthe“Image”button, andthenclickingonthe“Run”buttononthe
22
Figure5.6:FilteredimageoftheMOS1datafromtheLockmanHoleSV1observation.Displayedwithasquare
rootscaleandanuppercutvalueof20.
pop-upevselectGUI(for thesepurposes thedefault parameters arefine). . Toselectafilenameforthe
imageratherthanusingthedefaultimage.ds,selectthe“Image”pageontheevselectGUIandchange
theimagesetentry.
2) Ontheds9window,createaregionforasourceofinterest. . Clickonceontheds9imageandaregioncircle
willappear. Clickontheregioncircleandtheregionwillbeactivated,allowingtheregiontobemoved
anditssizetobechanged. Havingcreated,placed,andsizedtheregionappropriateforthesource,click
the“2Dregion”buttononthexmmselectGUI.Thistransferstheregioninformationintothe“Selection
expression”textarea,e.g.,((X,Y) IN N circle(26144,22838,600))
forthebrightsourceatthelowercenteroftheLockmanHoleobservation. Thecircleparametersare
theXandYpositionsandtheradiusofthecircleinunitsof0.
′′
05,sotheaboveregiondescriptionisfor
acircleof30
′′
radius.
Note: Forseriousspectralanalysisthephrase&&(FLAG G == 0)shouldbeaddedtotheselectionexpression.
Thisprovidesthemoststringentscreeningofthedataandwillexcludeeventssuchasthosenexttothe
edgesoftheCCDsandnexttobadpixelswhichmayhaveincorrectenergies.
3) Toextract t the spectrum,first clickthecircular buttonnext to o the PIcolumnonthe xmmselectGUI.
23
Figure5.7:FilteredlightcurveoftheMOS1datafromtheLockmanHoleSV1observation.
Figure5.8:SpectrumofasourcefromtheLockmanHoleSV1observation.
Next click the “OGIP Spectrum” ” button. . Select t the “Spectrum”page of the evselect t GUI tosetthe
24
filenameandbinningparametersforthespectrum. For r example,setspectrumsettosource.ds. . The
spectralbinsizemust be set to15fortheMOSor 5for the PN.withspecrangesmust be checked,
specchannelminsetto0,andspecchannelmaxsetto11999fortheMOSor20479forthePN.Figure5.8
showsthespectrum.
4) To extract t abackgroundspectrum from an n annulus s surrounding g the source, first t clear the “Selection
expression”. Next t repeat step p 2) ) except t create e two circles defining the inner r and outer r edges of the
backgroundannulus. Usethe“Properties”menuundertheds9“Region”menutosettheinnercircleto
“exclude”. Thenclickthe“2Dregion”buttononthexmmselectGUItotransfertheregiondescriptionof
bothcirclestothe“Selectionexpression”. Thismayneedtobeedited. . Forexample,foranannulusit
shouldbeasfollows:
((X,Y) IN circle(26144,22838,1500))&&!((X,Y) IN N circle(26144,22838,900)).
Thiswillincludedatawithinacircleofradius75′′ butnotwithinaconcentriccircleof45′′ (thevaluesare
inunitsof0.′′05). Finally,repeatstep3)exceptsetthefilteredsetparametertoadifferentfilename,
e.g.,back.ds.
5) Toextractthesourcelightcurve,putthesource“Selectionexpression”(theregiondescriptorusedinStep
3)inplaceandclickthecircularbuttonnexttothe“TIME”columnonthexmmselectGUI.(Note:ifyou
forgottorecordit,theregionselectioncriteriacanbefoundintheFITSheaderofthespectrumextension
ofthespectrumfile,e.g.,source.ds.)Nextclickthe“OGIPRatecurve”button. Selectthe“Lightcurve”
taboftheevselectGUItosetthefilenameandbinningparametersforthelightcurve. Forexample,set
filteredsettosource.rateandtimebinsizeto1000forareasonablebinningforthesourceexamined
inthespectralanalysissection. (NOTE:settimebinsize=1anddeselectmakeratecolumntocreatethe
lightcurveforthetemporalanalysisexamplein§5.5.Thefirstforcesthetimeintervaltobe1sandthe
secondcreatesacountratherthanacountratecolumn.)
6) Depending onhowbright t the sourceisandwhat modes theEPIC C detectors s arein, , eventpile upcan
possiblybeaproblem.Pileupoccurswhenasourceissobrightthatthereisthenon-negligiblepossibility
thatX-rayswillstriketwoneighboringpixelsorthesamepixelintheCCDmorethanonceinaread-out
cycle. Insuchcases s theenergies ofthe twoeventsare ineffect addedtogether to o formone event. . If
this happens sufficiently often n it t willskewthespectrum tohigher energies. . To o check whether r pileup
maybeaproblem,usetheSAStaskepatplot. Torunepatplotcreatesourceandbackgroundeventfiles
byextractingdatafromtheoriginaleventfileusingthetimeandregionselectionexpressionscombined
withtheFLAG == 0filtering(allPATTERNvaluesarerequired). . OnthexmmselectGUIclickthe“Filtered
Table”buttonandchecktheupdateexposureontheevselect“General”pageandprovideafilteredset
name, e.g., mos1-source.fitsand mos1-back.fits,for r the resultant files. . Invoke e epatplot fromthe
SASGUI,enterthe sourceeventfilename(e.g., mos1-source.fits)for thesetparameteronTab0and
setwithbackgroundsettoyesandprovidethebackgroundeventfilename(e.g.,mos1-back.fits)forthe
backgroundsetparameter onTab b 1, and click on “Run”. . If f the e plot shows the e model distributions
forsingleanddoubleeventsdivergingsignificantlyfromthemeasureddistributionsthenpileupmustbe
considered. Figure5.9showsanexampleofabrightsource(fromadifferentobservation)whichis s not
stronglyaffectedbypileup. Thesourceusedinthisexampleistoofainttoprovidereasonablestatistics
forepatplotandisfarfrombeingaffectedbypileup.
5.3.2 Create e RMFsandARFs
Thefollowingassumesthatanappropriatesourcespectrum,namedsource.ds,hasbeenextractedasin§5.3.1.
7a) Createthephotonredistributionmatrix,theRMF,usingthetaskrmfgenGUI.
– FromtheSASGUI,invokethermfgenGUI(Figure5.10)
– Setthespectrumsetkeywordtothespectrumfilename,e.g.,source.ds
– SetthermfsetkeywordtotheRMFfilename,e.g.,rmf.ds
– Click“Run”(ifyourxmmselectGUIisstillrunning,adialogboxwilloccuraskingwhetherrmfgen
canberun,itcanasthereisnoconflict)
7b CreatethephotonRMFfromthecommandline.
25
Figure5.9:AMOS1epatplotplotforamoderatelybrightsourcewhichdoesnotshowevidenceforpileup. The
centralsourcefromtheobservationofG21.5-09(0122700101)isused.
– rmfgen n rmfset=response.ds s spectrumset=source.ds
> rmfset–outputRMFfilename
> spectrumset–inputspectrumfilename
8a) Createtheancillaryregionfile,theARF,usingthetaskarfgenGUI.
– FromtheSASGUI,invokethearfgenGUI(Figure5.11)
– Onthe“main”tabsetthespectrumsetkeywordtothespectrumfilename,e.g.,source.ds
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