Appendix A: Copying This Manual
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or
noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license
notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and
that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies
you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.
If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions
in section 3.
Youmay also lend copies,under thesameconditions statedabove,andyoumay publicly
3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of
the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires
Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher
of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title
equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the
Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to t legibly, you should put
the rst ones listed (as many as t reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the
rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque
copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which
the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network
protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If
you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time
you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well
before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you
with an updated version of the Document.
You may copy and distribute a Modied Version of the Document under the conditions
of sections 2and3 above, provided that you release the Modied Versionunder precisely
this License, with the Modied Version lling the role of the Document, thus licensing
distribution and modication of the Modied Version to whoever possesses a copy of
it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modied Version:
A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the
Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any,
Appendix A: Copying This Manual
be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as
aprevious version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for
authorship of the modications in the Modied Version, together with at least ve
of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer
than ve), unless they release you from this requirement.
C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modied Version, as the
D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modications adjacent to the other
F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public
permission to use the Modied Version under the terms of this License, in the form
shown in the Addendum below.
G. Preserve in that license notice the fulllists of Invariant Sections and required Cover
Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
I. Preserve the section Entitled \History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item
stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modied Version
as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled \History" in the Docu-
ment, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document
as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modied Version as
stated in the previous sentence.
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to
aTransparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in
the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the
\History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published
at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the
version it refers to gives permission.
K. For any sectionEntitled \Acknowledgements" or \Dedications", Preserve the Title
of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the
contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and
in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the
M. Delete any section Entitled \Endorsements". Such a section may not be included
in the Modied Version.
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled \Endorsements" or to con
title with any Invariant Section.
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modied Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify
as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at
your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their
Appendix A: Copying This Manual
titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modied Version’s license notice. These
titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled \Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but
endorsements of your Modied Version by various parties|for example, statements of
peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
denition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to ve words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up
to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modied
Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement
made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but
you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that
added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission
to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modied
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License,
under the terms dened in section 4 above for modied versions, provided that you
include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
unmodied, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license
notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical
Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant
Sections with the same name but dierent contents, make the title of each such section
unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or
publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment
to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled \History" in the vari-
ous original documents, forming one section Entitled \History"; likewise combine any
sections Entitled \Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled \Dedications". You
must delete all sections Entitled \Endorsements."
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released
under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various
documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you
follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individu-
ally under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted
document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
Appendix A: Copying This Manual
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
Acompilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent
documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called
an \aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When
the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other
works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section3 is applicable tothese copies of the Document,
then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate,the Document’s Cover
Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they
must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modication, so you may distribute translations
of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with
translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may
include translations of some or allInvariant Sections in addition to the original versions
of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the
license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you
also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of
those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and
the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
If a section in the Document is Entitled \Acknowledgements", \Dedications", or \His-
tory", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require
changing the actual title.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly
provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or
distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular
copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder
explicitly and nally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright
holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days
after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if
the copyright holder noties you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the
rst time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties
who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have
been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the
same material does not give you any rights to use it.
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