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Usingextendedsyntaxfor
advancedcalculations
16
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Whenyouinsertasimpleaggregationinareport,forexampletocalculate
averagerevenue,DesktopIntelligencewritesasimpleformula,inthiscase
=Average(<Revenue>)
Bydefault,DesktopIntelligenceevaluatestheformulainitsdefaultcontext,
asexplainedintheprevioussection,Understandinginputandoutputcontexts
onpage234.
Whatifyoudonotwantthedefaultcontext?Whatifyouneedaverage
revenuepercityinatablecontainingregionandcity?Bydefault,Desktop
Intelligencereturnsresultsbasedonregionandcity,thatis,bothdimensions
fromthelocalcontext.Whatifyouneedaresultbasedonadimensionthat
isavailableinthedocumentbutwhichyoudonotwanttodisplayinthe
report?
DesktopIntelligenceprovidesextendedsyntaxsothatyoucanspecifythe
dimensionstouseinyourcalculations.Here'sanexample.
Example:Calculatingthenumberofcitiesperregion
InatablecontainingthedimensionsCityandRegion,ifyouinsertacount,
DesktopIntelligencecountsthecitiesonebyone,usingthefollowing
formula:
=Count(<City>)
Bydefault,DesktopIntelligencemakesthecalculationbasedonthe
dimensionsinthetable(Region,City).There'sonlyonecitypercity,so
DesktopIntelligencereturns1everytime.
ExtendedsyntaxenablesyoutospecifythatyouwantDesktopIntelligence
tocountthecitiesperregion.Toobtainthisresult,youmustextendthe
formula:
=Count(<City>) In n <Region>
Nowyougettheresultyouwerelookingfor.
Definingcalculationcontextswith
extendedsyntax
Usingextendedsyntax,youspecifythedimensionsyouneedforyour
calculation.Intheexampleabove,wespecifiedthedimensionRegionin
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Definingcalculationcontextswithextendedsyntax
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ordertoreturnthenumberofcitiesperregion.Whenyouuseextended
syntaxtospecifydimensionsinthisway,youdefinecalculationcontexts
otherthanthedefaultcontextsassignedbyDesktopIntelligence.
DesktopIntelligenceletsyoudefineyourowninputandoutputcontexts.A
quickreminderofthedifferencebetweenthem:
Consistsofoneormoredimen-
sionsthat...
The...
Gointothecalculation.
Inputcontext
Determinetheresultofthecalcula-
tion.
Outputcontext
Thus,intheearlierexample(numberofcitiesperregion),wedefinedan
outputcontext,Region.Here'sanexampleofacalculationwithaninput
contextdefinedbytheuser.
Example:Calculatingtheminimumrevenuepercityforeachregion
YoudisplayRegion,CityandRevenueinatable.WhenyouremoveCity
fromthetable,DesktopIntelligenceautomaticallycalculatesrevenueper
region,becauseRegionisnowtheonlydimensioninthebody.
Theonlywaytodisplayminimumrevenuepercityforeachregionisto
defineaninputcontext,becausethelocalcontextdoesnotcontaintheCity
dimension.DesktopIntelligenceallowsyoutodothis,becauseeventhough
youhaveremovedCityfromthereportdisplay,itisstillavailableinthe
document.
Theformulaisasfollows:
=Min(<Revenue> In n (<Region>,<City>))
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Definingcalculationcontextswithextendedsyntax
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Howtodefineinputandoutputcontexts
WhenyouinsertanaggregationsuchasSum,DesktopIntelligencewrites
asimpleformula,forexample
=Sum(<Revenue>)
Todefinecontexts,youhavetoeditformulas,sothefirstthingtodoisto
displaytheFormulaBar.Todothis,clickFormulaBarontheViewmenu.
Now,whenyouclickacellinareport,itsformulaappearsintheFormula
Bar.
Syntaxforinputandoutputcontexts
Todefinecontexts,youaddargumentstoaformula.Thesyntaxforinput
andoutputcontextsisasfollows:
=AggregateFunction(<measure> In <input context>) In <output
context>
Thefollowingexampleexplainsthisinmoredetail.
Example:Aformulacontaininginputandoutputcontexts
Thefollowingformulareturnstheminimumrevenuepercityperregion:
=Min(<Revenue> In n (<Region>,<City>)) In n <Region>
TheinputcontextconsistsofRegionandCity,whiletheoutputcontextis
Region.
Toaddaninputandoutputcontexttoaformula
Thisprocedureshowsyoustep-by-stephowtoaddaninputand/oroutput
contexttoasimplecalculationyouhavealreadyinserted.Theprocedureis
basedonthisexample:Definingcalculationcontextswithextendedsyntax
onpage242.
1. IftheFormulaBarisnotdisplayed,clickFormulaBarontheViewmenu.
2. Clickinsidethecellcontainingthecalculationyouwanttochange,inthis
caseacolumncontainingtheRevenuemeasure.
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TheformulaappearsintheFormulaBar,forexample
=Min(<Revenue>)
3. Ifyou'readdinginputcontext,clicktotheleftoftheclosingparenthesis.
Foranoutputcontext,clicktotherightoftheclosingparenthesis.
4. Typeaspace,typeIn,thentypeanotherspace.
5. Typethenameofthedimensionyouwanttospecifyasthecontext.
6. Type<>oneithersideofthedimension,forexample
<City>
7. Ifyouneedtoadddimensionstothecontext,separateeachonewitha
comma,andplacethelistofdimensioninparentheses,likethis:
(<Region>,<City>,<Year>)
8. PressEntertovalidatetheformula.
Tip:YoucanalsousetheFormulaEditortoaddcontextstoaformula.The
advantageisthatyoucandouble-clickvariablestoaddthemtotheformula,
insteadofhavingtotypethem.TodisplaytheFormulaEditor,clickFormula
EditorontheleftoftheFormulaBar.
Resetcontexts
Youusearesetcontextinacumulativeaggregation,suchasrunningtotal
revenueperquarter.Theresetcontextconsistsofoneormoredimensions
whichresetthevalueofthecalculationtozeroeachtimeadimensionvalue
changes.Thisisbestexplainedwithanexample.
Example:Calculatingrunningtotalrevenuepercountry
Youwanttocalculaterunningtotalrevenuepercountryperyear,and
naturallyyouwantthecalculationtoberesetforeachcountry.Whenthe
valueofCountrychanges,youwantthecalculationtobeginat0.
Toobtainthisresult,youdisplayCountry,YearandRevenueinatable,
andapplyabreakonCountry.Youthenaddthecumulativeaggregation
=RunningSum(<Revenue>;<Country>)
inwhichyouspecifyCountryastheresetcontext.
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Resetcontexts
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Howtodefineresetcontexts
Youdefinearesetcontextbyspecifyingoneormoredimensionsinthe
cumulativeformula.Thesyntaxis
=RunningAggregateFunction(<measure>;<dimension>)
giving,forexample
=Sum(<Revenue>;<Year>;<Region>)
Todefinearesetcontext:
1. IftheFormulaBarisnotdisplayed,clickFormulaBarontheViewmenu.
2. Clickinsidethecellcontainingthecalculationyouwanttochange.
TheformulaappearsintheFormulaBar.
3. Typeaparenthesisbeforethefunctionname.
4. Typeasemi-colon(;)afterthemeasure.
5. Typethenameofthedimensionyouwanttouseastheresetcontext,
forexample,
<Year>
6. Addotherdimensionsifnecessary;separateeachwithacommaand
placethelistinparentheses.
Aresetcontextwithmorethanonedimensionlookslikethis:
;<Year>,<Region>
7. Typeaclosingparenthesisattheendoftheformula,thenpressEnter.
Usingresetcontextsincrosstabs
Acrosstabdisplaysdatainrowsandcolumns,asopposedtoatablewhich
displaysdataincolumnsonly.Measuresaretypicallyplacedinthebodyof
acrosstabattheintersectionofrowsandcolumns.Thecrosstabillustrated
hereshowsrevenueperregionin1998,1999and2000:
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Resetcontexts
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Now,tocalculaterunningtotalrevenue,youinsertabreakonYear,then
changeRevenueto
=RunningSum(<Revenue>)
Here'stheresult:
NoticethatDesktopIntelligencecalculatestherunningtotalsforbothYear
andRegion.Inotherwords,thefiguresareaddedfromlefttoright,andfrom
toptobottom.
ToresettherunningsumforeitherYearorRegion,youaddaresetcontext
totheformula.Theformulatoresettherunningsumto0foreachyearis
=RunningSum(<Revenue>;<Year>)
andtheresultisasshown:
UsersofpreviousversionsofDesktopIntelligencemayhaveusedthe
keywordsColandRowtodefineresetcontextsincrosstabs.Thesekeywords
arenolongernecessary.Youcanusethem,buttheyhavenoaddedvalue.
Forexample
=RunningSum(<Revenue>; Col <Year>)
and
=RunningSum(<Revenue>; <Year>)
returnthesameresult.
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Resetcontexts
Syntaxforcombiningreset,inputandoutputcontexts
Wheninputandoutputcontextsarespecified,thesyntaxforresetcontexts
isasfollows:
=RunningAggregateFunction(<measure> In n <input t context>;<reset
context>) In n <output context>
Modifyingcontextswiththeoperators
ForEachandForAll
Whenyoudefineacontext,youspecifythedimension(s)itmustcontain.
ThesyntaxrequiresthatyouusetheInoperatortointroducethecontext:
=Min(<Revenue> In n (<Region>,<City>) ) In n <Region>
Inisthedefaultoperatorfordefiningacontext.However,youcanmodify
thecontextyou'redefiningbyreplacingInbyForEachorForAll.Thefollowing
tableprovidesadefinitionofForEachandForAll:
Definition
Operator
Addsdimensionstotheinputorout-
putcontext.
ForEach
Removesdimensionsfromtheinput
oroutputcontext.
ForAll
ThefollowingexampleillustrateshowForEachandForAllwork.
Example:UsingForEachandForAll
AtablecontainingRegion,CityandRevenuereturnstherevenuepercity
perregion.
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TheYeardimensionisalsoavailableinthedocument.Youwanttodisplay
maximumrevenuepercityperyear,butyoudon'twanttoaddYeartothe
table.Instead,youaddYeartothelocalcontextbyusingForEach:
=Max(<Revenue> ForEach h <Year>)
Finally,youwanttodisplaymaximumrevenueperregion,butwantCityto
remaininthetable.Inotherwords,youhavetoremoveCityfromthelocal
contextwithoutphysicallyremovingtheCitycolumn.Youachievethisby
usingForAll.
Here'stheformulaandtheresult:
=Max(<Revenue>) ForAll l <City>
Gettingthesameresult:ForAllCityvs.InRegion
Inthepreviousexample,wecalculatedmaximumrevenueperregionby
usingForAlltoremoveCityfromthelocalcontext.Youcouldobtainthesame
resultbymakingRegiontheoutputcontext.
Here'showthisworks.ThelocalcontextisCityandRegion.Unlessyou
specifyotherwise,DesktopIntelligencereturnsmaximumrevenuepercity
perregion.Youwantmaximumrevenueperregion.Tocalculatethis,you
must"tell"theformulato"ignore"City,eitherby
• removingCityfromthelocalcontext,or
• defininganoutputcontext,Region
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ModifyingcontextswiththeoperatorsForEachandForAll
So,thesetwoformulas,
=Max(<Revenue>) ForAll l <City>
=Max(<Revenue>) In n <Region>
wherethelocalcontextisRegionandCity,obtainthesameresult.
NowtryForEach<City>vs.In(<Region>,<City>)
IntheexampleentitledDefiningcalculationcontextswithextendedsyntax
onpage242,youused
=Min(<Revenue> In n (<Region>,<City>))
tocalculateminimumrevenuepercityinatablecontainingonlyRegionand
Revenue.ThedefaultinputcontextisRegion,butyouaddedCitytoit.
YoucouldobtainthesameresultbyaddingCitywiththeForEachoperator,
theformulabeing
=Min(<Revenue> ForEach h <City>)
UsingtheRankfunctionandextendedsyntax
TheRankfunctionallowsyoutorankthevaluesofadimensionbasedona
measure.Thesyntaxis:
=Rank(dimension ,measure)
Thefirsttablebelowshowsrevenueperquarterpercountry—thatis,quarters
basedontheirtotalrevenues,ignoringcountries.(Youcanseethismore
clearlyifyoulookatthetablebelowthefirsttable,whichbreaksonquarters
andshowstotalquarterrevenues.)Therankformulainthistableis:
=Rank(<Quarter> ,<Revenue>)
Butwhatifyouputabreakorasectiononcountry?Theresultisthatthe
quartersarerankedforeachcountryseparately.
Thisisbecause,bydefault,DesktopIntelligenceincludescountryinthe
calculationcontext.SincetherearetwovaluesforCountry,Desktop
Intelligencemakesacalculationforeachvalue.
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