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HTML
Living Standard — Last Updated19 May 2016
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1
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Table of contents
1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................................................2
2 Common infrastructure...............................................................................................................................................................................3
3 Semantics, structure, and APIs of HTML documents.................................................................................................................................4
4 The elements of HTML...............................................................................................................................................................................5
5 Microdata..................................................................................................................................................................................................12
6 User interaction........................................................................................................................................................................................13
7 Loading Web pages.................................................................................................................................................................................14
8 Web application APIs...............................................................................................................................................................................15
9 Communication........................................................................................................................................................................................17
10 Web workers...........................................................................................................................................................................................17
11 Web storage...........................................................................................................................................................................................18
12 The HTML syntax...................................................................................................................................................................................18
13 The XHTML syntax.................................................................................................................................................................................21
14 Rendering...............................................................................................................................................................................................21
15 Obsolete features...................................................................................................................................................................................22
16 IANA considerations...............................................................................................................................................................................23
Index............................................................................................................................................................................................................23
References..................................................................................................................................................................................................23
Acknowledgements.....................................................................................................................................................................................23
Full table of contents
1 Introduction...............................................................................................................................................................................................24
1.1 Where does this specification fit?........................................................................................................................................24
1.2 Is this HTML5?....................................................................................................................................................................24
1.3 Background.........................................................................................................................................................................24
1.4 Audience.............................................................................................................................................................................25
1.5 Scope..................................................................................................................................................................................25
1.6 History.................................................................................................................................................................................25
1.7 Design notes.......................................................................................................................................................................26
1.7.1 Serialisability of script execution....................................................................................................................26
1.7.2 Compliance with other specifications.............................................................................................................27
1.7.3 Extensibility.....................................................................................................................................................27
1.8 HTML vs XHTML.................................................................................................................................................................27
1.9 Structure of this specification..............................................................................................................................................28
1.9.1 How to read this specification.........................................................................................................................29
1.9.2 Typographic conventions...............................................................................................................................29
1.10 Privacy concerns...............................................................................................................................................................30
1.10.1 Cross-site communication............................................................................................................................31
1.11 A quick introduction to HTML............................................................................................................................................31
1.11.1 Writing secure applications with HTML........................................................................................................33
1.11.2 Common pitfalls to avoid when using the scripting APIs..............................................................................34
1.11.3 How to catch mistakes when writing HTML: validators and conformance checkers....................................35
1.12 Conformance requirements for authors.............................................................................................................................35
1.12.1 Presentational markup.................................................................................................................................36
1.12.2 Syntax errors................................................................................................................................................36
1.12.3 Restrictions on content models and on attribute values...............................................................................38
1.13 Suggested reading............................................................................................................................................................40
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2 Common infrastructure.............................................................................................................................................................................42
2.1 Terminology.........................................................................................................................................................................42
2.1.1 Resources......................................................................................................................................................42
2.1.2 XML................................................................................................................................................................43
2.1.3 DOM trees......................................................................................................................................................43
2.1.4 Scripting..........................................................................................................................................................44
2.1.5 Plugins............................................................................................................................................................44
2.1.6 Character encodings......................................................................................................................................44
2.2 Conformance requirements.................................................................................................................................................45
2.2.1 Conformance classes.....................................................................................................................................46
2.2.2 Dependencies................................................................................................................................................48
2.2.3 Extensibility.....................................................................................................................................................61
2.2.4 Interactions with XPath and XSLT..................................................................................................................62
2.3 Case-sensitivity and string comparison...............................................................................................................................63
2.4 Common microsyntaxes......................................................................................................................................................63
2.4.1 Common parser idioms..................................................................................................................................64
2.4.2 Boolean attributes..........................................................................................................................................65
2.4.3 Keywords and enumerated attributes.............................................................................................................65
2.4.4 Numbers.........................................................................................................................................................66
2.4.4.1 Signed integers.........................................................................................................................66
2.4.4.2 Non-negative integers...............................................................................................................66
2.4.4.3 Floating-point numbers..............................................................................................................67
2.4.4.4 Percentages and lengths...........................................................................................................68
2.4.4.5 Non-zero percentages and lengths...........................................................................................69
2.4.4.6 Lists of floating-point numbers..................................................................................................69
2.4.4.7 Lists of dimensions....................................................................................................................70
2.4.5 Dates and times..............................................................................................................................................71
2.4.5.1 Months.......................................................................................................................................71
2.4.5.2 Dates.........................................................................................................................................72
2.4.5.3 Yearless dates...........................................................................................................................73
2.4.5.4 Times.........................................................................................................................................73
2.4.5.5 Local dates and times...............................................................................................................74
2.4.5.6 Time zones................................................................................................................................75
2.4.5.7 Global dates and times..............................................................................................................76
2.4.5.8 Weeks........................................................................................................................................78
2.4.5.9 Durations...................................................................................................................................79
2.4.5.10 Vaguer moments in time.........................................................................................................82
2.4.6 Colours...........................................................................................................................................................83
2.4.7 Space-separated tokens................................................................................................................................84
2.4.8 Comma-separated tokens..............................................................................................................................85
2.4.9 References.....................................................................................................................................................85
2.4.10 Media queries...............................................................................................................................................86
2.5 URLs....................................................................................................................................................................................86
2.5.1 Terminology....................................................................................................................................................86
2.5.2 Parsing URLs.................................................................................................................................................86
2.5.3 Dynamic changes to base URLs....................................................................................................................87
2.6 Fetching resources..............................................................................................................................................................87
2.6.1 Terminology....................................................................................................................................................87
2.6.2 Determining the type of a resource................................................................................................................88
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2.6.3 Extracting character encodings frommetaelements.....................................................................................88
2.6.4 CORS settings attributes................................................................................................................................89
2.6.5 Referrer policy attributes................................................................................................................................89
2.7 Common DOM interfaces....................................................................................................................................................89
2.7.1 Reflecting content attributes in IDL attributes.................................................................................................89
2.7.2 Collections......................................................................................................................................................91
2.7.2.1 TheHTMLAllCollectioninterface........................................................................................91
2.7.2.2 TheHTMLFormControlsCollectioninterface....................................................................93
2.7.2.3 TheHTMLOptionsCollectioninterface...............................................................................94
2.7.3 TheDOMStringMapinterface........................................................................................................................96
2.7.4 Garbage collection.........................................................................................................................................97
2.8 Namespaces........................................................................................................................................................................97
2.9 Safe passing of structured data...........................................................................................................................................98
2.9.1 Cloneable objects...........................................................................................................................................98
2.9.2 Transferable objects.......................................................................................................................................98
2.9.3 StructuredCloneWithTransfer (input,transferList,targetRealm)..................................................................98
2.9.4 StructuredClone (input,targetRealm[ ,memory] )......................................................................................99
2.9.5 IsTransferable (O)......................................................................................................................................102
2.9.6 TransferHelper (input,targetRealm)...........................................................................................................102
2.9.7 Monkey patch forBlobandFileListobjects...........................................................................................102
3 Semantics, structure, and APIs of HTML documents.............................................................................................................................103
3.1 Documents........................................................................................................................................................................103
3.1.1 TheDocumentobject..................................................................................................................................103
3.1.2 Resource metadata management................................................................................................................105
3.1.3 DOM tree accessors.....................................................................................................................................106
3.1.4 Loading XML documents..............................................................................................................................110
3.2 Elements............................................................................................................................................................................110
3.2.1 Semantics.....................................................................................................................................................110
3.2.2 Elements in the DOM...................................................................................................................................112
3.2.3 Element definitions.......................................................................................................................................114
3.2.3.1 Attributes.................................................................................................................................115
3.2.4 Content models............................................................................................................................................115
3.2.4.1 The "nothing" content model...................................................................................................115
3.2.4.2 Kinds of content.......................................................................................................................116
3.2.4.2.1 Metadata content................................................................................................116
3.2.4.2.2 Flow content.......................................................................................................117
3.2.4.2.3 Sectioning content..............................................................................................117
3.2.4.2.4 Heading content.................................................................................................117
3.2.4.2.5 Phrasing content................................................................................................117
3.2.4.2.6 Embedded content.............................................................................................118
3.2.4.2.7 Interactive content..............................................................................................118
3.2.4.2.8 Palpable content.................................................................................................118
3.2.4.2.9 Script-supporting elements.................................................................................119
3.2.4.3 Transparent content models....................................................................................................119
3.2.4.4 Paragraphs..............................................................................................................................119
3.2.5 Global attributes...........................................................................................................................................121
3.2.5.1 Thetitleattribute.................................................................................................................124
3.2.5.2 Thelangandxml:langattributes........................................................................................125
3.2.5.3 Thetranslateattribute........................................................................................................126
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3.2.5.4 Thedirattribute.....................................................................................................................127
3.2.5.5 Thestyleattribute.................................................................................................................129
3.2.5.6 Embedding custom non-visible data with thedata-*attributes............................................130
3.2.6 Requirements relating to the bidirectional algorithm....................................................................................132
3.2.6.1 Authoring conformance criteria for bidirectional-algorithm formatting characters...................132
3.2.6.2 User agent conformance criteria.............................................................................................133
3.2.7 Requirements related to ARIA and to platform accessibility APIs................................................................133
4 The elements of HTML...........................................................................................................................................................................134
4.1 The document element......................................................................................................................................................134
4.1.1 Thehtmlelement........................................................................................................................................134
4.2 Document metadata..........................................................................................................................................................135
4.2.1 Theheadelement........................................................................................................................................135
4.2.2 Thetitleelement......................................................................................................................................136
4.2.3 Thebaseelement........................................................................................................................................137
4.2.4 Thelinkelement........................................................................................................................................138
4.2.5 Themetaelement........................................................................................................................................143
4.2.5.1 Standard metadata names......................................................................................................144
4.2.5.2 Other metadata names............................................................................................................147
4.2.5.3 Pragma directives....................................................................................................................147
4.2.5.4 Other pragma directives..........................................................................................................151
4.2.5.5 Specifying the document's character encoding.......................................................................151
4.2.6 Thestyleelement......................................................................................................................................152
4.2.7 Interactions of styling and scripting..............................................................................................................155
4.3 Sections.............................................................................................................................................................................156
4.3.1 Thebodyelement........................................................................................................................................156
4.3.2 Thearticleelement.................................................................................................................................157
4.3.3 Thesectionelement.................................................................................................................................159
4.3.4 Thenavelement..........................................................................................................................................162
4.3.5 Theasideelement......................................................................................................................................165
4.3.6 Theh1,h2,h3,h4,h5, andh6elements....................................................................................................167
4.3.7 Thehgroupelement....................................................................................................................................168
4.3.8 Theheaderelement....................................................................................................................................170
4.3.9 Thefooterelement....................................................................................................................................171
4.3.10 Theaddresselement...............................................................................................................................173
4.3.11 Headings and sections...............................................................................................................................174
4.3.11.1 Creating an outline................................................................................................................176
4.3.11.2 Sample outlines.....................................................................................................................180
4.3.11.3 Exposing outlines to users....................................................................................................184
4.3.12 Usage summary.........................................................................................................................................184
4.3.12.1 Article or section?..................................................................................................................186
4.4 Grouping content...............................................................................................................................................................186
4.4.1 Thepelement..............................................................................................................................................186
4.4.2 Thehrelement............................................................................................................................................188
4.4.3 Thepreelement..........................................................................................................................................190
4.4.4 Theblockquoteelement...........................................................................................................................191
4.4.5 Theolelement............................................................................................................................................194
4.4.6 Theulelement............................................................................................................................................196
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4.4.7 Thelielement............................................................................................................................................196
4.4.8 Thedlelement............................................................................................................................................198
4.4.9 Thedtelement............................................................................................................................................200
4.4.10 Theddelement..........................................................................................................................................201
4.4.11 Thefigureelement..................................................................................................................................201
4.4.12 Thefigcaptionelement.........................................................................................................................204
4.4.13 Themainelement......................................................................................................................................204
4.4.14 Thedivelement........................................................................................................................................206
4.5 Text-level semantics..........................................................................................................................................................207
4.5.1 Theaelement..............................................................................................................................................207
4.5.2 Theemelement............................................................................................................................................209
4.5.3 Thestrongelement....................................................................................................................................210
4.5.4 Thesmallelement......................................................................................................................................211
4.5.5 Theselement..............................................................................................................................................213
4.5.6 Theciteelement........................................................................................................................................213
4.5.7 Theqelement..............................................................................................................................................214
4.5.8 Thedfnelement..........................................................................................................................................216
4.5.9 Theabbrelement........................................................................................................................................217
4.5.10 Therubyelement......................................................................................................................................218
4.5.11 Thertelement..........................................................................................................................................224
4.5.12 Therpelement..........................................................................................................................................224
4.5.13 Thedataelement......................................................................................................................................225
4.5.14 Thetimeelement......................................................................................................................................226
4.5.15 Thecodeelement......................................................................................................................................230
4.5.16 Thevarelement........................................................................................................................................231
4.5.17 Thesampelement......................................................................................................................................232
4.5.18 Thekbdelement........................................................................................................................................233
4.5.19 Thesubandsupelements........................................................................................................................234
4.5.20 Theielement............................................................................................................................................234
4.5.21 Thebelement............................................................................................................................................235
4.5.22 Theuelement............................................................................................................................................236
4.5.23 Themarkelement......................................................................................................................................237
4.5.24 Thebdielement........................................................................................................................................239
4.5.25 Thebdoelement........................................................................................................................................240
4.5.26 Thespanelement......................................................................................................................................241
4.5.27 Thebrelement..........................................................................................................................................241
4.5.28 Thewbrelement........................................................................................................................................242
4.5.29 Usage summary.........................................................................................................................................243
4.6 Links..................................................................................................................................................................................244
4.6.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................................244
4.6.2 Links created byaandareaelements........................................................................................................244
4.6.3 API foraandareaelements.......................................................................................................................245
4.6.4 Following hyperlinks.....................................................................................................................................250
4.6.5 Downloading resources................................................................................................................................251
4.6.5.1 Hyperlink auditing....................................................................................................................253
4.6.6 Link types.....................................................................................................................................................254
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4.6.6.1 Link type "alternate"...........................................................................................................255
4.6.6.2 Link type "author"..................................................................................................................256
4.6.6.3 Link type "bookmark".............................................................................................................256
4.6.6.4 Link type "dns-prefetch".....................................................................................................257
4.6.6.5 Link type "external".............................................................................................................257
4.6.6.6 Link type "help"......................................................................................................................257
4.6.6.7 Link type "icon"......................................................................................................................258
4.6.6.8 Link type "license"...............................................................................................................259
4.6.6.9 Link type "nofollow".............................................................................................................260
4.6.6.10 Link type "noreferrer".......................................................................................................260
4.6.6.11 Link type "noopener"...........................................................................................................260
4.6.6.12 Link type "pingback"...........................................................................................................260
4.6.6.13 Link type "preconnect".......................................................................................................261
4.6.6.14 Link type "prefetch"...........................................................................................................261
4.6.6.15 Link type "prerender".........................................................................................................261
4.6.6.16 Link type "search"................................................................................................................261
4.6.6.17 Link type "stylesheet".......................................................................................................261
4.6.6.18 Link type "tag"......................................................................................................................263
4.6.6.19 Sequential link types.............................................................................................................264
4.6.6.19.1 Link type "next"...............................................................................................264
4.6.6.19.2 Link type "prev"...............................................................................................264
4.6.6.20 Other link types......................................................................................................................265
4.7 Edits...................................................................................................................................................................................266
4.7.1 Theinselement..........................................................................................................................................266
4.7.2 Thedelelement..........................................................................................................................................267
4.7.3 Attributes common toinsanddelelements..............................................................................................268
4.7.4 Edits and paragraphs...................................................................................................................................269
4.7.5 Edits and lists...............................................................................................................................................269
4.7.6 Edits and tables............................................................................................................................................270
4.8 Embedded content............................................................................................................................................................271
4.8.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................................271
4.8.1.1 Adaptive images......................................................................................................................276
4.8.2 Thepictureelement.................................................................................................................................277
4.8.3 Thesourceelement....................................................................................................................................278
4.8.4 Theimgelement..........................................................................................................................................280
4.8.4.1 Requirements for providing text to act as an alternative for images.......................................297
4.8.4.1.1 General guidelines.............................................................................................297
4.8.4.1.2 A link or button containing nothing but the image..............................................297
4.8.4.1.3 A phrase or paragraph with an alternative graphical representation: charts,
diagrams, graphs, maps, illustrations................................................................................298
4.8.4.1.4 A short phrase or label with an alternative graphical representation: icons,
logos..................................................................................................................................299
4.8.4.1.5 Text that has been rendered to a graphic for typographical effect.....................300
4.8.4.1.6 A graphical representation of some of the surrounding text...............................301
4.8.4.1.7 Ancillary images.................................................................................................302
4.8.4.1.8 A purely decorative image that doesn't add any information..............................303
4.8.4.1.9 A group of images that form a single larger picture with no links.......................303
4.8.4.1.10 A group of images that form a single larger picture with links..........................304
4.8.4.1.11 A key part of the content..................................................................................304
4.8.4.1.12 An image not intended for the user..................................................................307
4.8.4.1.13 An image in an e-mail or private document intended for a specific person who is
known to be able to view images......................................................................................307
7
4.8.4.1.14 Guidance for markup generators......................................................................308
4.8.4.1.15 Guidance for conformance checkers................................................................308
4.8.5 Theiframeelement....................................................................................................................................308
4.8.6 Theembedelement......................................................................................................................................315
4.8.7 Theobjectelement....................................................................................................................................318
4.8.8 Theparamelement......................................................................................................................................324
4.8.9 Thevideoelement......................................................................................................................................325
4.8.10 Theaudioelement....................................................................................................................................329
4.8.11 Thetrackelement....................................................................................................................................330
4.8.12 Media elements..........................................................................................................................................333
4.8.12.1 Error codes............................................................................................................................334
4.8.12.2 Location of the media resource.............................................................................................335
4.8.12.3 MIME types............................................................................................................................336
4.8.12.4 Network states.......................................................................................................................337
4.8.12.5 Loading the media resource..................................................................................................337
4.8.12.6 Offsets into the media resource............................................................................................347
4.8.12.7 Ready states.........................................................................................................................349
4.8.12.8 Playing the media resource...................................................................................................351
4.8.12.9 Seeking.................................................................................................................................357
4.8.12.10 Media resources with multiple media tracks........................................................................359
4.8.12.10.1AudioTrackListandVideoTrackListobjects.......................................359
4.8.12.10.2 Selecting specific audio and video tracks declaratively..................................363
4.8.12.11 Timed text tracks.................................................................................................................363
4.8.12.11.1 Text track model.............................................................................................363
4.8.12.11.2 Sourcing in-band text tracks...........................................................................367
4.8.12.11.3 Sourcing out-of-band text tracks....................................................................368
4.8.12.11.4 Guidelines for exposing cues in various formats as text track cues...............370
4.8.12.11.5 Text track API.................................................................................................371
4.8.12.11.6 Text tracks describing chapters......................................................................376
4.8.12.11.7 Event handlers for objects of the text track APIs............................................378
4.8.12.11.8 Best practices for metadata text tracks..........................................................378
4.8.12.12 User interface......................................................................................................................380
4.8.12.13 Time ranges.........................................................................................................................381
4.8.12.14 TheTrackEventinterface.................................................................................................382
4.8.12.15 Event summary....................................................................................................................383
4.8.12.16 Security and privacy considerations....................................................................................385
4.8.12.17 Best practices for authors using media elements................................................................385
4.8.12.18 Best practices for implementors of media elements............................................................385
4.8.13 Themapelement........................................................................................................................................386
4.8.14 Theareaelement......................................................................................................................................387
4.8.15 Image maps................................................................................................................................................389
4.8.15.1 Authoring...............................................................................................................................389
4.8.15.2 Processing model..................................................................................................................390
4.8.16 MathML.......................................................................................................................................................392
4.8.17 SVG............................................................................................................................................................393
4.8.18 Dimension attributes...................................................................................................................................393
4.9 Tabular data......................................................................................................................................................................394
4.9.1 Thetableelement......................................................................................................................................394
4.9.1.1 Techniques for describing tables.............................................................................................398
4.9.1.2 Techniques for table design....................................................................................................401
4.9.2 Thecaptionelement.................................................................................................................................402
8
4.9.3 Thecolgroupelement...............................................................................................................................403
4.9.4 Thecolelement..........................................................................................................................................403
4.9.5 Thetbodyelement......................................................................................................................................404
4.9.6 Thetheadelement......................................................................................................................................405
4.9.7 Thetfootelement......................................................................................................................................406
4.9.8 Thetrelement............................................................................................................................................407
4.9.9 Thetdelement............................................................................................................................................409
4.9.10 Thethelement..........................................................................................................................................410
4.9.11 Attributes common totdandthelements................................................................................................412
4.9.12 Processing model.......................................................................................................................................413
4.9.12.1 Forming a table.....................................................................................................................413
4.9.12.2 Forming relationships between data cells and header cells..................................................416
4.9.13 Examples....................................................................................................................................................418
4.10 Forms..............................................................................................................................................................................420
4.10.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................420
4.10.1.1 Writing a form's user interface...............................................................................................421
4.10.1.2 Implementing the server-side processing for a form.............................................................423
4.10.1.3 Configuring a form to communicate with a server.................................................................424
4.10.1.4 Client-side form validation.....................................................................................................424
4.10.1.5 Enabling client-side automatic filling of form controls............................................................426
4.10.1.6 Improving the user experience on mobile devices................................................................426
4.10.1.7 The difference between the field type, the autofill field name, and the input modality..........427
4.10.1.8 Date, time, and number formats............................................................................................428
4.10.2 Categories..................................................................................................................................................428
4.10.3 Theformelement......................................................................................................................................429
4.10.4 Thelabelelement....................................................................................................................................432
4.10.5 Theinputelement....................................................................................................................................434
4.10.5.1 States of thetypeattribute...................................................................................................440
4.10.5.1.1 Hidden state (type=hidden)..........................................................................440
4.10.5.1.2 Text (type=text) state and Search state (type=search)...........................440
4.10.5.1.3 Telephone state (type=tel)...........................................................................441
4.10.5.1.4 URL state (type=url).....................................................................................441
4.10.5.1.5 E-mail state (type=email)..............................................................................443
4.10.5.1.6 Password state (type=password).................................................................444
4.10.5.1.7 Date state (type=date)..................................................................................445
4.10.5.1.8 Month state (type=month)..............................................................................446
4.10.5.1.9 Week state (type=week).................................................................................447
4.10.5.1.10 Time state (type=time)................................................................................448
4.10.5.1.11 Local Date and Time state (type=datetime-local).................................449
4.10.5.1.12 Number state (type=number).......................................................................450
4.10.5.1.13 Range state (type=range)...........................................................................451
4.10.5.1.14 Colour state (type=color)...........................................................................455
4.10.5.1.15 Checkbox state (type=checkbox)...............................................................455
4.10.5.1.16 Radio Button state (type=radio).................................................................456
4.10.5.1.17 File Upload state (type=file)......................................................................457
4.10.5.1.18 Submit Button state (type=submit).............................................................459
4.10.5.1.19 Image Button state (type=image)................................................................460
4.10.5.1.20 Reset Button state (type=reset).................................................................462
4.10.5.1.21 Button state (type=button).........................................................................462
4.10.5.2 Implementation notes regarding localization of form controls...............................................463
4.10.5.3 Commoninputelement attributes......................................................................................463
4.10.5.3.1 Themaxlengthandminlengthattributes....................................................463
9
4.10.5.3.2 Thesizeattribute............................................................................................463
4.10.5.3.3 Thereadonlyattribute...................................................................................464
4.10.5.3.4 Therequiredattribute...................................................................................464
4.10.5.3.5 Themultipleattribute...................................................................................465
4.10.5.3.6 Thepatternattribute.....................................................................................466
4.10.5.3.7 Theminandmaxattributes..............................................................................467
4.10.5.3.8 Thestepattribute............................................................................................468
4.10.5.3.9 Thelistattribute............................................................................................469
4.10.5.3.10 Theplaceholderattribute...........................................................................471
4.10.5.4 Commoninputelement APIs..............................................................................................472
4.10.5.5 Common event behaviours...................................................................................................475
4.10.6 Thebuttonelement..................................................................................................................................476
4.10.7 Theselectelement..................................................................................................................................479
4.10.8 Thedatalistelement.............................................................................................................................484
4.10.9 Theoptgroupelement.............................................................................................................................485
4.10.10 Theoptionelement................................................................................................................................486
4.10.11 Thetextareaelement...........................................................................................................................489
4.10.12 Thekeygenelement................................................................................................................................494
4.10.13 Theoutputelement................................................................................................................................497
4.10.14 Theprogresselement...........................................................................................................................499
4.10.15 Themeterelement..................................................................................................................................500
4.10.16 Thefieldsetelement...........................................................................................................................505
4.10.17 Thelegendelement................................................................................................................................507
4.10.18 Form control infrastructure.......................................................................................................................508
4.10.18.1 A form control's value..........................................................................................................508
4.10.18.2 Mutability.............................................................................................................................508
4.10.18.3 Association of controls and forms.......................................................................................508
4.10.19 Attributes common to form controls..........................................................................................................510
4.10.19.1 Naming form controls: thenameattribute............................................................................510
4.10.19.2 Submitting element directionality: thedirnameattribute....................................................510
4.10.19.3 Limiting user input length: themaxlengthattribute...........................................................510
4.10.19.4 Setting minimum input length requirements: theminlengthattribute...............................511
4.10.19.5 Enabling and disabling form controls: thedisabledattribute...........................................511
4.10.19.6 Form submission.................................................................................................................512
4.10.19.6.1 Autofocusing a form control: theautofocusattribute..................................514
4.10.19.7 Input modalities: theinputmodeattribute..........................................................................515
4.10.19.8 Autofill..................................................................................................................................516
4.10.19.8.1 Autofilling form controls: theautocompleteattribute..................................516
4.10.19.8.2 Processing model...........................................................................................521
4.10.20 APIs for the text field selections...............................................................................................................528
4.10.21 Constraints...............................................................................................................................................531
4.10.21.1 Definitions............................................................................................................................531
4.10.21.2 Constraint validation............................................................................................................532
4.10.21.3 The constraint validation API...............................................................................................533
4.10.21.4 Security................................................................................................................................536
4.10.22 Form submission......................................................................................................................................536
4.10.22.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................536
4.10.22.2 Implicit submission..............................................................................................................537
4.10.22.3 Form submission algorithm.................................................................................................537
4.10.22.4 Constructing the form data set............................................................................................540
4.10.22.5 Selecting a form submission encoding................................................................................542
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