Index
467
formulas, in Excel spreadsheets, 
284–285
forward()
method, 261
forward slash (
/
), 174–175
FROM
search key, 370
fromtimestamp()
function, 341, 346
functions. See also names of individual 
functions
arguments, 23, 63
as “black box”, 72
built-in, 57
def
statements, 63
exception handling, 72–74
keyword arguments, 65–66
None
value and, 65
overview, 61–62
parameters, 63
return values, 63–65
G
get_active_sheet()
method, 268
get_addresses()
method, 374
get_attribute()
method, 258
getcolor()
function, 388–389, 393
get_column_letter()
function, 270
getcwd()
function, 175
get()
function
overview, 109
requests
module, 237
get_highest_column()
method, 269, 377
get_highest_row()
method, 269
get_payload()
method, 374–375
getpixel()
function, 400, 423, 424
get_sheet_by_name()
method, 268
get_sheet_names()
method, 268
getsize()
function, 179
get_subject()
method, 374
getText()
function, 308–309
GIF format, 392
global scope, 70–71
Gmail, 363, 365, 367
gmail_search()
method, 372
Google Maps, 234–236
graphical user interface automation. 
See GUI (graphical user 
interface) automation
greater than (
>
) operator, 33
greater than or equal to (
>=
operator, 33
greedy matching
dot-star for, 161
in regular expressions, 156–157
group()
method, 151, 152–153
groups, regular expression
matching
greedy, 156–157
nongreedy, 157
one or more, 155–156
optional, 154–155
specific reptitions, 156
zero or more, 155
using parentheses, 152–153
using pipe character in, 153–154
Guess the Number program, 74–76
GUI (graphical user interface) 
automation. See also 
form filler project
controlling keyboard, 426–429
hotkey combinations, 429
key names, 427–428
pressing and releasing, 428–429
sending string from keyboard, 
426–427
controlling mouse, 415–417, 
419–423
clicking mouse, 420
dragging mouse, 420–422
scrolling mouse, 422–423
determining mouse position, 
417–419
image recognition, 425–426
installing 
pyautogui
module, 414
logging out of program, 414
overview, 413–414
screenshots, 423–424
stopping program, 414–415
H
%H
directive, 344
hash character (
#
), 126
headings, Word document, 314–315
help
asking online, 9–10
for error messages, 8–9
hotkey combinations, 429
hotkey()
function, 429, 430
Hotmail.com, 363, 367
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
browser developer tools and, 
242–243
finding elements, 244
learning resources, 240
overview, 240–241
viewing page source, 241–242
Pdf form save with reader - C# PDF Field Edit Library: insert, delete, update pdf form field in C#.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WPF
Online C# Tutorial to Insert, Delete and Update Fields in PDF Document
best way to create pdf forms; best program to create pdf forms
Pdf form save with reader - VB.NET PDF Field Edit library: insert, delete, update pdf form field in vb.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WPF
How to Insert, Delete and Update Fields in PDF Document with VB.NET Demo Code
change font on pdf form; change font size in pdf form
468
Index
I
%I
directive, 344
id
attribute, 241
IDLE (interactive development 
environment)
creating programs, 21–22
debugging in
overview, 225–227
stepping through program, 
227–229
using breakpoints, 229–231
expressions in, 14–16
overview, 8
running scripts outside of, 136
starting, 7–8
if
statements
overview, 38–39
using in 
while
loop, 46–47
imageDraw
module, 406
imageDraw
objects, 406–408
ImageFont
objects, 408–410
Image
objects, 391–399
images
adding logo to, 401–405
attributes for, 392–393
box tuples, 390
color values in, 388–389
coordinates in, 389–390
copying and pasting in, 394–396
cropping, 393–394
drawing on
example program, 407–408
ellipses, 407
ImageDraw
module, 406
lines, 406–407
points, 406
polygons, 407
rectangles, 407
text, 408–410
flipping, 398–399
opening with Pillow, 390–391
pixel manipulation, 400
recognition of, 425–426
resizing, 397
RGBA values, 388–389
rotating, 398–399
transparent pixels, 397
IMAP (Internet Message Access 
Protocol)
defined, 366
deleting messages, 375
disconnecting from server, 375–376
fetching messages, 372–375
folders, 368–369
logging into server, 368
searching messages, 368–371
imapclient
module, 366
IMAPClient
objects, 367–368
immutable data types, 94–96
importing modules
overview, 57–58
pyautogui
module, 417
imprint
attribute, 311
im
variable, 423
indentation, 93
indexes
for dictionaries. See keys, dictionary
for lists
changing values using, 83
getting value using, 80–81
negative, 82
removing values from list 
using, 84
for strings, 126–127
IndexError
, 106
index()
method, 89
infinite loops, 49, 51, 418
INFO
level, 223
in
operator
using with dictionaries, 109
using with lists, 87
using with strings, 127
input()
function
overview, 23–24, 89–90
using for sensitive information, 365
installing
openpyxl
module, 266
pyautogui
module, 414
Python, 6–7
selenium
module, 256
third-party modules, 441–442
int, 17. See also integers
integer division/floored quotient (
//
operator, 15
integers
floating-point equivalence, 27
overview, 17
interactive development environment. 
See IDLE (interactive 
development environment)
interactive shell. See IDLE
Internet Explorer, developer tools in, 
242–243
C# PDF: PDF Document Viewer & Reader SDK for Windows Forms
SaveFile(String filePath): Save PDF document file to a specified path form (Here, we take a blank form as an open a file dialog and load your PDF document in
adding text fields to pdf; add editable fields to pdf
VB.NET Image: How to Save Image & Print Image Using VB.NET
printing multi-page document files, like PDF and Word is used to illustrate how to save a sample RE__Test Public Partial Class Form1 Inherits Form Public Sub New
add text fields to pdf; adding form fields to pdf files
Index
469
Internet Message Access Protocol. See 
IMAP (Internet Message 
Access Protocol)
interpreter, Python, 7
int()
function, 25–28
isabs()
function, 177
isalnum()
method, 129–131
isalpha()
method, 129–130
isdecimal()
method, 129–131
isdir()
function, 180
is_displayed()
method, 258
is_enabled()
method, 258
isfile()
function, 180
islower()
method, 128–129
is_selected()
method, 258
isspace()
method, 130
istitle()
method, 130
isupper()
method, 128–129
italic
attribute, 311
items()
method, 107–108
iter_content()
method, 239–240
J
%j
directive, 344
join()
method, 131–132, 174–175, 
177, 352
JPEG format, 392
JSON files
APIs for, 327–328
defined, 319–320
format overview, 327–328
reading, 328–329
and weather data project, 329–332
writing, 329
justifying text, 133–134
K
keyboard
controlling, with PyAutoGUI
hotkey combinations, 429
pressing and releasing keys, 
428–429
sending string from keyboard, 
426–427
key names, 427–428
KeyboardInterrupt
exception, 340, 
417, 418
keyDown()
function, 428, 429, 430
keys, dictionary, 105
keys()
method, 107–108
keyUp()
function, 428, 429, 430
keyword arguments, 65–66
L
LARGER
search key, 370
launchd, 354–355
launching programs
and countdown project, 357–358
opening files with default 
applications, 355–356
opening websites, 355
overview, 352–354
passing command line arguments 
to processes, 354
poll()
method, 353
running Python scripts, 355
scheduling, 354–355
sleep()
function, 355
wait()
method, 354
len()
function, 307–308
finding number of values in list, 83
overview, 24–25
less than (
<
) operator, 33
less than or equal to (
<=
) operator, 33
LibreOffice, 265, 306
line breaks, Word document, 315
LineChart()
function, 290
line continuation character (
\
), 93
line()
method, 406–407
linked styles, 310
Linux
backslash vs. forward slash, 174–175
cron, 354
installing Python, 7
installing third-party modules, 442
launching processes from 
Python, 353
logging out of automation 
program, 414
opening files with default 
applications, 355
pip tool on, 441–442
Python support, 4
running Python programs on, 445
starting IDLE, 8
Unix philosophy, 356
listdir()
function, 179
list_folders()
method, 368–369
list()
function, 321, 426
C# PDF File Merge Library: Merge, append PDF files in C#.net, ASP.
Merge Microsoft Office Word, Excel and PowerPoint data to PDF form. Append one PDF file to the end of another and save to a single PDF file.
change font size pdf form; add an image to a pdf form
VB.NET PDF Page Delete Library: remove PDF pages in vb.net, ASP.
this RasterEdge XDoc.PDF SDK, you can simply delete a single page from a PDF document using VB.NET or remove any page from a PDF document and save to local
adding image to pdf form; change tab order in pdf form
470
Index
lists
append()
method, 89–90
augmented assignment operators, 
88–89
changing values using index, 83
concatenation of, 83
copy()
function, 100–101
deepcopy()
function, 100–101
dictionaries vs., 106–107
finding number of values using 
len()
, 83
getting sublists with slices, 82–83
getting value using index, 80–81
index()
method, 89
in
operator, 87
insert()
method, 89–90
list()
function, 97
Magic 8 Ball example program 
using, 92–93
multiple assignment trick, 87–88
mutable vs. immutable data types, 
94–96
negative indexes, 82
nesting, 117–119
not in
operator, 87
overview, 80
remove()
method, 90–91
removing values from, 84
replication of, 83
sort()
method, 91–92
storing variables as, 84–85
using with 
for
loops, 86
ljust()
method, 133–134
load_workbook()
function, 267
loads()
function, 328–329, 331
local scope, 67–70
locateAllOnScreen()
function, 426
locateOnScreen()
function, 425
location
attribute, 258
logging
disabling, 224–225
to file, 225
levels of, 223–224
print()
function and, 223
logging
module, 221–223
logging out, of automation 
program, 414
login()
method, 364, 368, 379
logo, adding to an image, 401–406
looping over files, 402–403
opening logo image, 401–402
overview, 404
resizing image, 403–404
logout()
method, 375–376
LogRecord
objects, 221
loops
break
statements, 49–50
continue
statements, 50–53
for
loop, 53–56
range()
function for, 56–57
reading data from CSV file, 322
using lists with, 86
while
loop, 45–49
lower()
method, 128–129
lstrip()
method, 134–135
M
%M
directive, 344
%m
directive, 344
Mac OS X. See OS X
Magic 8 Ball example program, 92–93
makedirs()
function, 176, 403
maps, open when location is copied, 
234–236
figuring out URL, 234–235
handling clipboard content, 236
handling command line argument, 
235–236
launching browser, 236
overview, 234
Match
objects, 151
math
operators for, 15
programming and, 4
mergePage()
method, 302
Message
objects, 381–382
methods
chaining calls, 398
defined, 89
dictionary
get()
method, 109
items()
method, 107–108
keys()
method, 107–108
setdefault()
method, 110–111
values()
method, 107–108
list
append()
method, 89–90
index()
method, 89
insert()
method, 89–90
remove()
method, 90–91
sort()
method, 91–92
string
center()
method, 133–134
copy()
method, 135
endswith()
method, 131
C# PDF Page Extract Library: copy, paste, cut PDF pages in C#.net
to extract single or multiple pages from adobe PDF file and save into a The portable document format, known as PDF document, is a widely-used form of file
pdf fillable form creator; add image to pdf form
C# Image: Save or Print Document and Image in Web Viewer
or image, you can easily save the changes to DLL Library, including documents TIFF, PDF, Excel, Word string fileName = Request.Form["saveFileName"]; string fid
add image field to pdf form; cannot save pdf form in reader
Index
471
isalnum()
method, 129–131
isalpha()
method, 129–130
isdecimal()
method, 129–131
islower()
method, 128–129
isspace()
method, 130
istitle()
method, 130
isupper()
method, 128–129
join()
method, 131–132
ljust()
method, 133–134
lower()
method, 128–129
lstrip()
method, 134–135
paste()
method, 135
rjust()
method, 133–134
rstrip()
method, 134–135
split()
method, 131–133
startswith()
method, 131
strip()
method, 134–135
upper()
method, 128–129
Microsoft Windows. See Windows OS
middleClick()
function, 420, 430
modules
importing, 57–58
third-party, installing, 442
modulus/remainder (
%
) operator, 
15, 88
Monty Python, 4
mouse
controlling, 415–417, 419–423
clicking mouse, 420
dragging mouse, 420–422
scrolling mouse, 422–423
determining position of, 417–419
locating, 417–419
getting coordinates, 418–419
handling 
KeyboardInterrupt
exception, 418
importing 
pyautogui
module, 418
infinite loop, 418
overview, 417
and pixels, identifying colors of, 
424–425
mouseDown()
function, 420, 430
mouse.position()
function, 418
mouseUp()
function, 430
move()
function, 199–200
moveRel()
function, 416, 417, 420, 430
moveTo()
function, 416, 420, 430
moving files/folders, 199–200
multiclipboard project, 191–193
listing keywords, 193
loading keyword content, 193
overview, 191
saving clipboard content, 192
setting up shelf file, 192
multiline comments, 126
multiline strings, 125–126
multiple assignment trick, 87–88
multiplication (
*
) operator, 15, 83, 88
multithreading
concurrency issues, 349
downloading multiple images, , 
350–352
creating and starting threads, 
351–352
using 
downloadXkcd()
function, 
350–351
waiting for threads to end, 352
join()
method, 352
overview, 347–348
passing arguments to threads, 
348–349
start()
method, 348, 349
Thread()
function, 347–348
mutable data types, 94–96
N
NameError
, 84
namelist()
method, 204
negative character classes, 159
negative indexes, 82
nested lists and dictionaries, 117–119
newline keyword argument, 322
None
value, 65
nongreedy matching
dot, star, and question mark for, 161
in regular expressions, 157
not equal to (
!=
) operator, 33
not in
operator
using with dictionaries, 109
using with lists, 87
using with strings, 127
not
operator, 36
NOT
search key, 370
now()
function, 341, 346
O
ON
search key, 369
open()
function, 181–182, 234, 
355–356, 391
opening files, 181–182
OpenOffice, 265, 306
open
program, 355
C# PDF Convert to Tiff SDK: Convert PDF to tiff images in C#.net
Description: Convert to DOCX/TIFF with specified zoom value and save it into stream. Parameters: zoomValue, The magnification of the original PDF page size.
adding text to pdf form; convert word to editable pdf form
C# Create PDF from Tiff Library to convert tif images to PDF in C#
Description: Convert to PDF and save it on the disk. Parameters: Name, Description, Valid Value. Description: Convert to PDF and save it into stream. Parameters:
change font size in pdf form field; add jpg to pdf form
472
Index
openpyxl
module, installing, 266
operators
augmented assignment, 88–89
binary, 35–36
comparison, 33–35
defined, 14
math, 15
using binary and comparison 
operators together, 36–37
order of operations, 15
or
operator, 36
OR
search key, 370
OS X
backslash vs. forward slash, 174–175
installing Python, 7
installing third-party modules, 442
launchd, 354
launching processes from 
Python, 356
logging out of automation 
program, 414
opening files with default 
applications, 355–356
pip tool on, 441–442
Python support, 4
running Python programs on, 445
starting IDLE, 8
Unix philosophy, 356
outline
attribute, 311
Outlook.com, 363, 367
P
%p
directive, 344
page breaks, Word document, 315
Page
objects, 297
Paragraph
objects, 307
paragraphs, Word document, 309–310
parameters, function, 63
parentheses 
()
, 96–97, 152–153
parsing, defined, 245
passing arguments, 23
passing references, 100
passwords
application-specific, 365
managing project, 136–138
command-line arguments, 137
copying password, 137–138
data structures, 136–137
overview, 136
pastebin.com, 10
paste()
method, 135, 394, 395
paths
absolute vs. relative, 175–176
backslash vs. forward slash, 174–175
current working directory, 175
overview, 173–174
os.path
module
absolute paths in, 177–179
file sizes, 179–180
folder contents, 179–180
overview, 177
path validity, 180
relative paths in, 177–179
PAUSE
variable, 415, 434
PdfFileReader
objects, 297–298
PDF files
combining pages from multiple 
files, 303–306
adding pages, 303
finding PDF files, 304
opening PDFs, 304–305
overview, 303
saving results, 305–306
creating, 298–299
decrypting, 297–298
encrypting, 302–303
extracting text from, 296–297
format overview, 295–296
pages in
copying, 299–300
overlaying, 301–302
rotating, 300–301
PdfFileWriter
objects, 298–299
pformat()
function
overview, 111–112
saving variables in text files using, 
185–186
phone numbers, extracting, 165–169
creating regex, 166
finding matches on clipboard, 
167–168
joining matches into a 
string, 168
overview, 165–166
Pillow
copying and pasting in images, 
394–396
cropping images, 393–394
drawing on images
ellipses, 407
example program, 407–408
ImageDraw
module, 406
lines, 406–407
C# PDF Convert to Word SDK: Convert PDF to Word library in C#.net
key. Quick to remove watermark and save PDF text, image, table, hyperlink and bookmark to Word without losing format. Powerful components
pdf form save; create pdf forms
C# Create PDF from PowerPoint Library to convert pptx, ppt to PDF
Description: Convert to PDF/TIFF and save it on the disk. Parameters: Description: Convert to PDF/TIFF and save it into stream. Parameters:
adding text fields to a pdf; adding a signature to a pdf form
Index
473
points, 406
polygons, 407
rectangles, 407
text, 408–410
flipping images, 398–399
image attributes, 392–393
module, 388
opening images, 390–391
pixel manipulation, 400
resizing images, 397
rotating images, 398–399
transparent pixels, 397
pipe character (
|
), 153–154, 164–165
pip tool, 441–442
pixelMatchesColor()
function, 424, 435
pixels, 388, 400
plaintext files, 180–181
plus sign (
+
), 155–156, 162
PNG format, 392
point()
method, 406
poll()
method, 353
polygon()
method, 407
Popen()
function, 352–353
opening files with default 
applications, 355–356
passing command line  
arguments to, 354
position()
function, 417, 419
pprint()
function, 111–112
precedence of math operators, 15
press()
function, 429, 430, 436
print()
function, 435
logging and, 223
overview, 23
passing multiple arguments to, 66
using variables with, 24
processes
and countdown project, 357–358
defined, 352
opening files with default 
applications, 355–356
opening websites, 355
passing command line  
arguments to, 354
poll()
method, 353
Popen()
function, 352–353
wait()
method, 354
profiling code, 336–337
programming
blocks of code, 37–38
comments, 23
creativity needed for, 5
deduplicating code, 62
defined, 3
exception handling, 72–74
execution, program, 38
functions as “black boxes”, 72
global scope, 70–71
indentation, 93
local scope, 67–70
math and, 4
Python, 4
terminating program with  
sys.exit()
, 58
projects
Adding Bullets to Wiki Markup, 
139–141
Adding a Logo, 401–406
Automatic Form Filler, 430–437
Backing Up a Folder into a ZIP File, 
209–212
Combining Select Pages from Many 
PDFs, 303–306
Downloading All XKCD Comics, 
251–256
Extending the mouseNow Program, 
424–425
Fetching Current Weather Data, 
329–332
Generating Random Quiz Files, 
186–191
“I’m Feeling Lucky” Google Search, 
248–251
“Just Text Me” Module, 383
mapIt.py with the 
webbrowser
Module, 234–236
Multiclipboard, 191–193
Multithreaded XKCD Downloader, 
350–352
Password Locker, 136–138
Phone Number and Email Address 
Extractor, 165–169
Reading Data from a Spreadsheet, 
272–276
Removing the Header from CSV 
Files, 324–327
Renaming Files with American-
Style Dates to European-
Style Dates, 206–209
Sending Member Dues Reminder 
Emails, 376–379
Simple Countdown Program, 
357–358
Super Stopwatch, 338–340
474
Index
projects (continued)
Updating a Spreadsheet, 279–281
“Where Is the Mouse Right Now?”, 
417–419
putpixel()
method, 400
pyautogui.click()
function, 431
pyautogui.click()
method, 420
pyautogui.doubleClick()
function, 420
pyautogui.dragTo()
function, 420
pyautogui.FailSafeException
exception, 415
pyautogui.hotkey()
function, 429
pyautogui.keyDown()
function, 428
pyautogui.keyUp()
function, 428
pyautogui.middleClick()
function, 420
pyautogui
module
form filler project, 430–437
controlling keyboard, 426–429
hotkey combinations, 429
key names, 427–428
pressing and releasing keys, 
428–429
sending string from keyboard, 
426–427
controlling mouse, 415–417, 
419–423
clicking mouse, 420
dragging mouse, 420–422
scrolling mouse, 422–423
documentation for, 414
fail-safe feature, 415
functions, 430
image recognition, 425–426
importing, 417
installing, 414
pausing function calls, 415
screenshots, 423–424
pyautogui.mouseDown()
function, 420
pyautogui.moveRel()
function, 416, 417
pyautogui.moveTo()
function, 416
pyautogui.PAUSE
variable, 415
pyautogui.position()
function, 419
pyautogui.press()
function, 436
pyautogui.rightClick()
function, 420
pyautogui.screenshot()
function, 423
pyautogui.size()
function, 416
pyautogui.typewrite()
function, 426, 
427, 431
py.exe
program, 444–445
pyobjc
module, 442
PyPDF2
module
combining pages from multiple 
PDFs, 303–306
creating PDFs, 298–299
decrypting PDFs, 297–298
encrypting PDFs, 302–303
extracting text from PDFs, 296–297
format overview, 295–296
pages in PDFs
copying, 299–300
overlaying, 301–302
rotating, 300–301
pyperclip
module, 135
Python
data types, 16–17
downloading, 6
example program, 21–22
help, 8–9
installing, 6–7
interactive shell, 8
interpreter, defined, 7
math and, 4
overview, 4
programming overview, 3
starting IDLE, 7–8
python-docx
module, 306
pyzmail
module, 366, 373–375
PyzMessage
objects, 373–375
Q
question mark (
?
), 154–155, 162
quit()
method, 261, 366, 379
quiz generator, 186–190
creating quiz file, 188
creating answer options, 189
overview, 186
shuffling question order, 188
storing quiz data in dictionary, 187
writing content to files, 189–191
r
radio buttons, 435–436
raise_for_status()
method, 238
raise keyword, 216–217
range()
function, 56–57
raw strings, 125, 151
Reader
objects, 321–322
reading files, 182–183, 204
readlines()
method, 182
Index
475
read()
method, 182
rectangle()
method, 407
Reddit, 9
Reference
objects, 289
references
overview, 97–99
passing, 100
refresh()
method, 261
Regex
objects
creating, 150
matching, 151
regular expressions
beginning of string matches, 
159–160
case sensitivity, 163
character classes, 158–159
creating 
Regex
objects, 150–151
defined, 147–148
end of string matches, 159–160
extracting phone numbers and 
emails addresses, 165–169
findall()
method, 157–158
finding text without, 148–150
greedy matching, 156–157
grouping
matching specific 
repetitions, 156
one or more matches, 155–156
optional matching, 154–155
using parentheses, 152–153
using pipe character in, 153–154
zero or more matches, 155
HTML and, 243
matching with, 151–152
multiple arguments for 
compile()
function, 164–165
nongreedy matching, 157
patterns for, 150
spreading over multiple lines, 164
substituting strings using, 163–164
symbol reference, 162
wildcard character, 160–162
relative paths, 175–179
relpath()
function, 177, 178
remainder/modulus (
%
) operator, 15, 88
remove()
method, 90–91
remove_sheet()
method, 278
renaming files/folders, 199–200
date styles, 206–209
creating regex for dates, 206
identifying dates in filenames, 
207–208
overview, 206
renaming files, 209
replication
of lists, 83
string, 18
requests
module
downloading files, 239–240
downloading pages, 237–238
resolution of computer screen, 416
Response
objects, 237–238
return values, function, 63–65
reverse
keyword, 91
RGBA values, 388–389
RGB color model, 389
rightClick()
function, 420, 430
rjust()
method, 133–134, 419
rmdir()
function, 200
rmtree()
function, 200
rotateClockwise()
method, 300
rotateCounterClockwise()
method, 300
rotating images, 398–399
rounding numbers, 338
rows, in Excel spreadsheets
setting height and width of, 285–286
slicing 
Worksheet
objects to get 
Cell
objects in, 270–272
rstrip()
method, 134–135
rtl
attribute, 311
Run
objects, 310, 311–312
running programs
on Linux, 445
on OS X, 445
overview, 443
on Windows, 444–445
shebang line, 443–444
S
\S
character class, 158
\s
character class, 158
%S
directive, 344
Safari, developer tools in, 243
save()
method, 391
scope
global, 70–71
local, 67–70
screenshot()
function, 423, 430
screenshots
analyzing, 424
getting, 423
scripts
running from Python program, 355
running outside of IDLE, 136
476
Index
scroll()
function, 422, 423, 430
scrolling mouse, 422–423
searching
email, 368–371
the Web, 248–251
finding results, 249–250
getting command line 
arguments, 249
opening web browser for 
results, 250–251
overview, 248
requesting search page, 249
search()
method, 151
SEEN
search key, 370
see
program, 355
select_folder()
method, 369
select lists, 435–436
select()
method, 
bs4
module, 246–247
selectors, CSS, 246–247, 258
selenium
module
clicking buttons, 261
finding elements, 257–259
following links, 259
installing, 256
sending special keystrokes, 260–261
submitting forms, 259–260
using Firefox with, 256–257
send2trash
module, 201–202
sending reminder emails, 376–379
finding unpaid members, 378
opening Excel file, 376–377
overview, 376
sending emails, 378–379
send_keys()
method, 259–260
sendmail()
method, 365, 379
sequence numbers, 373
sequences, 86
setdefault()
method, 110–111
shadow
attribute, 311
shebang line, 443–444
shelve
module, 184–185
Short Message Service (SMS)
sending messages, 381–382
Twilio service, 380
shutil
module
deleting files/folders, 200–201
moving files/folders, 199–200
renaming files/folders, 199–200
SID (string ID), 382
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. See 
SMTP (Simple Mail 
Transfer Protocol)
SINCE
search key, 369
single quote (
'
), 124
single-threaded programs, 347
size()
function, 416
sleep()
function, 337–338, 344, 346, 355
slices
getting sublists with, 82–83
for strings, 126–127
small_caps
attribute, 311
SMALLER
search key, 370
SMS (Short Message Service)
sending messages, 381–382
Twilio service, 380
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
connecting to server, 363–364
defined, 362
disconnecting from server, 366
logging into server, 364–365
sending “hello” message, 364
sending message, 365
TLS encryption, 364
SMTP
objects, 363–364
sort()
method, 91–92
sound files, playing, 357–358
source code, defined, 3
split()
method, 131–133, 178, 320
spreadsheets. See Excel spreadsheets
square brackets 
[]
, 80
Stack Overflow, 9
standard library, 57
star (
*
), 161, 162
using with wildcard character, 161
zero or more matches with, 155
start()
method, 348, 349, 351
start
program, 355
startswith()
method, 131
starttls()
method, 364, 379
step
argument, 56
stopwatch project, 338–340
overview, 338–339
set up, 339
tracking lap times, 339–340
strftime()
function, 344–345, 346
str()
function, 25–28, 97, 419
strike
attribute, 311
string ID (SID), 382
strings
center()
method, 133–134
concatenation, 17–18
converting 
datetime
objects to, 
344–345
converting to 
datetime
objects, 345
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