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Digital Imaging Tutorial - Contents
Questions?
Table of Contents
Using This Tutorial
Printing This Tutorial 
1.  Preface
1.  Basic Terminology
2.  Selection
3.  Conversion
4.  Quality Control
5.  Metadata
6.  Technical Infrastructure
A. Digitization Chain
B. Image Creation
C. File Management
D. Delivery
7.  Presentation
8.  Digital Preservation
9.  Management
10. Continuing Education
     
© 2000-2003 Cornell University Library/ Research Department
http://www.library.cornell.edu/preservation/tutorial/contents.html [4/28/2003 2:27:14 PM]
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Digital Imaging Tutorial
Questions?
Use this form to send your questions and comments about the tutorial.
Name:
Complete Email Address:
Question/Comment:
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Digital Imaging Tutorial - Table of Contents
PREFACE
1. BASIC TERMINOLOGY
digital images 
resolution
pixel dimensions
bit depth
dynamic range
file size
compression
file formats
additional reading 
2. SELECTION 
introduction
legal restrictions 
other criteria 
selection policies 
additional reading
3.CONVERSION
introduction
scanning factors
rich digital master
benchmarking 
text 
  stroke 
continuous-tone   
halftone 
proposed method
guidelines 
additional reading
4. QUALITY CONTROL
definition
developing a program
assessing quality
additional reading
5. METADATA
definition
types and functions
creation
additional reading
6. TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
A. DIGITIZATION CHAIN
introduction
components
system integration 
B. IMAGE CREATION
introduction
how scanners work
scanner types
image processing 
C. FILE MANAGEMENT
introduction
keeping track
image databases
storage
storage types
storage needs 
D. DELIVERY
introduction
networks
concerns
  speed
  trends
monitors
  evaluation
image quality
printers
technologies
evaluation 
7. PRESENTATION
introduction
formats/compression
web browsers 
network
scaling
monitors
image quality 
guidelines 
additional reading 
8. DIGITAL PRESERVATION
definition
challenges
technical strategies 
organizational strategies 
additional reading
9. MANAGEMENT
introduction
project life cycle
in-house vs. outsource
in-house facility
project budgets
communication
project monitoring
looking beyond
additional reading
10. CONTINUING EDUCATION
introductory information
web-based journals 
mailing lists
© 2000-2003 Cornell University Library/Research 
Department
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Digital Imaging Tutorial - Preface 
Preface
This tutorial offers base-level information on the use of digital imaging to convert and make accessible 
cultural heritage materials. It also introduces some concepts advocated by Cornell University Library, in 
particular the value of benchmarking requirements before undertaking a digital initiative. You will find here 
up-to-date technical information, formulas, and reality checks, designed to test your level of 
understanding.
The tutorial can stand on its own, but it is intended to be used in tandem with another product, 
Moving 
Theory into Practice: Digital Imaging for Libraries and Archives, by Anne R. Kenney and Oya Y. Rieger 
(RLG, 2000). This publication picks up where the tutorial leaves off and advocates an integrated approach 
to digital imaging programs, from selection to access to preservation and management. Over 50 
international experts contributed to the intellectual content of this book. 
You will note that at certain points within this 
National Endowment for the Humanities funded tutorial, we 
invite reader comments and suggestions. In particular, we are aware that the presentation is US-centric, 
and with your help we seek to augment that perspective to provide a broader international focus. We look 
forward to 
hearing from you!
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Digital Imaging Tutorial - Preface 
© Cornell University Library/Research Department, 2000-2003
Prepared by:
Anne R. Kenney, Assistant University Librarian
Oya Y. Rieger, Coordinator of Distributed Learning
Richard Entlich, Digital Projects Librarian
Technical support by:
Carla DeMello, Design Coordinator, IRIS
Valerie Jacoski, Web Developer, IRIS
Greg McClellan, Digital Projects Librarian
David DeMello, Consultant
Spanish translation prepared by:
Global Listing
Spanish translation consultant:
Amparo R. DeTorres, Editor APOYO Newsletter
Support for this tutorial comes from the National Endowment for the Humanities. The Spanish translation 
was funded by the 
Council on Library and Information Resources. Support for the French translation was 
received from the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. No part of this tutorial may 
be reproduced or transcribed in any form excepting for personal research use without prior written 
permission of Cornell University Library/Research Department. Requests for reproduction should be 
directed to the 
Research Department. All URLs and internal links valid as of February 2003. Last revised 
on February 20, 2003.
© 2000-2003 Cornell University Library/ Research Department
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Digital Imaging Tutorial - Basic Terminology
1. Basic Terminology
Key Concepts 
digital images
resolution
pixel dimensions
bit depth
dynamic range
file size
compression
file formats
additional reading 
D
IGITAL
I
MAGES
are electronic snapshots taken of a scene or scanned from 
documents, such as photographs, manuscripts, printed texts, and artwork. 
The digital image is sampled and mapped as a grid of dots or picture 
elements (pixels). Each pixel is assigned a tonal value (black, white, shades 
of gray or color), which is represented in binary code (zeros and ones). The 
binary digits ("bits") for each pixel are stored in a sequence by a computer 
and often reduced to a mathematical representation (compressed). The bits 
are then interpreted and read by the computer to produce an analog version 
for display or printing. 
Pixel Values: As shown in this bitonal image, each pixel is assigned a tonal 
value, in this example 0 for black and 1 for white.  
© 2000-2003 Cornell University Library/Research Department
http://www.library.cornell.edu/preservation/tutorial/intro/intro-01.html [4/28/2003 2:27:19 PM]
Digital Imaging Tutorial - Basic Terminology
1. Basic Terminology
Key Concepts 
digital images
resolution
pixel dimensions
bit depth
dynamic range
file size
compression
file formats
additional reading 
R
ESOLUTION
is the ability to distinguish fine spatial detail. The spatial 
frequency at which a digital image is sampled (the sampling frequency) is 
often a good indicator of resolution. This is why dots-per-inch (dpi) or pixels-
per-inch (ppi) are common and synonymous terms used to express resolution 
for digital images. Generally, but within limits, increasing the sampling 
frequency also helps to increase resolution.
Pixels: Individual pixels can be seen by zooming in an image. 
© 2000-2003 Cornell University Library/Research Department
http://www.library.cornell.edu/preservation/tutorial/intro/intro-02.html [4/28/2003 2:27:20 PM]
Digital Imaging Tutorial - Basic Terminology
1. Basic Terminology
Key Concepts 
digital images
resolution
pixel dimensions
bit depth
dynamic range
file size
compression
file formats
additional reading 
P
IXEL
D
IMENSIONS
are the horizontal and vertical measurements of an image 
expressed in pixels. The pixel dimensions may be determined by multiplying 
both the width and the height by the dpi. A digital camera will also have pixel 
dimensions, expressed as the number of pixels horizontally and vertically that 
define its resolution (e.g., 2,048 by 3,072). Calculate the dpi achieved by 
dividing a document's dimension into the corresponding pixel dimension 
against which it is aligned.
Example: 
An 8" x 10" document that is scanned at 300 dpi has the 
pixel dimensions of 2,400 pixels (8" x 300 dpi) by 3,000 pixels (10" x 300 dpi). 
Reality Check
What are the pixel dimensions of a 5x7-inch photograph scanned at 
400 dpi? 
Answer (check one):
2,000 x 2,800 pixels
1,300 x 1,800 pixels
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Digital Imaging Tutorial - Basic Terminology
Reality Check
If an 8.5x11-inch page is scanned and has pixel dimensions of 2,550 
x 3,300, what is the dpi? 
dpi     
© 2000-2003 Cornell University Library/Research Department
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Check Answer
Digital Imaging Tutorial - Basic Terminology
1. Basic  Terminology
Key Concepts 
digital images
resolution
pixel dimensions
bit depth
dynamic range
file size
compression
file formats
additional reading 
B
IT
D
EPTH
is determined by the number of bits used to define each pixel. The 
greater the bit depth, the greater the number of tones (grayscale or color) that 
can be represented. Digital images may be produced in black and white 
(bitonal), grayscale, or color.
bitonal image is represented by pixels consisting of 1 bit each, which can 
represent two tones (typically black and white), using the values 0 for black 
and 1 for white or vice versa.
grayscale image is composed of pixels represented by multiple bits of 
information, typically ranging from 2 to 8 bits or more. 
Example: In a 2-bit image, there are four possible combinations: 00, 01, 
10, and 11. If "00" represents black, and "11" represents white, then 
"01" equals dark gray and "10" equals light gray. The bit depth is two, 
but the number of tones that can be represented is 2 
2
or 4. At 8 bits, 
256 (2 
8
) different tones can be assigned to each pixel. 
color image is typically represented by a bit depth ranging from 8 to 24 or 
higher. With a 24-bit image, the bits are often divided into three groupings: 8 
for red, 8 for green, and 8 for blue. Combinations of those bits are used to 
represent other colors. A 24-bit image offers 16.7 million (2 
24
) color values. 
Increasingly scanners are capturing 10 bits or more per color channel and 
often outputting 8 bits to compensate for "noise" in the scanner and to present 
an image that more closely mimics human perception.
Bit Depth: Left to right - 1-bit bitonal, 8-bit grayscale, and 24-bit color images.
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