summarising text can be organised using meta-textual elements (e.g. first, second,
third). This helps the reader follow the text.
James (1988: 112-113) identifies the following characteristic features of errors. First,
ungrammatical utterances are always erroneous in any context. Second, if a form is
unacceptable in its context, it is erroneous even if its form is grammatical. Third, an error
differs from a mistake in that it is unintentional.
In some cases, the reference can be placed at the end of a summarising sentence or
text. If you summarise information in one summarising sentence, the reference is
placed inside the sentence, as follows:
Several prototypical features of advertising can be identified: advertisements use a
variety of substances; they are multimodal, embedded in accompanying discourse, and
parasitic, using the voices of other genres (Cook 1992: 219).
If your summary extends over two or more sentences, you need to show this by
adding an explicit statement to this effect in your text. For example:
Rogers (2004:14) discusses several problems related to CDA. She criticises the unequal
balance between social theory and linguistic analysis, which varies according to the
background of the analyst. She also claims that methodology is not systematic, nor
Referring to sources within the text
When are page numbers needed?
If you are referring to an entire book or article, there is no need to give the page
number in the text; a reference to the author and year of publication is enough.
Recent research on attitudes within discursive social psychology (Potter 1996,
1998, 2000) adopt a social constructionist view.
If you are summarising or paraphrasing some part of the source, or if the
information you are citing can be located on particular pages, page numbers must
always be indicated.