continuously trained and retooled to adhere to the evolving standards. At the same time,
these suppliers met their obligation to produce content, on time, for Elsevier Science.
Elsevier Science maintains four production sites based in the United Kingdom (Oxford
and Exeter), Ireland (Shannon), the United States (New York), and the Netherlands
(Amsterdam). Each site provides content to the EW where this content is stored as an
S300 dataset. The contents of each dataset represent an entire issue of a particular journal.
The storage system at the EW originally used vanilla IBM technology, i.e., ADSTAR
Distributed Storage Manager (ADSM), to create tape backup datasets of content stored
on magnetic and optical storage. Access to the data was based only upon the file name of
the S300 dataset. As of Summer 2001, the old hierarchical storage system was replaced
by an all-magnetic disk-based system providing more flexibility and enabling faster
throughput and production times.
The CAP Workflow
The following is a concise description and discussion of the Computer Aided Production
(CAP) workflow. An item is accepted for publication by means of a peer review process.
After peer review the item enters the CAP workflow via the Login Function in which a
publication item identifier (PII) is assigned to the content. This is a tag that the EW uses
to track the item through the production process, and it also serves as a piece of metadata
used for the long-term storage of the item. Since this identifier is unique it could also be
used as a digital object identifier for an information package in an OAIS archive. In
addition to assigning the PII, the login process also obtains other metadata about the
author and item such as the first author's name, address, e-mail address, and number of
pages, tables, and figures in the item. This and other similar metadata are entered into a
Production Tracking System (PTS) that is maintained by the Production Control system.
The item is then sent electronically to a supplier (Elsevier has sixteen suppliers,
distributed on a worldwide basis). There the item undergoes media conversion, file
structuring, copy editing, and typesetting. The output of this processing is a first
generation (no corrections) SGML markup of the item, a PDF file, and artwork for the
item. These units of work are then sent to the author for corrections. The author makes
the necessary corrections, then sends the item to Production Control where information in
the PTS system is updated. Thereafter, Production Control sends the item to an Issues
Manager. Any problems found in the content are worked out between the author and the
Issues Manager. If there are no problems, the supplier sends the content directly to
The Issues Manager then passes the corrections on to the supplier and begins to compile
the issue. This involves making decisions about proofs, cover pages, advertising, and
building of indexes. On average, an Issues Manager is responsible for five to ten journals
or about fifteen thousand pages a year. Once content is received, the supplier then creates
a second-generation SGML and PDF file and new artwork, if necessary. This cycle is