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the meaning of the text itself it is impossible to tell whether a carriage return is forced 
or a result of word wrapping. 
Ultimately,  when  a  PDF  is  created  from  a  word  processing  or  desktop  publishing 
package,  some  information  is  lost.    Some  of  this  information  is  required  when 
converting  the  page to  another  layout.   This  project  has  attempted  to  intelligently 
“guess” some of this data and, based on these guesses, perform the conversion to a new 
layout.  Because of this, it is highly unlikely that any program to convert PDF to HTML 
will ever be written to work perfectly. 
5.2  Comparison with other methods 
Although the results with the other converters were more accurate, the results with the 
intelligent text extraction method were far better in a practical sense.  Text was always 
displayed at a readable size which could be resized by the user if necessary.  The  ability 
to re-flow the text also aided on-screen reading.  In all cases the converted output more 
closely  resembled  a  word  processed  document  than  the  original,  and  one  of  the 
suggestions  given  for  further  work  is  to  extend  the  converter  to  convert  to  RTF 
(Microsoft Rich Text) format. 
In  terms  of  web  use,  the  files  generated  by  this  method  are  far  more  suitable  for 
publication to a web site.  In order to match the appearance of an existing web site, all 
that is necessary is to remove the style sheet from the header and replace it with a link 
to an existing CSS file on the web site.  Alternatively, to use only part of the document, 
the relevant HTML can be copied out and pasted into another web page. 
It is worth noting, however, that the method used here is far more complex and needs 
to be written specifically for each type of page layout.  While the other converters will 
give acceptable results for almost any PDF document, a large number of PDFs will not 
work with this method at all.  There are also cases where it is preferable to preserve the 
layout of the page, and use of the other method may be preferred for this very reason.  
Ultimately, the choice of method depends on the source files and the intended result. 
5.3  Examples of converted output 
Annotated examples of the converted output are shown overleaf, together with copies 
of the original PDF files.  The simple layouts were converted with no command line 
options; the complex layouts were converted with the -c option.   
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Tamir Hassan
Flat 3
91VictoriaTerrace
Royal Leamington Spa
Warwickshire
CV 31  3AB
25April 2003
Recruitment Unit
Acme Bank plc
1 Canada Square
Canary Wharf
Docklands
London
E 14  1AA
Dear Sirs
Re:SummerAnalystScheme
Please find enclosed signed copies of my contract, Declaration of Personal
Interests form, Personal Details form, Medical Questionnaire and Equal
Opportunities Monitoring form.
I have spoken to Maureen Chambers regarding tax documentation and have
enclosed the P38 (Student Employeesdeclaration)andP60(EndofYear
Certificate 2002); this being the latest P60 that I have received.
Please could I ask that the P60 be returned to me, at the above address, as
soon aspossibleasIwillrequire ittoreclaimtaxfromtheInlandRevenue.
I have already provided a copy of my passport and have been advised that it
is not necessary to include it here.
IhopethatIhaveincludedallofthe required documentation and look
forward to receiving full confirmation ofyourofferofemployment.
Yours faithfully
Tamir Hassan
Encs
1
3
5
2
4
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5.3.1 Simple letter example
Final Report
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1
Forced carriage returns
in the addresses have
been detected and
reproduced correctly.
Thefact that one of
the addresses was at a
different horizontal
position did not cause
any problems.
2
Bold text detected and
reproduced correctly
3
Theextraline spacesafter
both these successive lines
of text have caused the
program to interpret this
asdouble spaced text.
Thetwo lines have not
been merged into a single
paragraph as theprogram
has correctly detected
forced carriagereturns
5
Thelarge spaceafter
istoo
large to confuse the
line spacing detection
algorithms. Therefore
single line spacing is
assumed and
is
correctly positioned in
anew paragraph
Yours faithfully
Encs
4
New paragraphs correctly
detected and reproduced
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ATaleofTwoCities
10of670
companions. In those days, travellers were very shy of
being confidential on a short notice, for anybody on the
road might be a robberor inleague with robbers. As to
the latter, whenevery posting-house and ale-house could
produce somebody in ‘the Captain’s’ pay, ranging from
the landlord to the lowest stable non-descript, it was the
likeliest thing uponthe cards. So the guard of the Dover
mail thought to himself, that Friday night in November,
one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five, lumbering
upShooter’sHill, ashestood onhisownparticularperch
behindthemail,beatinghisfeet, andkeepinganeyeand a
hand on the arm-chest before him, where a loaded
blunderbuss lay at the top of six or eight loaded horse-
pistols, depositedonasubstratumofcutlass.
TheDovermailwasinitsusualgenialpositionthatthe
guard suspected the passengers, the passengers suspected
one another and the guard, they all suspected everybody
else,and thecoachmanwassure ofnothingbutthehorses;
as to which cattle he could witha clear conscience have
taken his oathon the two Testamentsthattheywere not
fitforthejourney.
‘Wo-ho!’said thecoachman. ‘So, then! One more pull
and you’re at the top and be damned to you, forI have
hadtroubleenoughto getyoutoit!—Joe!’
ATaleofTwoCities
11of670
‘Halloa!’the guardreplied.
‘Whato’clockdoyoumakeit, Joe?’
‘Tenminutes,good,pasteleven.’
‘My blood!’ ejaculated thevexed coachman, ‘and not
atop ofShooter’syet!Tst!Yah!Getonwithyou!‘
The emphatic horse, cut short bythe whip in a most
decided negative, made a decided scramble forit, and the
three other horses followed suit. Once more, the Dover
mail struggled on, with the jack-boots of its passengers
squashing along by its side. They had stopped when the
coach stopped, and they keptclose company with it. If
anyone of thethree hadhad the hardihoodtoproposeto
another to walk on a little ahead into the mist and
darkness, he would have put himself in a fair way of
gettingshotinstantlyasahighwayman.
The lastburstcarried themailtothesummitofthe hill.
The horses stopped to breathe again, and the guard got
down to skid the wheel for the descent, and open the
coach-doortoletthepassengersin.
‘Tst! Joe!’ cried the coachman in a warning voice,
lookingdownfromhisbox.
‘Whatdoyousay, Tom?’
Theybothlistened.
‘Isayahorse atacantercomingup,Joe.’
2
4
6
3
5
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5.3.2 E-book example
Final Report
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1
Hyphenated text correctly
detected and merged,
although thisdoes not
take into account the
context of the hyphenation.
In this case the word
wasnot
hyphenated due to word
wrapping and should remain
hyphenated even when
the text is reflowed.
horse-pistols
2
As there is no extra gap
between paragraphs, the
paragraph recognition fails
to recognize thenew
paragraph.
Fortunately the indentation
isrecognized and preserved
so that the reader identifies
the following text as
belonging to a new
paragraph
3
Curly quotation marks
replaced with straight
ones and the dash isreplaced
with a spaced-out hyphen
to allowfor display on
different character sets
5
As the first linesof the page
areindented, the program
does not knowthe correct
margins of the text until it
hasalready processed the
indented lines. Therefore
these lines do not appear
indented in theconversion.
6
Indentationscorrectly
detected and handled
4
Header and footer correctly
detected as miscellaneous
items and moved to bottom
of page
Page 39
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Final Report
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Introduction
Thisnewsletterisintendedtobeasourceof
informationforallthoseinvolvedinthe
RegisterofEnglishFootballFacilities(REFF)
projectuntilitslaunchin2002.
REFFisanimportantpartoftherevolution
takingplaceingrassrootsinvestmentin
sportingfacilitiesinthiscountry.Bycreatinga
definitivedatabase,theFootballFoundation
willbeabletoidentifythequality,quantity,
anddemandforfacilitiesineverypartofthe
country,highlightinghotspotsandareas
whereconditionsareinadequate.
Thefindingsoftheprojectwillbemadeavailabletothe
generalpublicviaaninteractivewebsite.TheNational
GameDivisionoftheFootballAssociationwillusethe
findingstodevelopitsfuturestrategy.
FAChiefExecutiveAdamCroziersaid:
“Overthenextfiveyears,TheFAwillcontribute
£20millionayeartotheFootballFoundationfor
itscharitablework.Beforenewandimproved
communityfacilitiescanbeprovideditisessential
toknowwhatisalreadyoutthere.That’swhythis
projectissoimportant.”
TheprojectwillbefundeddirectlybytheFootball
Foundation,withthebackingofitsfundingpartnersthe
FAPremierLeague,TheFootballAssociation,Sport
EnglandandtheDCMS.Itwillprovideacomprehensive
surveyoftheestimated70,000pitchesinEnglandto
identifywhichareusedforfootballandothersports,the
numbersofgamesplayedandthequantityandqualityof
theotherfacilitiesonthesite.Thedatacompiledwilllead
tothedevelopmentofCountyFacilityStrategies,which
willenablethetargetingofpriorityareas,encouraging
multi-bidsfromlocalcouncilsandCountyFAs,getting
fundingtowhereitisneededmost.
ThedetailsprovidedintheREFFProjectwillbeavailable
on-lineformembersofthepublictofindtheirlocalsports
facilitiesandwillbeconstantlyrevisedandup-dated,
creatingacomprehensiveandfullyinclusivedatabaseso
thatfootballfacilitiescanbebetterusedforcharitable
purposes.
PeterLee,ChiefExecutiveoftheFootballFoundation,said
oftheproject:
“Forthefirsttimewewillhaveacompehensive
visionofthestateofthegrassrootsofcommunity
football.TheREFFprojectwillbetheessential
backdroptoallourworkintransformingsporting
facilitiesinourparksandschoolsforcharitable
use,enablingtheFoundationtodirectresources
intoareascryingoutforsupport.”
Theprojectisbeingdeliveredbyateamofconsultants
ledbyPricewaterhouseCoopersandalsoincluding
PMPConsultancy,anichesportsandleisuregroup
whosestaffandassociatesarebasedacrossEngland.
Moredetailsofthekeypeopleonthegroundareincluded
inthisnewsletter.
Register ofEnglish Football Facilities
Summer2001
1
Headings detected
correctly
2
Line spacing correctly
detected, although the
text is larger (and
therfore morespaced)
than the body text
3
Curly quotation marks
replaced with straight
onesto allowfor
display on different
character sets
4
Columns output in correct order
but a new paragraph isincorrectly
inserted where the paragraph flows
fromone column to the next
5
Italictext correctly
detected.
Although paragraph is
indented horizontally
thisdoes not cause a
problem with the
methods for column
recognition or single-
line indentations
6
Heading detected
correctly and merged
into single line
7
Bulletsnot recognized
asthey are graphics
not symbols.
Indentation of the
paragraph, as before,
does not cause a
problem
8
New paragraphs
correctly detected
9
Forced carriage returns not always
detected; thisis not always possible.
In these two cases theline width is
approaching the text width
Bold text correctly
detected
10
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Final Report
3
Little Red Beans
DangerousFood?
BYTHE
WFP
NICARAGUA
T
EAM
Nicaragua
I
nGenara’skitcheninMatagalpa,Nicaragua,her
familyenjoysthisseason’sfirstplateoffreshred
beans.Thesuccessfulbeanharvestthisyearwas
especiallyjoyousafterexperiencingfiveyearsof
drought. MotherNaturefinallycooperatedwith
Matagalpanfarmers,andprovidedaseasonof
abundantraintoproducethefruitoftheirlabor:the
smallredbeanthatisperhapsthemostimportant
stapleoftheNicaraguandiet.
InMatagalpa,astherainscontinuetofall,Genara’s
practicedhandsshellherfamily’sfirstbusheloflittlered
beansbycandlelight.Thesebeanswilldryinthesunand
bestoredinsmallgrainsilosinsidethehousetoprovide
foodforthefamilyyear-round.Comingfrom
generationsofbeanfarmers,Genaraisusedtodealing
withtheweather,naturaldisasters,andinsectplagues
thatthreatenherharvesteachyear.
OnemightbesurprisedthatinNicaragua,acountry
wherefarmersfaceboththeharshestdroughtsand
mostdestructivefloods,agreatthreattoGenara’s
survivalasasmallfarmermaybealittleredbeanfrom
theUnitedStates. Thisbeansitsinalaboratoryat
WashingtonStateUniversity.ItsnameisRojo
Chiquito,or“littlered,”anditlooksalotlikethe
beansthatGenaragrowsinMatagalpa.
Whyisthislittleredbeansuchathreattoruralfamilies
likeGenara’s?Thebean’screator,researchgeneticist
PhilipMiklasexplains,“wereleased'RojoChiquito'...the
firstcultivardevelopedintheU.S.specificallyforthe
‘CentralAmericanSmallRed’drybeanmarketclass.
Thisbeancultivarwillbeproducedprimarilyforexport
toCentralAmerica.”Inotherwords,thislittleredbean,
onceitbecomeswidelyavailableontheglobalmarket,
couldputsmall,traditionalbeanproducerslikeGenara
outofbusiness.
TheRojoChiquito,developedinpartbytheU.S.
DepartmentofAgriculture,willgrowwellinU.S.soils,
especiallyinthePacificNorthwest.Itwasengineeredto
resistcertaindiseasesandgrowinnarrowrowsforan
increasedyield.FarmersintheUnitedStatesbenefit
fromgovernmentsubsidiesandaccesstothelatest
technology,soU.S.companieswouldbeabletoexport
thishighqualitybeancheaplyandefficiently.
TheunfairpracticeofsubsidizingU.S.farmerswhile
expandingfreetradeagreements—whichwouldrequire
LatinAmericannationstoessentiallyeliminateany
remainingagriculturalsubsidies--willlikelyallowRojo
Chiquitotoruinthelivelihoodofthousandsof
Nicaraguanfamilies.FarmersintheU.S.willbeexcited
toknowthattheyhaveapromisingnewproductandthe
possibilityofanewmarketundertheCentralAmerican
FreeTradeAgreement(CAFTA)thatwillbenegotiated
betweentheU.S.andCentralAmericainJanuary.But
whatmightthislittleredbeanmeanforthefood
securityandlivelihoodofNicaraguanfarmers?
LocalFoodSupplyInCrisis
“Thislittlebeanwillbecomethegreatestthreatthat
Nicaraguawilleverface,”commentseconomistÁlvaro
Fonseca.ThepotentialimpactsofimportingRojo
Chiquitoarehard tofathom,butitsintroductionto
theNicaraguanmarketcouldhaveadevastatingeffect
onthealreadyweaksmallfarmereconomy.
Nicaragua’sfoodsupplyislargelybasedonsmall-scale
localproductionofstaplecropslikecornandbeans.
Mostfarmersgrowcropsfortheirownconsumption,
andselltheirsurplusinlocalmarkets.Because
productionandconsumptionislocal,smallfarmers
havenotbeendependentontheinternationalmarket
todeterminetheirsuccessortheirabilitytoprovide
foodfortheirownfamilies.
Bycurrentestimates,afloodofcheap,importedbeans
couldwipeout200,000Nicaraguanfamilyfarms,
affectingnearly1.5millionpeople,aquarterofthe
population.Inacountrywheretheunderand
unemploymentrateisover60percent,financially
burdenedconsumerswillchoosethecheapestbeanson
themarket,regardlessofwhethertheyweregrowninthe
mountainsofNicaragua,orthePacificNorthwestofthe
UnitedStates.Andwhileprovidingcheaperbeansfor
impoverishedNicaraguanconsumersisagoodidea,itis
importanttoconsidertherealcostofthesesavings.
WithafloodofRojoChiquitofromsubsidizedU.S.
farms,smallfarmerslikeGenarawouldnolongerbe
abletoselltheirsurplusbeancrop toprovidefortheir
families'manyneeds.Mostlikely,theywillbeforced
to taketheadviceofneoliberaleconomists,who
wouldsuggestthatGenarafindanewcroptogrow
forexportnowthatherbeansarenolonger
profitable. Genarawouldcompeteinafreemarket,
wherealackoftradebarrierswouldsupposedlyhelp
hertoexportanewcrop,whileshebuyscheap
importedbeansfromtheUSA.
ButinorderforGenaratoswitchfrombeanfarmingto
asuccessful,differentcrop,shewouldneedfinancing,
accesstomarketinformation,technicalassistanceand
time—fourthingssmallNicaraguanfarmerscanonly
dreamofhaving. Evenifshecouldmiraculouslychange
crops—andgrow,say,cantaloupes—shewouldlikely
faceseasontradebarriersimposedbytheU.S.toprotect
theirlocalproduction.Withitsenormousnegotiating
leverage,theU.S.cankeepsuchprotectivetariffs,while
demandingcountrieslikeMexicoandNicaraguadrop
theirs. So, evenchangingcropswouldlikelydoomthis
smallfarmertofailure.
Ratherthanswitchingtoadifferentcrop,Genara
mightbemorelikelytosellherlandtoabiggerland
owner,whilesheandherfamilymovetothecity,along
withthousandsofotherlandlesscampesinos. There,
shemightfindworkintheinformaleconomyorina
textileassemblymaquila,anindustrythatexploits
Nicaragua’s“comparativeadvantage”:cheaplabor
providedbyadesperateworkforce. And,ofcourse,
anotheroptionwouldbeemigratingtoCostaRicaor
theUnitedStatesinsearchofenoughincometosend
hometosupportherfamily. Butinspiteofallthe
negativeeffectsforordinaryNicaraguanslikeGenara,
theU.S.governmentcontinuestopushtoformalize
freetradeagreementsthatwillimpactcountrieslike
Nicaraguaforyearstocome.
DoAsISay,NotAsIDo
InFebruary2002PresidentBushannouncedhisplan
toexpandfreetradethroughoutCentralAmerica
underCAFTA,asasteppingstonetothehemisphere-
wideFreeTradeAreaoftheAmericas(FTAA).
SecretaryofStateColinPowellclearlydeclaredthe
intentoftheFTAAto“assureforAmerican
corporationscontroloftheterritorythatrunsfromthe
NorthPoletotheAntarcticfreeaccesswithoutany
hindranceordifficultyforourproducts,services,
technologyandcapitalthroughthehemisphere.”Free
tradeagreementsseektoopenforeignmarketsby
eliminatingtariffsand“barriers”totrade,underthe
pretextoffairandequalcompetitioninopenmarkets.
WhileBushandPowellbeganpromotingCAFTAin
CentralAmerica,Congresswasbeginningtodebatethis
year'sfarmbill,whichwillgiveU.S.farmers$100billion
dollarsinsubsidiesoverthenext8years.Smallfarmers
inbothNicaraguaandtheU.S.arelosersinthecurrent
system. U.S.subsidizedagriculturedoesnotgenerally
benefitsmallU.S.farmerseither,astheyreceiveamere
16%ofallsubsidies,whiletheyhavetocompetewiththe
mega-productionofthemuchmoreheavilysubsidized
corporateagribusinesses.
Thus,U.S.-grownproducts—especiallythosefarmed
primarilyonlargecorporatefarms—suchascornand
rice, canbeexportedatartificiallydepressedpricesto
countrieslikeNicaragua.Thesepricesdonotreflectthe
realcostofproduction.“Wewouldhavetoseeifa
farmerfromthegreatprairiesoftheUnitedStatesinhis
airconditionedtractorwouldbecapableofproducing
withoutsubsidiesatthesamecostsasfarmersinthe
valleyofJalapa,Estelí,MuyMuy,orotherruralareasof
Nicaragua,”challengesÁlvaroFonseca.Asfreetrade
policiesbecomemorecomprehensiveandareexpanded
throughoutthehemisphere,inacountrywherethe
averageannualfamilyincomeisabout$430,Nicaraguan
farmerswillbeforcedtocompeteonanevenlargerscale
withU.S.farmerswhoreceivethousandsofdollarsper
yearinsubsidies.
Inthenameoffreemarketdevelopment,theUnited
StateshaspushedtoopenforeignmarketstoU.S.
exportsandinvestment.Freetradeagreementsforce
countrieslikeNicaraguatolowertariffsandtoeliminate
subsidiesandother“barriers”totrade. But,as
NicaraguaneconomistCarlosPachecopointsout,“The
attitudeoftheUnitedStatestowardsfreetradehasbeen
doasIsay,notasIdo.”
AlthoughtheU.S.pledgedtoreduceagricultural
subsidiesduringthelastroundofWorldTrade
Organizationnegotiations,therecentFarmBillflewin
thefaceofthatcommitment.Furthermore,therecent
increaserepresentsjustoneofmanythathaveoccurred
overthelastdecade,astheU.S.andotherindustrialized
nationscontinuetoincreasetheirleveloffarmsubsidies.
GiventhecloutoftheU.S.inthemajorInternational
FinancialInstitutions,andgiventhelargescaleofthe
U.S.economy,theUnitedStateshasnotbeenforcedto
keepitsownpromisesorfollowitsownrules. By
subsidizingU.S.agricultureandmaintainingsome
tariffs,theU.S.continuestoprotectitselffromthe
international“barrier-free”competitionitpromotesand
demandsofitsimpoverishedneighbors.
Genaraisthankfulthatupuntilnowherfamilyhasbeen
abletosurvivebyproducingthefoodtheyneedand
sellingsomeoftheircroptolocalmarkets.“Thisyear
willbebetterthanthelast,andrightnowthat'sallwe
canhopefor.”Smallfarmersconfrontthechallengesof
MotherNaturetoprovidefortheirfamiliesandlocal
communities.Astronglocalfoodeconomyhasallowed
smallNicaraguanfarmerstogetby,whiletheU.S.
government’sfreetradeagendathreatensthefood
securityofNicaragua,andthewholeofLatinAmerica.
WherewouldGenaraturnwithoutalocalmarketfor
herbeans?Failingfarmswillcontinuetoproducethe
massmigrationofunemployedworkerstothecities
andtotheUnited States,hopingtosupporttheir
familiesandcommunitieswiththehardwonwages
theysendhome.
Onlythestrongsurviveinexporteconomies,and
impoverishedNicaraguanfarmersarenotequipped
withthenecessarytechnology,financing,and
protectionneededduringthetransitiontoanewstyle
ofproductiontocompetewithlargereconomies.The
logicofimportingproductssuchasRojoChiquitoto
Nicaraguathatcouldbegrownlocally,puzzles
professorBayardoOrtiz.“Whybringbeansfrom
anotherplacetoreplaceourtraditionalbean?Why
don’ttheyhelpourfarmerstoplantthebeanthatour
landhasproducedforcenturies?Whywouldyoubring
themfromanotherplacewhenwehavetheseedand
thelandhere?Whydon'twegrowourownbeansso
continuedonpage9
MelindaSt.Louis
InruralNicaragua,thewholefamilyparticipatesinthecultivationofredbeans.
1“OtraAméricaesPosible.”CentrodeEstudiosInternacionales. Managua,Nicaragua. 2002.
Thislittlebeanwillbecome
thegreatestthreatthat
Nicaraguawilleverface.
–economistAlvaroFonseca
4
Colombia
U.S.MilitaryForceinColombia
ProtectingOilInterests
BYTHEWFPCOLOMBIA TEAM
continued onpage10
I
nthe provinceof AraucaintheNortheasterncorner
ofColombia wherethe Orinoco Riverdrainsthe
jungle plains,U.S.SpecialForcestrainColombian
soldiers inthecraftof counterinsurgencywar.It’snot
thefirsttimethatU.S.soldiershave instructedtheir
Colombiancounterparts.Only thistime the focus isn’t
comb atingdrug trafficking.
U.S.Ambassadorto Colombia,Anne Patterson,explains
growingUSinterestintheregion:“To speak frankly,
afterSeptember11th,theissue ofoilsecurity has
become apriorityfortheUnitedStates…Thisis
somethingwemust do.It’simportantforour oilsources
andthe co nfidenceofour investors.”
Deepwithinthe subso iloftherichOrinoco basinare
some ofColombia’s largestoilreserves.Since1985
OccidentalPetroleumof LosAngeles hasbeenoperating
over200wellsintheCañoLimónfield,atone time the
largestoilfieldinColombia,throughapartnershipwith
theColombianstate-ownedoilcompany,Ecopetrol.In
ordertotransportthe oilfro mthefields inAraucatothe
Caribbeancoastwhereitcanbe refinedandcheaply
exportedto theUS,itmustbepumpedthrougha 470
milelongpipelinecrossing the jungle,upandoverthe
Andes,downthecoastallowlands,andfinally to theport
atCoveñas.
Weavingits waythroughregionsofintense conflict,the
Caño Limón-Coveñas pipeline is the targetoffrequent
guerrillaattacks.Recentlythe guerrillas haveintensified
theircampaigntodisablethe pipeline,culminating last
yearinarecord170 attacks.By blowingupthepipeline
theguerrillasstrikeone ofCo lombia’s mostimportant
resourcesandincrease theirleveragetoextortOccidental
andother multinationalsoperatinginthe region.
Citing the UnitedStates’increasedneedforsecure oil
sources,lastwintertheBushAdministrationannounced
aproposaltotheUSCongressto initiate aprotection
planspecifically forthe Caño Limón-Coveñaspipeline.
The pro posalwouldsendnearly $100milliontobolster
theColombianArmybrigadesincharge ofsafeguarding
thepipeline.Theplanprovidestrainingandequipment
to theexisting18thBrigadeandto thenewlyformed5th
MobileBrigade.TheBushAdministrationmanagedto
pushthrougha$6 millio n“jumpstart” for the pipeline
protection plan this last summer,and in late Octo o ber
U.S.GreenBeretsstartedtraining Colomb iansoldiers
fromthe18thBrigade.
Operating atmaximumlevels,thepipeline iso nly able
to provideone halfo fonepercentof totaloil
consumptionintheUnitedStates.Thisalone doesnot
seem to meritthe$98 millioninvestmentthatthe
BushAdministrationwants to putintoprotectingthe
pipeline.However,between1995 and2000Occidental,
who co-owns the pipeline,spent$1.5 millionin
congressio nalandpresidentialcampaigncontributions
andanother $8.7 millioninlobbying efforts,primarily
regardingColombia.
Until2000,theColombianTaxCodeincludeda wartax
to bepaidbyforeignoilcompaniesoperating in
Colombia.Thetaxrequiredoilcompanies to pay$1.25
perbarrelof oilproduced.Interestingly,itwas the U.S.
government,throughtheOfficeof the U.S.TradeRepre-
sentative,whichcalledforthe Colo mbiangovernmentto
eliminate thispolicy. Complaining thatthe Colombian
government“hasnottakenstepstomake[oilo perating
fields]moreprofitable to investo rs,”in1996 theOffice of
the U.S.Trade Representative urgedCo lombia to
withdrawthe“wartax”becauseit“actsasaneconomic
disincentive”to foreigninvestment.
Today the U.S.government,after lobbyingthe
Colo mbiangovernmentto remove wartaxes on
multinationaloilcorporations,iscallingonU.S.
taxpayers to paytheminstead.Infact,notonlywould
U.S.citizensbecalledonto assumeOccidental’ssecurity
costs,but,inaddition,rather thana$1.25per barrel
security tax,theBushAdministrationwouldhave U.S.
taxpayers paya$3.70subsidyforeverybarrel.Occidental
itselfpaysonly50 centsper barrelforsecurity even
thoughitpostedanetincomeofmorethan$1.1billion
in2001.
Clo se examinationofthepotential l recipientsof this
aidandthe dangerinherentto anyU.S.military
involvementinColombia revealsthatto sendthis
money wouldbea grave error.
Due to theirhistoricinvolvementinhumanrights
violationsandcollaborationwithillegalarmedactors,
ColombianArmedForcesunits that receive military
aidfromthe UnitedStatesmustmeetasetofthree
conditions.Theseconditions,whenenforced,ensure
thatifColombianArmy forceshavecollaboratedwith
the paramilitary orhave co mmittedgrossviolationsof
humanrights they will notreceivemilitary aidfrom
the UnitedStates.
Theprimary paramilitaryforce,the UnitedSelfDefense
ForcesofColombia(AUC),hasbeenincludedonthe list
ofU.SState Department-designatedForeignTerrorist
Organizations for itsconsistentandbrutalvio lations of
humanrights;estimatedtobe approximately70%of all
violationsinColombiaduring2001.
Itistheo pinionofmanyhumanrightsorganizations
includingWitnessforPeace,thatthe18thBrigadefails
to meet at leastone ofthethreeconditions andshould
therefo re beineligible to receivemilitaryaidfromthe
UnitedStates,includingany aidunder the pipeline
protectionplan.Theconditio nstatesthatthemilitary
mustbe actively severinglink sto theparamilitary
groups.There is noindicationthat the commandersof
the 18thBrigadearesevering links,andinfactan
ab undanceof evidence indicates co ntinued
collab orationb etweenthe18thBrigade andtheAUC
paramilitary block operating inthearea.
Recently,WitnessforPeacedocumentedColombian
armymovementsapparently coo rdinatedwiththeAUC.
UribeConsolidatesPower
“You havesetup averyeffectiveexample ofth eway weneed to goo ntofigh tandto defeatterrorism,”Colombian
presidentAlvaroUribetold GeorgeBush in arecent meeting at the OvalOffice.Uribe’scommentscameinrespon se to
Bush’sassertion that,“Theonlypathtopeaceand security isthepath ofaction.”
Bush’scallto“action” hasnotgone unheed ed byhisColombian co unterpart.
In May Colombianselected apresidentwhocampaigned ona“firmhand anda big heart.”So fartherehasbeenn o
signof abigheart.Sin n ce hisAugust7th inauguration,Uribe’slistofactionsreflectsthemodelthatBush hasestablished
in the U.S.Uribehas declared a“state ofpublicun rest” thataffordshimsignificantlygreaterexecutivepowersand
reducescongression alauthority.BypresidentialdecreeUribeann ounced that state securityforces may,without
warrant,searchand seizeprivateproperty,tap communication sdevices,and detaincivilians.In certain areaso fthe
cou ntry,denoted Rehabilitationand Consolidation Zones,theColombian Presidentauth orizes amilitarycommander
to su percedetheauthorityofthelocalgovernors,mayors an dtown councilmembersinissuespertainingtothe
operations ofthe statesecurity forces.Th enewgovernmentalsoh as senta clearmessagetotheinternational
communityworking forp eaceinColombia.In the firstmonthand ahalf,ad ozen Spanish and Canadiancitizens have
been deported,three Belgian shave beendetained,andColombian consulates in th eexterior have refused visasto
chu rch an dNGOrepresentatives.
Thecentralargument ofthe Uribe Administrationisthatth enewmeasures areessentialto ensure avictoryoverthe
illegalarmedgroups.Yet,Colombiananalystsclaimtheywilld olittletocurb the action softheillegalarmed grou ps
an dinsteadwilljeopardized emocracy andsacrificecivilliberties.GustavoGalló noftheColombian Commission of
Juristscallsthestateofpublic unrest“cowardly,u seless,anddangerous.”“Itdoesn’tconfron tthe combatants,but
instead [itconfronts]thecivilpopulation…opening upColombians’homesto theArmed Forces.”
These newmeasures have already affectedgroupsworking forp eaceinthe coun try.At4:45on the morningof October
25th,forty members ofthe JudicialPolice,the ColombianArmyand the DepartmentofSecurityraided and searched
the officesofthePerman ent Assembly forPeaceinBogotá.Thiscoalitionh as been workingforsix yearstobrin gpeace
to Colombia.Witn essforPeaceregularlyp articipatesinthePerman entAssembly’s meetings.Thesearch oftheiroffices
wastragicand gainedmuch mediaattention –whatdidn’tgain mediaattention weretheover200 raidsofhomesin
Bogotá’spoorneighborho odsth at sameweek.
US GovernmentreactiontoUribe’smeasureshasbeen supportive.Whenaskedwh ethertheUSGovernmentsu pports
Uribe’sn ationalsecurityplan,MarcGro ssman ,UndersecretaryofState forPoliticalAffairs,responded,“I imagine
Colombianswillusethison CapitolHillto showtheyaredefend ing theirown democracyand wewillsupportthat.”
Above:OneofOccidental'sprocessingfacilitiesinCañoLimon. Below:Bombedpipeline,2002.
TwoPhotos:JessHunter
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Notes
1. Titlesdetected correctly. As the converter does not distinguish between different heading levels,
the same style is used for both headings
2. Dropped capital detected and handled correctly
3. This quotation is included in between the paragraphs, just like in the original. For on-screen
reading it is usually more appropriate to include the quotation elsewhere on the page.
4. As this text uses a Multiple Master font it has not been possible to detect it as bold. This is
described in detail in section 4.5.2
5. The footnote and picture caption have not been detected as miscellaneous items as they are very
close to the main text
6. These miscellaneous items have been correctly detected and handled
7. As the space between this text blockand the previoustext blockcoincide with the space between
each column, part of the text hasbeen incorrectly detected as belonging to the next column
8. Despite there being very little extra spacing between paragraphs, these paragraphs have been
correctly detected and handled
9. This sub-article caused problems asit spans over 2 columns. It is included after the first column
of the first article and followed by the remaining columns
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           Final Report 
Page 44 
 Conclusion 
Overall, this project has led to the successful design and implementation of a piece of 
software to convert PDF files to HTML.  After investigating the existing solutions to 
the  problem  it  was  found  that  they  were  mostly  based  upon  the  original  aim  of 
preserving page layout.  This method was found to have a large number of drawbacks, 
and there seemed little advantage in simply repeating this work. 
It was therefore  decided  to reject the original  aim of the project and to use a new 
method, intelligent text extraction, to perform the conversion.  As this is a far more 
complex approach, many of the initial objectives, and some of the modified objectives 
stated in the Progress Report, have not been fulfilled. 
Implementation of this approach has shown that the results, although less accurate, are 
more  practical  for  on-screen  viewing,  and  far  more  suitable  for  inclusion  into  an 
existing web site. 
The resulting program is a useful tool for anyone who wishes to extract text from PDF 
files, and gives good results for simple and moderately-complex documents.  It also 
serves as a good starting point for anyone wishing to develop further work on this topic 
in an academic or commercial environment. 
6.1  Limitation of the implementation 
This implementation looks solely at the text elements in the page.  It does not convert 
graphics, or use any graphical information to obtain information about how the page is 
structured. 
Given the imposed time constraints, the implementation centred around reproducing 
the features in the four PDF files listed in Section 3.3.  Certain page features, such as 
tables, have not been covered.  While the program will work with other PDF files, these 
features will not be converted properly. 
6.2  Author’s assessment of the project 
What is the technical contribution of this project? 
The work carried out in this project was to design and develop a piece of software to 
convert PDF files into HTML format.  This was begun by investigating and analysing 
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