Guidelines for References
1. The reference list should contain only references that are cited in the text, numbered in the order
in which they are first cited. Bibliographic lists will not be published. Papers that do not conform to the
numbered reference style will be returned to the authors for correction.
2. Denote a reference at the appropriate place in the text with an italicized Arabic numeral in
parentheses, e.g., (2). Do not denote text references with superscripts.
3. Do not include in the reference list personal communications, telephone conversations, or similar
material that would not be available to readers electronically or in printed form in a library or from the
originating agency. Instead, cite the unpublished work in the text and enclose the author’s name along
with the term “personal communication” in parentheses.
4. Do not repeat a reference in the list, and do not use ibid., idem, op. cit., or loc. cit. If a reference is
cited more than once in the text, repeat the number first assigned to the reference.
5. Use the following content guidelines and samples in preparing reference lists:
• Printed sources. Be sure that references to printed sources are complete. Include names
of corporate or personal authors or editors, or both; title of article, chapter, book, or report;
publisher or issuing agency; volume and issue or report number; page numbers; location of
publisher; and year of publication.
Dewan, S. A., and R. E. Smith. Creating Asset Management Reports from a Local Agency
Pavement Management System. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the
Transportation Research Board, No. 1853, Transportation Research Board of the National
Academies, Washington, D.C., 2003, pp. 13–20.
Newland, D. E. Random Vibrations: Spectral and Wavelet Analysis. John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., New York, 1998.
Dawley, C. B., B. L. Hogenwiede, and K. O. Anderson. Mitigation of Instability Rutting of
Asphalt Concrete Pavements in Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. Journal of Association of
Asphalt Paving Technologists, Vol. 59, 1990, pp. 481–508.
Sansalone, M., J. M. Lin, and W. B. Streett. Determining the Depths of Surface-Opening
Cracks Using Impact-Generated Stress Waves and Time-of-Flight Techniques. ACI
Materials Journal, Vol. 95, No. 2, 1998, pp. 168–177.
Von Quintus, H. L., and A. L. Simpson. Documentation of the Backcalculation of Layer
Parameters for LTPP Test Sections. Publication FHWA-RD-01-113. FHWA, U.S. Department
of Transportation, 2002.
Preparing Papers for Peer Review and Presentation at the TRB Annual Meeting