what you see
When you are looking at a
website, it is most likely that
your browser will be receiving
HTML and CSS from the web
server that hosts the site. The
web browser interprets the
HTML and CSS code to create
the page that you see.
Most web pages also include
extra content such as images,
audio, video, or animations and
this book will teach you how to
prepare them for use on the web
and then how to insert them into
your web pages.
or Flash to your browser, and you
and Flash in your web pages.
Both of these technologies are
advanced topics that you can go
on to learn more about once you
have mastered HTML and CSS, if
you want to.
how It Is created
Small websites are often written
just using HTML and CSS.
Larger websites — in particular
those that are updated regularly
and use a content management
system (CMS), blogging tools, or
e-commerce software — often
make use of more complex
technologies on the web server,
but these technologies are
actually used to produce HTML
and CSS that is then sent to the
browser. So, if your site uses
these technologies, you will be
able to use your new HTML and
CSS knowledge to take more
control over how your site looks.
Larger, more complex sites like
these may use a database to
store data, and programming
languages such as PHP, ASP.Net,
Java, or Ruby on the web server,
but you do not need to know
these technologies to improve
what the user sees. The skills
you'll learn in this book should be
enough to help you on that road.
htML5 & css3
Since the web was ﬁrst created
there have been several versions
of HTML and CSS — each
intended to be an improvement
on the previous version.
At the time of writing this
book, HTML5 & CSS3 were
still being developed. Although
they had not been ﬁnalized,
many browsers were already
supporting some features of
these languages and a lot of
people were using the latest
code on their websites. I have
therefore chosen to teach you
these latest versions.
Because HTML5 and CSS3
build on previous versions of
these languages, learning these
means you will also be able to
understand the earlier versions
of them. I have added clear notes
when the code is new and also
when it might not work in older
All websites use HTML and CSS, but content
management systems, blogging software, and
e-commerce platforms often add a few more
technologies into the mix.